Prevention of Respiratory Viral Infection: Vaccine, Antiviral and Immune-Modulator

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017) | Viewed by 29614

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket CB8 7UU, UK
2. BIOTARGEN EA 7450, Normandie Université, 14280 Saint Contest, France
Interests: equine infectious diseases; immunology; vaccination; equine influenza
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Respiratory viral infections are a major welfare and economic concern to both human and animal species. Prevention is often essential and requires multiple different strategies to successfully reduce the risk of infections, their frequency, and dissemination.

To date, vaccination is one of the most effective methods of prevention against a broad range of respiratory pathogens. It is particularly efficacious when combined to active pathogen/disease surveillance, host population management to maximise herd immunity, and quarantine when applicable. A lot of effort has been made in the last decades to improve vaccines against respiratory virus, including the design of new vaccine technologies (e.g., modified live attenuated and recombinant vector based vaccines) to broaden the immune response generated (e.g., mucosal and/or cell-mediated immunity). Incorporation of DIVA markers (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) proves to be increasingly important for pathogen/disease surveillance. However, while vaccination against specific pathogens, such as influenza viruses, is well established in numerous species, efficient vaccines against others remain elusive (e.g., herpesvirus). Beyond the vaccine itself, numerous elements need to be taken into account in order to maximise prevention (e.g., the schedule of administration, population coverage and host specificities). In some cases, when vaccine performance is limited or overcome, the use of antivirals or immune-modulators to reduce the impact and consequences of infection is envisaged.

The main focus of this Special Issue of Vaccines is to discuss these important aspects of the prevention against respiratory viruses and to present recent results from vaccine studies and trials.

Dr. Romain Paillot
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vaccine
  • infectious diseases
  • respiratory infection
  • influenza virus
  • herpes virus
  • animal models
  • immunity

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

17 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
The Immunity Gap Challenge: Protection against a Recent Florida Clade 2 Equine Influenza Strain
by Romain Paillot, Dion Garrett, Maria R. Lopez-Alvarez, Ihlan Birand, Fernando Montesso and Linda Horspool
Vaccines 2018, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030038 - 2 Jul 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4820
Abstract
Vaccination is one of the most effective tools for limiting the impact of equine influenza (EI). The humoral immunity established following a primary vaccination course can decrease significantly between the second (V2) and third immunisations (V3), leaving some horses insufficiently protected for several [...] Read more.
Vaccination is one of the most effective tools for limiting the impact of equine influenza (EI). The humoral immunity established following a primary vaccination course can decrease significantly between the second (V2) and third immunisations (V3), leaving some horses insufficiently protected for several weeks. This so-called “immunity gap” poses a challenge to all EI vaccines. During this period, the EI infection of vaccinated animals may be followed by marked clinical signs and virus shedding. However, several EI vaccines have been shown to stimulate equine influenza virus (EIV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, which is likely to play a role in protection against EIV infection and/or mitigate the clinical and virological signs of EI. Reducing the interval between V2 and V3 has been shown to be counterproductive to longer-term immunity. Further research is needed to define and address the “immunity gap” in horses. This study aimed to measure the level of protection induced by a whole inactivated, ISCOMatrix adjuvanted, EI and tetanus vaccine (Equilis Prequenza-Te) when challenged during the immunity gap (i.e., immediately before the recommended boost immunisation, more than 5 months after V2) using infection with a recent heterologous Florida Clade 2 (FC2) equine influenza virus (EIV) strain. This vaccine was tested in a Welsh mountain pony model. A group of seven ponies was vaccinated twice, 4 weeks apart. The protective antibody response was measured and ponies were challenged, along with 5 unvaccinated control ponies, by experimental infection with the FC2 A/eq/Northamptonshire/1/13 EIV strain, 158 days (around 5.2 months) after V2 and their clinical signs and virus shedding were monitored. EI serology was measured by single radial haemolysis (SRH) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Clinical signs and virus shedding (measured by qRT-PCR and hen’s egg titration) were compared with controls. All vaccinates had detectable, low SRH antibody titres and most had detectable, low HI titres. Significant clinical and virological protection was observed in vaccinates (p < 0.05), supporting the good performance of this vaccine against a recent EIV strain. In this study, the impact of the immunity gap in ponies was limited after primary vaccination with this whole inactivated, ISCOMatrix adjuvanted EI and tetanus vaccine (Equilis Prequenza-Te) when infected several months after V2 with a recent FC2 strain, which is representative of EIV circulating in the EU. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3209 KiB  
Article
Detection of Nuclear Protein Profile Changes by Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Using Quantitative Differential Proteomics
by Yuping Ren, Eunjin Choi, Ke Zhang, Yu Chen, Sha Ye, Xiaoling Deng, Kangling Zhang and Xiaoyong Bao
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines5040045 - 3 Dec 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4016
Abstract
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in pediatric populations globally. This study examined proteomic profile changes in A549 cells infected with hMPV and two attenuated mutants with deleted PDZ domain-binding motif(s) in the M2-2 protein. These motifs are [...] Read more.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in pediatric populations globally. This study examined proteomic profile changes in A549 cells infected with hMPV and two attenuated mutants with deleted PDZ domain-binding motif(s) in the M2-2 protein. These motifs are involved in the interruption of antiviral signaling, namely the interaction between the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS) proteins. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the overall and novel impact of M2-2 motifs on cellular responses via an unbiased comparison. Tandem mass tagging, stable isotope labeling, and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used for quantitative proteomic analysis. Using quantitative proteomics and Venn analysis, 1248 common proteins were detected in all infected samples of both technical sets. Hierarchical clustering of the differentiated proteome displayed distinct proteomic signatures that were controlled by the motif(s). Bioinformatics and experimental analysis confirmed the differentiated proteomes, revealed novel cellular biological events, and implicated key pathways controlled by hMPV M2-2 PDZ domain-binding motif(s). This provides further insight for evaluating M2-2 mutants as potent vaccine candidates. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3089 KiB  
Article
Equine PBMC Cytokines Profile after In Vitro α- and γ-EHV Infection: Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus Ovis Based-Immunomodulator Treatment
by Erika S. Hue, Eric A. Richard, Christine I. Fortier, Guillaume D. Fortier, Romain Paillot, Rudiger Raue and Stéphane L. Pronost
Vaccines 2017, 5(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines5030028 - 19 Sep 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4970
Abstract
Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the [...] Read more.
Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the risk of transmission. The objectives of this study were to characterise the cytokine gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses. PBMC were isolated from 3 horses and infected in vitro with EHV-1, EHV-4, or EHV-2 in the presence or absence of iPPVO. In vitro culture of PBMC with EHV-1, EHV-4, and iPPVO induced a significant increase of IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ gene expression. EHV-4 also triggered a significant increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. EHV-2 triggered a significant increase of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA. The presence of iPPVO induced an earlier and stronger expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ mRNA during EHV infection and reduced the inflammatory response induced by EHV-2. In conclusion, this study suggests that the presence of iPPVO potentiates the development of the immune response to in vitro EHV infection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2541 KiB  
Article
Targeting Host Cell Surface Nucleolin for RSV Therapy: Challenges and Opportunities
by Peter Mastrangelo, Michael J. Norris, Wenming Duan, Edward G. Barrett, Theo J. Moraes and Richard G. Hegele
Vaccines 2017, 5(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines5030027 - 19 Sep 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7162
Abstract
Nucleolin (NCL) has been reported as a cellular receptor for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We studied the effects of re-purposing AS1411, an anti-cancer compound that binds cell surface NCL, as a possible novel strategy for RSV therapy in vitro and in [...] Read more.
Nucleolin (NCL) has been reported as a cellular receptor for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We studied the effects of re-purposing AS1411, an anti-cancer compound that binds cell surface NCL, as a possible novel strategy for RSV therapy in vitro and in vivo. AS1411 was administered to RSV-infected cultures of non-polarized (HEp-2) and polarized (MDCK) epithelial cells and to virus-infected mice and cotton rats. Results of in vitro experiments showed that AS1411, used in micromolar concentrations, was associated with decreases in the number of virus-positive cells. Intranasal administration of AS1411 (50 mg/kg) to RSV-infected mice and cotton rats was associated with partial reductions in lung viral titers, decreased virus-associated airway inflammation, and decreased IL-4/IFN-γ ratios when compared to untreated, infected animals. In conclusion, our findings indicate that therapeutic use of AS1411 has modest effects on RSV replication and host response. While the results underscore the challenges of targeting cell surface NCL as a potential novel strategy for RSV therapy, they also highlight the potential of cell surface NCL as a therapeutic target. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

1935 KiB  
Meeting Report
Equine Vaccines: How, When and Why? Report of the Vaccinology Session, French Equine Veterinarians Association, 2016, Reims
by Romain Paillot, Christel Marcillaud Pitel, Xavier D’Ablon and Stéphane Pronost
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines5040046 - 4 Dec 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7645
Abstract
To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF) at Reims (France) in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects [...] Read more.
To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF) at Reims (France) in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects of importance for the equine industry. Vaccination against three major equine diseases were used as examples: equine influenza (equine influenza virus), rhinopneumonitis (equine herpes virus 1/4), and tetanus (Clostridium tetani neuro-toxin). (1) Emergency vaccination: while it has been very successful to reduce the impact of equine influenza epizooties and it is also recommended for tetanus in case of surgery and accident, the benefit of emergency vaccination against equine herpes virus 1/4 remains arguable; (2) Compatibility of equine vaccines from different brands: despite being a frequent concerns for equine veterinarians, little information is available about the compatibility of equine vaccines from different commercial origins. The consequence of mixing different equine vaccines targeting the same disease is believed to be limited but scientific evidences are sparse; and, (3) Laps vaccination and vaccine shortage: they could have serious consequences in terms of protection and their impact should be evaluated on a case by case basis, taking into account the risk of contact with the pathogen and the effect on herd immunity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop