Nanotechnology in Vaccine

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020) | Viewed by 9471

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology has a huge impact on the whole of technology, and its applications are truly infinite. In the near future, among the various fields, one of the most beneficial areas of nanotechnology to mankind will be the vaccine field that can be directly related to our lives. Although many developments have been made in the vaccine area so far, many of the existing vaccines have disadvantages and no effective vaccines have been produced for some diseases. Since the development of novel and effective vaccines is still a very important issue, recently many researchers have been using nanotechnology as a powerful tool for solving the problems of current vaccines and proved that nanotechnology-based vaccines are more efficient than conventional vaccines. Since nanotechnology might hold promise in vaccines, this Special Issue is aimed to provide a range of original contributions of nanotechnology in vaccines.

Prof. Bong-Hyun Jun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanotechnology
  • vaccine
  • nanovaccines
  • vaccination
  • nanomedicine

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3665 KiB  
Article
Effective Activation of Human Antigen-Presenting Cells and Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cells by a Calcium Phosphate-Based Nanoparticle Vaccine Delivery System
by Florian Scheffel, Torben Knuschke, Lucas Otto, Sebastian Kollenda, Viktoriya Sokolova, Christine Cosmovici, Jan Buer, Jörg Timm, Matthias Epple and Astrid M. Westendorf
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010110 - 1 Mar 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4228
Abstract
The ability of vaccines to induce T cell responses is crucial for preventing diseases caused by viruses. Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered to be efficient tools for the initiation of potent immune responses. Calcium phosphate (CaP) NPs are a class of biodegradable nanocarriers that [...] Read more.
The ability of vaccines to induce T cell responses is crucial for preventing diseases caused by viruses. Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered to be efficient tools for the initiation of potent immune responses. Calcium phosphate (CaP) NPs are a class of biodegradable nanocarriers that are able to deliver immune activating molecules across physiological barriers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand and viral antigen functionalized CaP NPs are capable of inducing efficient maturation of human antigen presenting cells (APC). To achieve this, we generated primary human dendritic cells (DCs) and stimulated them with CpG or poly(I:C) functionalized CaP NPs. DCs were profoundly stronger when activated upon NP stimulation compared to treatment with soluble TLR ligands. This is indicated by increased levels of costimulatory molecules and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Consequently, coculture of NP-stimulated APCs with CD8+ T cells resulted in a significant expansion of virus-specific T cells. In summary, our data suggest that functionalized CaP NPs are a suitable tool for activating human virus-specific CD8+ T cells and may represent an excellent vaccine delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Vaccine)
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12 pages, 1846 KiB  
Article
Oral Immunogenicity in Mice and Sows of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Outer-Membrane Vesicles Incorporated into Zein-Based Nanoparticles
by Jose Matías, Ana Brotons, Santiago Cenoz, Isidoro Pérez, Muthanna Abdulkarim, Mark Gumbleton, Juan M. Irache and Carlos Gamazo
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010011 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2855
Abstract
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. The immune protection of the piglets derives from maternal colostrum, since this species does not receive maternal antibodies through the placenta. In the present [...] Read more.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. The immune protection of the piglets derives from maternal colostrum, since this species does not receive maternal antibodies through the placenta. In the present study, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) obtained from main ETEC strains involved in piglet infection (F4 and F18 serotypes), encapsulated into zein nanoparticles coated with Gantrez®® AN-mannosamine conjugate, were used to orally immunize mice and pregnant sows. Loaded nanoparticles were homogeneous and spherical in a shape, with a size of 220–280 nm. The diffusion of nanoparticles through porcine intestinal mucus barrier was assessed by a Multiple Particle Tracking technique, showing that these particles were able to diffuse efficiently (1.3% diffusion coefficient), validating their oral use. BALB/c mice were either orally immunized with free OMVs or encapsulated into nanoparticles (100 µg OMVs/mouse). Results indicated that a single dose of loaded nanoparticles was able to elicit higher levels of serum specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgA, as well as intestinal IgA, with respect to the free antigens. In addition, nanoparticles induced an increase in levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ with respect to the administration of free OMVs. Orally immunized pregnant sows with the same formulation elicited colostrum-, serum- (IgG, IgA or IgM) and fecal- (IgA) specific antibodies and, what is most relevant, offspring suckling piglets presented specific IgG in serum. Further studies are needed to determine the infection protective capacity of this new oral subunit vaccine Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Vaccine)
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