Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanophotonics Materials and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2024 | Viewed by 15456

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical materials have been widely studied in various fields due to their excellent properties. Thus, a lot of optical materials of various shapes and compositions have been synthesized and applied to many fields. Recently, a Special Issue under the title of Synthesis and Application of Optical Materials was successfully conducted. This Special Issue also aims to provide a variety of original contributions detailing the synthesis and application of optical materials.

Our Special Issue will include the synthesis and application of optical materials that exhibit a variety of unique properties, including plasmonic materials, quantum dots, carbon materials and upconversion nanomaterials. It might also include applications based on optical phenomena occurring at the nanometer scale, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET), direct energy transfer (DET), Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence quenching and phototherapy (e.g., photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy) and so on.

Prof. Dr. Bong-Hyun Jun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plasmonic materials
  • quantum dots
  • upconversion nanomaterials
  • carbon materials
  • metal materials
  • application of nanomaterials

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 8272 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Properties of Photo-Generated Metallized Nanocomposite Coatings through Thermal Annealing
by Marine Dabert, Dorina T. Papanastasiou, Loïc Vidal, Samar Hajjar-Garreau, Daniel Bellet, Daniel Lougnot and Lavinia Balan
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14020193 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 810
Abstract
In this work, the effect of thermal annealing on silver nanoparticles@polymer (AgNPs@polymer) nanocomposite coatings was investigated. These photo-generated metallized coatings have a spatial distribution of metal nanoparticles, with a depth-wise decrease in their concentration. During annealing, both structural and morphological variations, as well [...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of thermal annealing on silver nanoparticles@polymer (AgNPs@polymer) nanocomposite coatings was investigated. These photo-generated metallized coatings have a spatial distribution of metal nanoparticles, with a depth-wise decrease in their concentration. During annealing, both structural and morphological variations, as well as a spatial reorganization of AgNPs, were observed, both at the surface and in the core of the AgNPs@polymer coating. Owing to their increased mobility, the polymer chains reorganize spontaneously, and, at the same time, a hopping diffusion process, caused by the minimization of the surface energy, promotes the migration and coalescence of the silver nanoparticles towards the surface. The layer of discrete nanoparticles gradually transforms from a weakly percolative assembly to a denser and more networked structure. Consequently, the surface of the coatings becomes significantly more electrically conductive, hydrophobic, and reflective. The general trend is that the thinner the nanohybrid coating, the more pronounced the effect of thermal annealing on its spatial reorganization and properties. These results open up interesting prospects in the field of metallized coating technology and pave the way for integration into a wide variety of devices, e.g., efficient and inexpensive reflectors for energy-saving applications, electrically conductive microdevices, and printed electronic microcircuits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6855 KiB  
Article
Efficient Analysis of Small Molecules via Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LDI–TOF MS) Using Gold Nanoshells with Nanogaps
by Noori Kim, Yoon-Hee Kim, Gaon Jo, Jin Yoo, Seung-min Park, Bong-Hyun Jun and Woon-Seok Yeo
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14010025 (registering DOI) - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF MS) is a commonly used technique for analyzing large biomolecules. However, the utilization of organic matrices limits the small-molecule analysis because of the interferences in the low-mass region and the reproducibility issues. To overcome these limitations, [...] Read more.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF MS) is a commonly used technique for analyzing large biomolecules. However, the utilization of organic matrices limits the small-molecule analysis because of the interferences in the low-mass region and the reproducibility issues. To overcome these limitations, a surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI), which utilizes nanostructured metallic surfaces, has been developed. Herein, a novel approach for SALDI–MS was proposed using silica@gold core–shell hybrid materials with a nanogap-rich shell (SiO2@Au NGS), which is an emerging material due to its excellent heat-generating capabilities. The gold shell thickness was controlled by adjusting the concentration of gold precursor for the growth of gold nanoparticles. SALDI-MS measurements were performed on a layer formed by drop-casting a mixture of SiO2@Au NGS and analytes. At the optimized process, the gold shell thickness was observed to be 17.2 nm, which showed the highest absorbance. Based on the enhanced SALDI capability, SiO2@Au NGS was utilized to detect various small molecules, including amino acids, sugars, and flavonoids, and the ionization softness was confirmed with a survival yield upon fragmentation. The limits of detection, reproducibility, and salt tolerance of SiO2@Au NGS demonstrate its potential as an effective and reliable SALDI material for small-molecule analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 4125 KiB  
Article
Near-Infrared Perfect Absorption and Refractive Index Sensing Enabled by Split Ring Nanostructures
by Wajid Ali, Weitao Liu, Ye Liu and Ziwei Li
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(19), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13192668 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 931
Abstract
Plasmonic nanostructures as narrowband perfect absorbers have garnered significant attention due to their potential applications in biosensing and environment detection. This study emphasizes the investigation of arrayed split ring nanostructures within the configuration of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) multilayers, resulting in a maximum light absorption [...] Read more.
Plasmonic nanostructures as narrowband perfect absorbers have garnered significant attention due to their potential applications in biosensing and environment detection. This study emphasizes the investigation of arrayed split ring nanostructures within the configuration of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) multilayers, resulting in a maximum light absorption of 99.94% in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range. The exceptional absorption efficiency of the device is attributed to the strong resonance of electric and magnetic fields arising from the Fabry–Pérot cavity resonance. The resonant peak can be flexibly tuned by engineering the dielectric layer thickness, the period, and the geometric parameter of split rings. Remarkably, the device exhibits promising capabilities in sensing, demonstrating a sensitivity of 326 nm/RIU in visible wavelengths and 504 nm/RIU in NIR wavelengths when exposed to bio-analytes with varying refractive indices. This designed nanostructure can serve as a promising candidate for biosensors or environmental detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Silica Encapsulation of Hydrophobic Optical NP-Embedded Silica Particles with Trimethoxy(2-Phenylethyl)silane
by Eunil Hahm, Ahla Jo, Eunji Kang, Kwanghee Yoo, Minsup Shin, Jaehyun An, Xuanhung Pham, Hyungmo Kim, Homan Kang, Jaehi Kim and Bonghyun Jun
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(14), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13142145 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NP) with optical properties embedded silica particles have been widely used in various fields because of their unique properties. The surfaces of optical NPs have been modified with various organic ligands to maintain their unique optical properties and colloidal stability. Among the [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NP) with optical properties embedded silica particles have been widely used in various fields because of their unique properties. The surfaces of optical NPs have been modified with various organic ligands to maintain their unique optical properties and colloidal stability. Among the surface modification methods, silica encapsulation of optical NPs is widely used to enhance their biocompatibility and stability. However, in the case of NPs with hydrophobic ligands on the surface, the ligands that determine the optical properties of the NPs may detach from the NPs, thereby changing the optical properties during silica encapsulation. Herein, we report a generally applicable silica encapsulation method using trimethoxy(2-phenylethyl)silane (TMPS) for non-hydrophilic optical NPs, such as quantum dots (QDs) and gold NPs. This silica encapsulation method was applied to fabricate multiple silica-encapsulated QD-embedded silica NPs (SiO2@QD@SiO2 NPs; QD2) and multiple silica-encapsulated gold NP-embedded silica NPs labeled with 2-naphthalene thiol (SiO2@Au2-NT@SiO2). The fabricated silica-encapsulated NPs exhibited optical properties without significant changes in the quantum yield or Raman signal intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1784 KiB  
Article
Nanoarhitectonics of Inorganic–Organic Silica–Benzil Composites: Synthesis, Nanocrystal Morphology and Micro-Raman Analysis
by Yaroslav Shchur, Andrii Bendak, Guillermo Beltramo, Anatoliy S. Andrushchak, Svetlana Vitusevich, Denys Pustovyj, Bouchta Sahraoui, Yurii Slyvka and Andriy V. Kityk
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(13), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13131913 - 23 Jun 2023
Viewed by 917
Abstract
The synthesis of nanosized organic benzil (C6H5CO)2 crystals within the mesoporous SiO2 host matrix was investigated via X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and ab initio lattice dynamics analysis. Combining these methods, we have proved that [...] Read more.
The synthesis of nanosized organic benzil (C6H5CO)2 crystals within the mesoporous SiO2 host matrix was investigated via X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and ab initio lattice dynamics analysis. Combining these methods, we have proved that the main structural properties of benzil nanocrystals embedded into SiO2 host membranes with pore diameters of 6.0, 7.8, 9.4, and 13.0 nm are preserved compared to a bulk benzil crystal. Space confinement has an insignificant impact on the lattice vibrational properties of benzil crystals implanted into the host matrices. The ab initio lattice dynamics calculation of the phonon spectrum in the Brillouin zone center shows the mechanical and dynamical stability of benzil lattice, revealing very low optical frequency of 11 cm1 at point Γ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4678 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Surface Processing on the Surface Plasmonic Enhancement of an Al-Nanoparticles-Enhanced ZnO UV Photodectector
by Gaoming Li, Qianwen Yan, Xiaolong Zhao and Yongning He
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(12), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13121877 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Surface Plasmonic Resonance (SPR) induced by metallic nanoparticles can be exploited to enhance the response of photodetectors (PD) to a large degree. Since the interface between metallic nanoparticles and semiconductors plays an important role in SPR, the magnitude of the enhancement is highly [...] Read more.
Surface Plasmonic Resonance (SPR) induced by metallic nanoparticles can be exploited to enhance the response of photodetectors (PD) to a large degree. Since the interface between metallic nanoparticles and semiconductors plays an important role in SPR, the magnitude of the enhancement is highly dependent on the morphology and roughness of the surface where the nanoparticles are distributed. In this work, we used mechanical polishing to produce different surface roughnesses for the ZnO film. Then, we exploited sputtering to fabricate Al nanoparticles on the ZnO film. The size and spacing of the Al nanoparticles were adjusted by sputtering power and time. Finally, we made a comparison among the PD with surface processing only, the Al-nanoparticles-enhanced PD, and the Al-nanoparticles-enhanced PD with surface processing. The results showed that increasing the surface roughness could enhance the photo response due to the augmentation of light scattering. More interestingly, the SPR induced by the Al nanoparticles could be strengthened by increasing the roughness. The responsivity could be enlarged by three orders of magnitude after we introduced surface roughness to boost the SPR. This work revealed the mechanism behind how surface roughness influences SPR enhancement. This provides new means for improving the photo responses of SPR-enhanced photodetectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Laser–Metal Interaction with a Pulse Shorter than the Ion Period: Ablation Threshold, Electron Emission and Ion Explosion
by Eugene G. Gamaly and Saulius Juodkazis
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111796 - 3 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The laser energy per unit surface, necessary to trigger material removal, decreases with the pulse shortening, becoming pulse–time independent in the sub-picosecond range. These pulses are shorter than the electron-to-ion energy transfer time and electronic heat conduction time, minimising the energy losses. Electrons [...] Read more.
The laser energy per unit surface, necessary to trigger material removal, decreases with the pulse shortening, becoming pulse–time independent in the sub-picosecond range. These pulses are shorter than the electron-to-ion energy transfer time and electronic heat conduction time, minimising the energy losses. Electrons receiving an energy larger than the threshold drag the ions off the surface in the mode of electrostatic ablation. We show that a pulse shorter than the ion period (Shorter-the-Limit (StL)) ejects conduction electrons with an energy larger than the work function (from a metal), leaving the bare ions immobile in a few atomic layers. Electron emission is followed by the bare ion’s explosion, ablation, and THz radiation from the expanding plasma. We compare this phenomenon to the classic photo effect and nanocluster Coulomb explosions, and show differences and consider possibilities for detecting new modes of ablation experimentally via emitted THz radiation. We also consider the applications of high-precision nano-machining with this low intensity irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2500 KiB  
Article
Facilitation of Dye-Based Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Poly(ethylene glycol)-Engrafted Graphene Oxide
by Khushbu Chauhan, Dong-Min Kim, Eunbin Cho and Dong-Eun Kim
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(8), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13081348 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an important and extensively utilized technique in medical and biotechnological applications. qPCR enables the real-time detection of nucleic acid during amplification, thus surpassing the necessity of post-amplification gel electrophoresis for amplicon detection. Despite being widely employed [...] Read more.
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an important and extensively utilized technique in medical and biotechnological applications. qPCR enables the real-time detection of nucleic acid during amplification, thus surpassing the necessity of post-amplification gel electrophoresis for amplicon detection. Despite being widely employed in molecular diagnostics, qPCR exhibits limitations attributed to nonspecific DNA amplification that compromises the efficiency and fidelity of qPCR. Herein, we demonstrate that poly(ethylene glycol)-engrafted nanosized graphene oxide (PEG-nGO) can significantly improve the efficiency and specificity of qPCR by adsorbing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) without affecting the fluorescence of double-stranded DNA binding dye during DNA amplification. PEG-nGO adsorbs surplus ssDNA primers in the initial phase of PCR, having lower concentrations of DNA amplicons and thus minimizing the nonspecific annealing of ssDNA and false amplification due to primer dimerization and erroneous priming. As compared to conventional qPCR, the addition of PEG-nGO and the DNA binding dye, EvaGreen, in the qPCR setup (dubbed as PENGO-qPCR) significantly enhances the specificity and sensitivity of DNA amplification by preferential adsorption of ssDNA without inhibiting DNA polymerase activity. The PENGO-qPCR system for detection of influenza viral RNA exhibited a 67-fold higher sensitivity than the conventional qPCR setup. Thus, the performance of a qPCR can be greatly enhanced by adding PEG-nGO as a PCR enhancer as well as EvaGreen as a DNA binding dye to the qPCR mixture, which exhibits a significantly improved sensitivity of the qPCR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 5037 KiB  
Review
Recent Studies on Metal-Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Biological Applications
by Hye-Seong Cho, Mi Suk Noh, Yoon-Hee Kim, Jayoung Namgung, Kwanghee Yoo, Min-Sup Shin, Cho-Hee Yang, Young Jun Kim, Seung-Ju Yu, Hyejin Chang, Won Yeop Rho and Bong-Hyun Jun
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(3), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14030268 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Recently, silica nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable attention as biocompatible and stable templates for embedding noble metals. Noble-metal-embedded silica NPs utilize the exceptional optical properties of novel metals while overcoming the limitations of individual novel metal NPs. In addition, the structure of metal-embedded [...] Read more.
Recently, silica nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable attention as biocompatible and stable templates for embedding noble metals. Noble-metal-embedded silica NPs utilize the exceptional optical properties of novel metals while overcoming the limitations of individual novel metal NPs. In addition, the structure of metal-embedded silica NPs decorated with small metal NPs around the silica core results in strong signal enhancement in localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. This review summarizes recent studies on metal-embedded silica NPs, focusing on their unique designs and applications. The characteristics of the metal-embedded silica NPs depend on the type and structure of the embedded metals. Based on this progress, metal-embedded silica NPs are currently utilized in various spectroscopic applications, serving as nanozymes, detection and imaging probes, drug carriers, photothermal inducers, and bioactivation molecule screening identifiers. Owing to their versatile roles, metal-embedded silica NPs are expected to be applied in various fields, such as biology and medicine, in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 9622 KiB  
Review
Plasmonic Nanomaterials in Dark Field Sensing Systems
by Wenjia Zhang, Xingyu Zi, Jinqiang Bi, Guohua Liu, Hongen Cheng, Kexin Bao, Liu Qin and Wei Wang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(13), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13132027 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Plasma nanoparticles offer promise in data storage, biosensing, optical imaging, photoelectric integration, etc. This review highlights the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation mechanism of plasmonic nanoprobes and its critical significance in the control of dark-field sensing, as well as three main sensing [...] Read more.
Plasma nanoparticles offer promise in data storage, biosensing, optical imaging, photoelectric integration, etc. This review highlights the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation mechanism of plasmonic nanoprobes and its critical significance in the control of dark-field sensing, as well as three main sensing strategies based on plasmonic nanomaterial dielectric environment modification, electromagnetic coupling, and charge transfer. This review then describes the component materials of plasmonic nanoprobes based on gold, silver, and other noble metals, as well as their applications. According to this summary, researchers raised the LSPR performance of composite plasmonic nanomaterials by combining noble metals with other metals or oxides and using them in process analysis and quantitative detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3597 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Synthesis and Application of Metal Oxide Nanostructures in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors
by Vincentas Maciulis, Almira Ramanaviciene and Ieva Plikusiene
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(24), 4413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12244413 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2913
Abstract
Nanostructured materials formed from metal oxides offer a number of advantages, such as large surface area, improved mechanical and other physical properties, as well as adjustable electronic properties that are important in the development and application of chemical sensors and biosensor design. Nanostructures [...] Read more.
Nanostructured materials formed from metal oxides offer a number of advantages, such as large surface area, improved mechanical and other physical properties, as well as adjustable electronic properties that are important in the development and application of chemical sensors and biosensor design. Nanostructures are classified using the dimensions of the nanostructure itself and their components. In this review, various types of nanostructures classified as 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D that were successfully applied in chemical sensors and biosensors, and formed from metal oxides using different synthesis methods, are discussed. In particular, significant attention is paid to detailed analysis and future prospects of the synthesis methods of metal oxide nanostructures and their integration in chemical sensors and biosensor design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop