Special Issue "Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City"

A special issue of Urban Science (ISSN 2413-8851).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2018) | Viewed by 38158

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Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Francisco Cebrián-Abellán
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Guest Editor
Department of Geography and Town and Country Planning, Faculty of Humanities Edificio Benjamín Palencia, Campus Universitario s/n, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain
Interests: medium sized cities; urban dynamics; urban sprawl; urban geography; urbanization processes.
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Dr. María José Piñeira-Mantiñán
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Group Territorial Analysis (ANTE), Department of Geography, University of Santiago de Compostela, Pza. Universidade 1, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Interests: urban studies; urban planning; urban landscape; housing; segregation; vulnerability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jesús Manuel González Pérez
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Guest Editor
Research Group for Sustainability and Territory (GIST), Departament of Geography, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Interests: urban studies; urban planning; spatial planning; tourism; Europe; Caribbean; Latin America
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last two decades have been marked by intense and accelerated economic, political and cultural processes that have affected cities. These changes have occurred in different parts of cities (traditional centers, edges, peripheries) and at different levels of the urban system (large and medium cities, and in their respective areas of influence). Possibly the clearest expression of the spatial effects on cities can be perceived in their morphological transformations, their territorial dimensions or in their social problems.

This process of change is associated with a context of strong economic dynamics and employment creation. The first decade of the 21st century witnessed an increase in foreign immigration to Spain that has helped the country to increase its population, especially in the cities. Until 2008, urban-territorial processes had been a reflection of the logic and inconsistencies of an expansive economic context, and of a structural context that favored the development of cities through concurrent processes and actors. As a result, the built land and amount of urbanized and built surfaces increased, together with processes of the expansion and modernization of cities. This has led to the appearance of contradictions and internal conflicts linked to the overconsumption of resources (soil, energy, water) and pollution (air, water, heat islands, urban solid waste).

There is growing concern about the increase in travel times and traffic congestion (caused by daily commuting between places of residence, work, consumption, and leisure). These problems have opened debate regarding the need for cities to transition towards more sustainable patterns, with greater energy efficiency, better public transport, the rehabilitation of buildings in the consolidated city, the availability of apartments for rent, and increased attention to green spaces.

Since 2008, the expansive economic cycle has ended, and there have been diverse negative consequences. On the one hand, the construction sector has come to an abrupt halt. Access to credit has also been reduced, and unemployment has increased. The economic recession has caused sociodemographic, socioeconomic or housing vulnerability, with dispossession, evictions, a shortage of social housing, and energy poverty.

These are some examples of the visible and traumatic effects that have paradoxically been produced in a context of housing oversupply. To this is added the gentrification and “touristification” of historic centers, which has generated negative responses from locals in some cities. These complex situations have drawn our attention to traditional urban typologies, with their compact morphology and functional mixture, as a logical alternative to a future scenario marked by a limitation of resources, the increase of environmental problems, new financial logics and the reactivation of the construction sector in many urban spaces.

Prof. Dr. Francisco Cebrián-Abellán
Prof. Dr. María José Piñeira-Mantiñán
Prof. Dr. Jesús M. González Pérez
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • housing bubble
  • social crisis
  • housing vulnerability
  • evictions
  • gentrification
  • Spanish city

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Readings of the Post-Crisis Spanish City: Between Social Inequity and Territorial Destruction
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3020043 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
The 2008 crisis entailed a turning point in the process of creating and managing cities and territories. There has been a change from a city model, based on expansive growth, which was also speculative and deregulated, had provoked an unprecedented expansion of the [...] Read more.
The 2008 crisis entailed a turning point in the process of creating and managing cities and territories. There has been a change from a city model, based on expansive growth, which was also speculative and deregulated, had provoked an unprecedented expansion of the outskirts of towns and cities, and the artificialization of thousands of hectares of land, to a model based on the reconstruction of the original city, before the impact of the crisis. Gone are the days of urban mega-projects—source of indebtedness for local administrations- and big urbanizations, which, in many occasions, have not been inhabited. The financial, social, and residential reality requires a better thinking of the city models, as well as recuperating the neighborhoods and recomposing the social gap and conflicts, which had become affected by unemployment, evictions, and austerity policies. In this paper, two models of understanding and managing cities have been presented, as a way of identifying strengths, weaknesses, and impacts on the modern city. Several case studies have been collected at a regional level (Extremadura and Valencian Community), and at an urban level (Las Palmas, Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Toledo), and even at a sub-urban level (via the study of certain neighborhoods). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)

Research

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Article
Land Squandering in the Spanish Medium Sized Cities: The Case of Toledo
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3010016 - 27 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
A process of land squandering began in Spain in the mid 1990s until the great crisis of 2008. The intensive production of urban land affected the Spanish medium-sized towns. They were characterized by their compact nature and then they underwent an intense diffuse [...] Read more.
A process of land squandering began in Spain in the mid 1990s until the great crisis of 2008. The intensive production of urban land affected the Spanish medium-sized towns. They were characterized by their compact nature and then they underwent an intense diffuse urbanization. However, in some cases there had been previous examples of urban sprawl. In this article, we study one of them, the unique and historic city of Toledo, in the Centre of the Iberian Peninsula. We will show how the city has experienced the land squandering and has been extensively widespread throughout the hinterland, consisting of their peripheral municipalities. We will also check how Toledo has had a previous internal dispersion process in the last quarter of the 20th Century through the called Ensanche (widening). We will use the urban estate cadaster as a fundamental source for evolutionary and present analysis of the city and its hinterland. The field and bibliographic work complete the methodology. The final conclusion is that there have been remarkable urban increments in Spanish medium-sized cities such as Toledo, in external and peripheral districts, under the logic of speculation and profit, resulting in a disjointed space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Urban Sprawl in Inner Medium-Sized Cities: The Behaviour in Some Spanish Cases Since the Beginning of the 21st Century
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3010010 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
The processes of urban sprawl that have been present over the past two decades in the different strata of the urban hierarchy have also affected, as a whole, medium-sized cities. The urban sprawl has been particularly pronounced during the period of expansive Spanish [...] Read more.
The processes of urban sprawl that have been present over the past two decades in the different strata of the urban hierarchy have also affected, as a whole, medium-sized cities. The urban sprawl has been particularly pronounced during the period of expansive Spanish urbanism, in which many of the municipalities situated in the vicinities of large cities have been affected by major demographic dynamics and (sub)urbanisation development outside the traditional city limits. Sometimes, these processes have been greater than the nearby cities in the urban area where they are inserted. In this study, we examine the general mechanisms identified within an urban crown size (within a radius of 30 km) and at the scale of the municipality, based on an analysis of two distinct periods: one linked to a strong growth dynamic (2000–2008), and another related to subsequent crisis (2009–2016). A group of 23 inner medium-sized Spanish cities has been analysed, taking into account the trends of the population, the surface of unbuilt plots, the built surface, and the amount of housing. We have identified the typologies of their respective urban areas over the two periods considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Water Management in Urban Sprawl Typologies in the City of Alicante (Southern Spain): New Trends and Perception after the Economic Crisis?
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3010007 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
In recent decades, territorial transformations have occurred on the Spanish Mediterranean coast due to the real estate bubble (1997–2008). The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyse the domestic water consumption trend in the study area (“Beach Sector” of the city of [...] Read more.
In recent decades, territorial transformations have occurred on the Spanish Mediterranean coast due to the real estate bubble (1997–2008). The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyse the domestic water consumption trend in the study area (“Beach Sector” of the city of Alicante, Southern Spain) (2000–2017); and (2) explore water use and the characteristics of detached houses and how its residents have introduced water-saving measures to reduce consumption after the economic crisis in the study area. A review and analysis of data on housing and population has been carried out where this urban development type has been implemented. Moreover, surveys of the residents have been conducted in order to determine and analyse water consumption, and the perception and knowledge used to reduce water consumption in detached houses. The results show that consumption decreased between 2000 and 2017 due to different factors and there was no change in the water consumption trend at the end of the economic crisis. In view of the conclusions, it should be mentioned that this reduction has been associated with a greater environmental awareness of the need to save water, the installation of systems that use water more efficiently and water-saving devices. All of this is aimed at reducing the water bill that has been exacerbated by an increase in water prices seeing as this is the type of property that consumes the most water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Urban Projects and Residential Segregation: A Case Study of the Cabanyal Neighborhood in Valencia (Spain)
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040119 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3245
Abstract
In this paper, we study the consequences of neoliberal urban policy, in terms of the segregation and social changes experienced in the Cabanyal neighborhood located in Valencia, Spain. In doing so, we analyze the process of residential mobility that has affected the neighborhood [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the consequences of neoliberal urban policy, in terms of the segregation and social changes experienced in the Cabanyal neighborhood located in Valencia, Spain. In doing so, we analyze the process of residential mobility that has affected the neighborhood during the last decade, resulting in a segregation of space. This neighborhood had been affected, since 1988, by an urban project that was to bring about its partial destruction. Despite having been stopped, the project has caused a dynamic of physical and social degradation of the neighborhood against which the local government has only very recently started to intervene. Using microdata from the Residential Variation Statistics provided by the Statistical Office of the City of Valencia, we analyze the demographic profile of the mobility inside the Cabanyal neighborhood and also the origin of the arrivals and the destination of the departures from 2004–2016. The aim is to identify the territorial pattern of the socio-demographic changes that have affected the neighborhood. The results indicate that during the period under analysis, in which the area was affected by the urban project, a progressive loss in the Spanish population was occurring, as well as a substitution of non-EU immigrants, who were predominant at the beginning of the period, with EU immigrants. This process has produced a high level of residential segregation, since immigrants from the European Union are viewed more negatively than immigrants from outside of the European Union, which, along with their lower level of education and employment in low-skilled and poorly paid jobs, makes their social integration and interaction more difficult. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Qualitative Methodologies for the Analysis of Intra-Urban Socio-Environmental Vulnerability in Barcelona (Spain): Case Studies
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040116 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities in its neighborhoods. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize, and/or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to [...] Read more.
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities in its neighborhoods. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize, and/or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to show the importance that qualitative methodologies can play in studies on urban socio-environmental vulnerability. We consider aspects that are not quantifiable but that may be inherent to many such vulnerable spaces, both in the constructed environment and in the social ambit. These questions are considered through selected neighborhoods of Barcelona which have been shown (in prior works, mainly studies of quantitative manufacturing) to possess elements of vulnerability including a high presence of immigrants from less-developed countries, low per capita income, aging populations, or low educational levels. The results reveal the multidimensionality of vulnerability in the neighborhoods analyzed, as well as the essential complementarity among methodologies that detect and support possible public actions aimed at reducing or eliminating intra-urban inequalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Urban Intensities. The Urbanization of the Iberian Mediterranean Coast in the Light of Nighttime Satellite Images of the Earth
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040115 - 29 Nov 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
The contribution shares the approach of critical urban studies that have conceptualized urbanization more as a process than as a sum of spatial forms. Thus, the contribution studies the urbanization process not only from the point of view of the physical occupation of [...] Read more.
The contribution shares the approach of critical urban studies that have conceptualized urbanization more as a process than as a sum of spatial forms. Thus, the contribution studies the urbanization process not only from the point of view of the physical occupation of land but also considers changes in the intensity of the uses of space. To fulfill this aim, the new sources of nocturnal satellite images are particularly useful. These allow us to observe the intensity of urban uses both in terms of their distribution over space and their recurrence over time. The research focuses on the Iberian Mediterranean coast and permits the verification of the intensity of the urban uses of the space for the whole of this area and their seasonal variations throughout the year. The source of the study are the nighttime satellite images of the Earth for the 2012–2017 period from the NASA SNPP satellite equipped with the VIIRS-DNB instrument. By establishing a threshold of urban light the research shows that those districts with the greatest extensions of urban light do not necessarily correspond with the most densely populated areas. Similarly the absence of urban light does not necessarily indicate the absence of urban uses. Finally, the variations of intensity of light prove to be a good indicator of seasonal variations of activity in tourist areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
The Impact of Economic Crisis in Areas of Sprawl in Spanish Cities
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040113 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
The development of dispersed urbanism in Spain ran parallel to the real estate boom and consolidated a new model of city sprawl based on the expansion of suburban areas. This process, which started in the mid 1980s, came to a halt with the [...] Read more.
The development of dispersed urbanism in Spain ran parallel to the real estate boom and consolidated a new model of city sprawl based on the expansion of suburban areas. This process, which started in the mid 1980s, came to a halt with the onset of the economic crisis in 2007. With it, construction stopped, mobility fell, and urban growth came to a standstill. The purpose of this article is, firstly, to analyse the recent evolution and chronology of the expansion of dispersed urbanism in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) in order to gain an insight into some of its explanatory factors, and secondly, to look into the future middle-term prospects of dispersed urbanism in the BMR and Spain. To this end, we examine trends in the housing market and residential mobility and take stock of the impact of business cycles on them. The conclusion is that dispersed areas still retain their appeal for people in the life stages of the creation and expansion of households. For this reason, an effective economic recovery and a renewed rise in the price of housing in denser cities may contribute to an upturn in the popularity of the dispersed residential model, which nowadays could be considered to be in a ‘lethargic’ phase, waiting for certain factors to concur and reactivate its expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Segregated in the City, Separated in the School. The Reproduction of Social Inequality through the School System
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040112 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3294
Abstract
This paper explores the relationship between urban segregation and the educational level of the population. In the first place, the impacts of segregation in educational careers are analysed. Secondly, the contribution explores the interrelationship between urban segregation and schooling in Barcelona. For this [...] Read more.
This paper explores the relationship between urban segregation and the educational level of the population. In the first place, the impacts of segregation in educational careers are analysed. Secondly, the contribution explores the interrelationship between urban segregation and schooling in Barcelona. For this aim, different sources have been used: The map of urban segregation in Catalonia at the census tract level; data about the formal educational levels of the population, aged between 15 and 34 years, from the Catalan Youth Survey (Enquesta de Joventut de Catalunya); and schooling data in Barcelona’s schools and neighbourhoods. The research shows how urban segregation effects the educational level and fosters social inequalities amongst neighbourhoods. It also points out how choosing school and enrolment strategies could act by increasing school segregation in Barcelona. Therefore, the role of segregation in the reproduction and perpetuation of inequalities in the living conditions of the population is exposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
The Failure of Eco-Neighborhood Projects in the City of Madrid (Spain)
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040111 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4210
Abstract
The objective of this article is to analyze the implementation of eco-neighborhoods in the city of Madrid. This is a new formulation that joins, within neighborhood scale, purposes of environmental sustainability with social and economic aims. First, we make a general approach reviewing [...] Read more.
The objective of this article is to analyze the implementation of eco-neighborhoods in the city of Madrid. This is a new formulation that joins, within neighborhood scale, purposes of environmental sustainability with social and economic aims. First, we make a general approach reviewing the initiatives proposed in the capital city and then we will make an analysis of the eco-neighborhood of Vallecas, the only one still working. We have looked through the official approach, the present bibliography, the official statements, the interpretations of the technicians, the resident’s opinions exposed in websites, social networks and press. The field research and the collection of information through conversations with the agents involved were the keys to verify the real results of the projects. We consider that the development and the conclusion of these initiatives have been a failure. The reasons are in its origin and the process of realization, but mainly in the confused premises that were the foundation of its design and localization. The absence of dialogue with neighbors and associations turned the official speeches and plans in something strange to the citizen’s necessities of the southern area, with the lowest rents of Madrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Foreclosures and Evictions in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria during the Economic Crisis and Post-Crisis Period in Spain
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040109 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2703
Abstract
At the beginning of the economic crisis in 2008, the number of foreclosures and evictions increased dramatically in Spain. The severe economic situation and the lack of mitigation measures by public institutions seemed to be the main causes. However, the start of a [...] Read more.
At the beginning of the economic crisis in 2008, the number of foreclosures and evictions increased dramatically in Spain. The severe economic situation and the lack of mitigation measures by public institutions seemed to be the main causes. However, the start of a period of economic recovery since 2014 has meant that the number of the evictions continues to increase. In this article, we analyze in detail this phenomenon in the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Based on the disaggregated judicial data on the records of ejections and transfer of possession by foreclosures and evictions for the period 2009–2017, we carry out a study according to judicial procedures and proceedings and nature of the parties affected from a time-based and spatial perspective. This information allows us to discern that the causes that have led to the loss of housing are more varied than expected; that these circumstances have affected both societies and individuals, diverging on the period of incidence; and that the loss of housing has a different spatial impact in each stage. We conclude that both dispossession and loss of use are two structural occurrences coherent with the capitalist model of secondary accumulation developed in the world in the last 20 years. In the case of Spain, we have recognized these phases and modes of accumulation beyond the incidence of the crisis, revealing the structural character of the phenomenon analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
Touristification, Sharing Economies and the New Geography of Urban Conflicts
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040104 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4963
Abstract
The aim of this study was to address the highly controversial problem of the increasing touristification of urban centers, analyzing the case of Valencia. The paper begins with a theoretical reflection to disambiguate the term “sharing economy”, the emergence of all kinds of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to address the highly controversial problem of the increasing touristification of urban centers, analyzing the case of Valencia. The paper begins with a theoretical reflection to disambiguate the term “sharing economy”, the emergence of all kinds of digital service platforms that are revolutionizing traditional economic sectors of services, such as transport, tourist accommodation, or personal services. The new geography of urban conflicts that has arisen in recent years in this city, largely as a consequence of the paradigm of the collaborative economy in the tourism sector, was analyzed. This situation contrasts sharply with the panorama of conflicts that existed before and during the international financial crisis. Finally, the main social, economic and environmental impacts of collaborative economies are discussed, from the approach of a new phase in neoliberal capitalism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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Article
The Clandestine Transition towards an Unsustainable Urban Model in Extremadura, Spain
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2040103 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Given the incessant and clandestine proliferation of housing on the Undevelopable Land of Extremadura, Spain, and that administrative attention to this problem has been scarce, it is inevitable that urban geographers will turn away from the main focus of their study: cities. Thus, [...] Read more.
Given the incessant and clandestine proliferation of housing on the Undevelopable Land of Extremadura, Spain, and that administrative attention to this problem has been scarce, it is inevitable that urban geographers will turn away from the main focus of their study: cities. Thus, a methodology has been designed to discover housing irregularities in the countryside, and to quantify, locate, and date them. To do this, we have digitalized all urban planning in the region and performed sweeps on orthophotos at a maximum scale of 1:1500. Every single dwelling in the region has been detected using this method. The rurbanization in this region means that there has been a change in the urban model that has not been gradual. The fragile and weakened urban network of Extremadura has agglutinated a large part of the population, which has resulted in territorial emptying, but not in a stagnation of artificialization. In fact, the urban network has become increasingly dispersed and isolated because of residential growth outside the limits of Urban and Developable Land. In addition, this growth is eminently clandestine. The worrying results show us that there is an urgent need for the Administration to create and apply a Regional Plan for the Management and Control of Rurban Development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Squandering and Social Crisis in the Spanish City)
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