Special Issue "Improved and Innovative Actions for Mycotoxin Management in the Food and Feed Chain"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Federica Cheli
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety “Carlo Cantoni” - Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
Coordinating Research Centres (CRC) – Innovation for well-being and Environment (I-WE) - Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition; mycotoxins; feed; cell-based bioassay
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are one of the most relevant threats to human and animal health, and in most regions there is still a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. The globalization of the trade in agricultural commodities and the lack of legislative harmonization have contributed significantly to the discussion about the awareness of mycotoxins entering the feed and food supply chain.

Mycotoxins are difficult to eliminate, and the challenge is to minimize their effects. There is a great deal of information available on how to manage and mitigate them, but no silver bullet is available to tackle mycotoxin threats. The mycotoxin problem demands an integrated approach using innovative and improved pre- and post-harvest strategic actions that address the entire food and feed chain: from field to industries, traders, national storage systems, regulators, and relevant agencies.

Improved and innovative actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain are needed in order to answer to several open questions: what happens in the plant when a fungus (and toxin) is formed? Are genetic improvements to crops and biotechnology useful tools for reducing mycotoxin contamination in crops? What happens in storage? What happens during food and feed processing? What is the effect of climate change? Mycotoxins never come alone; can the co-occurrence of mycotoxins affect both the level of mycotoxin production and the toxicity of the contaminated material? What are the best ways to deal with “emerging mycotoxins” or “modified mycotoxins”? Finally, we need to develop quicker and on-site sampling and analytical methods.

The aim of this Issue is to provide an update on the improved and innovative actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain. Original research articles and literature reviews concerning the topic of the Issue are welcome, including occurrence studies as well as economic and commodity trade analyses.

Prof. Federica Cheli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • occurrence
  • prevention
  • mycotoxins detoxification
  • biotechnology
  • management
  • analysis and sampling
  • exposure and risk assessment
  • climate change
  • commodity trade
  • legislation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Mechanism Assessment of Zearalenone Removal by Plant-Derived Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 47723
Toxins 2021, 13(4), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040286 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a harmful secondary fungal metabolite, produced primarily by plant pathogenic fungi mostly belonging to the genus Fusarium. It is involved in reproductive disorders in animals since its structure is similar to the estrogen hormone. This induces precocious pubertal changes, [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a harmful secondary fungal metabolite, produced primarily by plant pathogenic fungi mostly belonging to the genus Fusarium. It is involved in reproductive disorders in animals since its structure is similar to the estrogen hormone. This induces precocious pubertal changes, fertility problems, and hyper estrogenic disorders. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the ZEA removal capacity of plant-derived lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to investigate the possible components and mechanisms involved in the removal of ZEA by physically and chemically treated plant-derived LAB. The bacterial cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the analysis of zeta potential, and hydrophobic index. Results revealed that 17 out of 33 plant-derived LAB exhibited ZEA removal from liquid medium. The percentage of removal ranged from 0.5–23% and Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 47723, isolated from wild spider flower pickle (Pag-sian-dorng), exhibited the highest removal. The alteration of proteins on L. plantarum BCC 47723 structure by Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) treatment was positively affected on ZEA removal, whereas that of lipids on ZEA removal was negatively observed. Heat treatment influenced the higher ZEA adsorption. SEM images showed that the morphologies of modified bacterial cells were distinctly deformed and damaged when compared with untreated control. FTIR analysis indicated that the original functional groups, which included amide (C=O, C-N), carboxyl (C=O, C-O, O-H), methylene (C=C), and alcohol (O-H) groups, were not changed after ZEA adsorption. The zeta potential indicated that electrostatic interaction was not involved in the ZEA removal, while hydrophobicity was the main force to interact with ZEA. These findings can conclude that adsorption by hydrophobicity is the main mechanism for ZEA removal of plant-derived L. plantarum BCC 47723. The alteration of bacterial cell structure by heat treatment enhanced the efficiency of L. plantarum BCC 47723 for ZEA reduction. Its activity can be protected by the freeze-drying technique. Hence, plant-derived L. plantarum BCC 47723 can be considered as an organic adsorbent for ZEA reduction in food and feedstuff. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Corn Silage: Relationships with Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Communities
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030232 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
Sixty-four corn silages were characterized for chemicals, bacterial community, and concentrations of several fungal metabolites. Silages were grouped in five clusters, based on detected mycotoxins, and they were characterized for being contaminated by (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) [...] Read more.
Sixty-four corn silages were characterized for chemicals, bacterial community, and concentrations of several fungal metabolites. Silages were grouped in five clusters, based on detected mycotoxins, and they were characterized for being contaminated by (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) low levels of fumonisins and other Fusarium-mycotoxins; (3) high levels of Aspergillus-mycotoxins; (4) high levels of non-regulated Fusarium-mycotoxins; (5) high levels of fumonisins and their metabolites. Altersetin was detected in clusters 1, 3, and 5. Rugulusovin or brevianamide F were detected in several samples, with the highest concentration in cluster 3. Emodin was detected in more than 50.0% of samples of clusters 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Kojic acid occurred mainly in clusters 1 and 2 at very low concentrations. Regarding Fusarium mycotoxins, high occurrences were observed for FB3, FB4, FA1, whereas the average concentrations of FB6 and FA2 were lower than 12.4 µg/kg dry matter. Emerging Fusarium-produced mycotoxins, such as siccanol, moniliformin, equisetin, epiequisetin and bikaverin were detected in the majority of analyzed corn silages. Pestalotin, oxaline, phenopirrozin and questiomycin A were detected at high incidences. Concluding, this work highlighted that corn silages could be contaminated by a high number of regulated and emerging mycotoxins. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Mycotoxin Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detoxifying Agents in Pig Production with an Emphasis on Deoxynivalenol
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020171 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 637
Abstract
This review aimed to investigate the occurrence of mycotoxins, their toxic effects, and the detoxifying agents discussed in scientific publications that are related to pig production. Mycotoxins that are of major interest are aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol and fumonisins, because [...] Read more.
This review aimed to investigate the occurrence of mycotoxins, their toxic effects, and the detoxifying agents discussed in scientific publications that are related to pig production. Mycotoxins that are of major interest are aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol and fumonisins, because of their elevated frequency at a global scale and high occurrence in corn, which is the main feedstuff in pig diets. The toxic effects of aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisins include immune modulation, disruption of intestinal barrier function, and cytotoxicity leading to cell death, which all result in impaired pig performance. Feed additives, such as mycotoxin-detoxifying agents, that are currently available often combine organic and inorganic sources to enhance their adsorbability, immune stimulation, or ability to render mycotoxins less toxic. In summary, mycotoxins present challenges to pig production globally because of their increasing occurrences in recent years and their toxic effects impairing the health and growth of pigs. Effective mycotoxin-detoxifying agents must be used to boost pig health and performance and to improve the sustainable use of crops. Full article
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