Special Issue "Mycotoxin Contamination Management Tools and Efficient Strategies in Feed Industry"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Federica Cheli
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety “Carlo Cantoni” - Università degli Studi di Milano – Milan, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins represent a significant issue for the feed industry and the safety of the feed supply chain, with an impact on human health, animal health and production, economies, and international trade. Notifications on the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) concerning mycotoxins are among the “top 10” hazard categories with risk decision categorized as “serious”.

Mycotoxin contamination of feed is a recurring problem in the livestock feed industry in an increasingly competitive marketplace. The globalization of the trade in agricultural commodities and the lack of legislative harmonization have contributed significantly to the discussion about the awareness of mycotoxins entering the feed/food supply chain. The feed industry is a sustainable outlet for food processing industries, converting by-products into high-quality animal feed. Mycotoxin occurrence in food by-products from different technological processes is a worldwide topic of interest for the feed industry aiming to increase the marketability and acceptance of these products as feed ingredients and include them safely in the feed supply chain.

For a sustainable and competitive feed industry, there is a need for monitoring and managing the risk of mycotoxins and for strategies to prevent and reduce mycotoxins in compound feed manufacturing. To properly manage the mycotoxin risk at industrial level, a rapid mycotoxin analysis of feed represents the first and most effective tool for feed management. A key point is the choice of the analytical method at the industrial level, enabling rapid management decisions on the acceptance or rejection of a lot.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and literature reviews concerning management tools and efficient strategies for the feed industry to monitor, prevent, and reduce mycotoxins in compound feed manufacturing are welcome, including occurrence studies, mycotoxin repartitioning studies in food by-products, economic and commodity trade analysis.

Prof. Federica Cheli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxin
  • occurrence
  • prevention
  • reduction strategies
  • management
  • analysis and sampling
  • exposure and risk assessment
  • climate change
  • commodity trade
  • legislation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparative In Vitro Assessment of a Range of Commercial Feed Additives with Multiple Mycotoxin Binding Claims
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110659 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Contamination of animal feed with multiple mycotoxins is an ongoing and growing issue, as over 60% of cereal crops worldwide have been shown to be contaminated with mycotoxins. The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of commercial feed additives sold [...] Read more.
Contamination of animal feed with multiple mycotoxins is an ongoing and growing issue, as over 60% of cereal crops worldwide have been shown to be contaminated with mycotoxins. The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of commercial feed additives sold with multi-mycotoxin binding claims. Ten feed additives were obtained and categorised into three groups based on their main composition. Their capacity to simultaneously adsorb deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and T-2 toxin was assessed and compared using an in vitro model designed to simulate the gastrointestinal tract of a monogastric animal. Results showed that only one product (a modified yeast cell wall) effectively adsorbed more than 50% of DON, ZEN, FB1, OTA, T-2 and AFB1, in the following order: AFB1 > ZEN > T-2 > DON > OTA > FB1. The remaining products were able to moderately bind AFB1 (44–58%) but had less, or in some cases, no effect on ZEN, FB1, OTA and T-2 binding (<35%). It is important for companies producing mycotoxin binders that their products undergo rigorous trials under the conditions which best mimic the environment that they must be active in. Claims on the binding efficiency should only be made when such data has been generated. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of a Yeast Cell Wall Extract to Mitigate the Effect of Naturally Co-Occurring Mycotoxins Contaminating Feed Ingredients Fed to Young Pigs: Impact on Gut Health, Microbiome, and Growth
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110633 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are potentially toxic to pigs. Yeast cell wall extract (YCWE) is known to adsorb mycotoxins and improve gut health in pigs. One hundred and twenty growing (56 kg; experiment 1) and 48 nursery piglets (6 kg; experiment [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are potentially toxic to pigs. Yeast cell wall extract (YCWE) is known to adsorb mycotoxins and improve gut health in pigs. One hundred and twenty growing (56 kg; experiment 1) and 48 nursery piglets (6 kg; experiment 2) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design for 35 and 48 days, respectively. Factors were mycotoxins (no addition versus experiment 1: 180 μg/kg aflatoxins and 14 mg/kg fumonisins; or experiment 2: 180 μg/kg aflatoxins and 9 mg/kg fumonisins, and 1 mg/kg deoxynivalenol) and YCWE (0% versus 0.2%). Growth performance, blood, gut health and microbiome, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) data were evaluated. In experiment 1, mycotoxins reduced ADG and G:F, and duodenal IgG, whereas in jejunum, YCWE increased IgG and reduced villus width. In experiment 2, mycotoxins reduced BW, ADG, and ADFI. Mycotoxins reduced ADG, which was recovered by YCWE. Mycotoxins reduced the AID of nutrients evaluated and increased protein carbonyl, whereas mycotoxins and YCWE increased the AID of the nutrients and reduced protein carbonyl. Mycotoxins reduced villus height, proportion of Ki-67-positive cells, and increased IgA and the proportion of bacteria with mycotoxin-degrading ability, whereas YCWE tended to increase villus height and reduced IgA and the proportion of pathogenic bacteria in jejunum. The YCWE effects were more evident in promoting gut health and growth in nursery pigs, which showed higher susceptibility to mycotoxin effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Calcination Enhances the Aflatoxin and Zearalenone Binding Efficiency of a Tunisian Clay
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100602 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
Clays are known to have promising adsorbing characteristics, and are used as feed additives to overcome the negative effects of mycotoxicosis in livestock farming. Modification of clay minerals by heat treatment, also called calcination, can alter their adsorption characteristics. Little information, however, is [...] Read more.
Clays are known to have promising adsorbing characteristics, and are used as feed additives to overcome the negative effects of mycotoxicosis in livestock farming. Modification of clay minerals by heat treatment, also called calcination, can alter their adsorption characteristics. Little information, however, is available on the effect of calcination with respect to mycotoxin binding. The purpose of this study was to characterize a Tunisian clay before and after calcination (at 550 °C), and to investigate the effectiveness of the thermal treatment of this clay on its aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), G1 (AFG1), B2 (AFB2), G2 (AFG2), and zearalenone (ZEN) adsorption capacity. Firstly, the purified clay (CP) and calcined clay (CC) were characterized with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-IR), cation exchange capacity (CEC), specific surface area (SBET), and point of zero charge (pHPZC) measurements. Secondly, an in vitro model that simulated the pH conditions of the monogastric gastrointestinal tract was used to evaluate the binding efficiency of the tested clays when artificially mixed with aflatoxins and zearalenone. The tested clay consisted mainly of smectite and illite. Purified and calcined clay had similar chemical compositions. After heat treatment, however, some changes in the mineralogical and textural properties were observed. The calcination decreased the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface, whereas the pore size was increased. Both purified and calcined clay had a binding efficacy of over 90% for AFB1 under simulated poultry GI tract conditions. Heat treatment of the clay increased the adsorption of AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 related to the increase in pore size of the clay by the calcination process. ZEN adsorption also increased by calcination, albeit to a more stable level at pH 3 rather than at pH 7. In conclusion, calcination of clay minerals enhanced the adsorption of aflatoxins and mostly of AFG1 and AFG2 at neutral pH of the gastrointestinal tract, and thus are associated with protection against the toxic effects of aflatoxins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Aspergillus carbonarius Isolates
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100579 - 05 Oct 2019
Abstract
Aspergillus carbonarius is a saprobic filamentous fungus, food spoiling fungus and a producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of neem oil (0.12% p/p of azadirachtin) was evaluated against the growth of six strains of A. [...] Read more.
Aspergillus carbonarius is a saprobic filamentous fungus, food spoiling fungus and a producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of neem oil (0.12% p/p of azadirachtin) was evaluated against the growth of six strains of A. carbonarius and the production of OTA. Four different concentrations of neem oil were tested in addition to three incubation times. Only the concentration of 0.3% of neem oil inhibited more than 95% of the strain’s growth (97.6% ± 0.5%), while the use of 0.5% and 1.0% of neem oil showed lower antifungal activity, 40.2% ± 3.1 and 64.7% ± 1.1, respectively. There was a complete inhibition of OTA production with 0.1% and 0.3% neem oil in the four strains isolated in the laboratory from grapes. The present study shows that neem essential oil can be further evaluated as an auxiliary method for the reduction of mycelial growth and OTA production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Naturally Contaminated Substrates on Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens: Uptake and Excretion of Mycotoxins
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080476 - 18 Aug 2019
Abstract
Insects are considered a suitable alternative feed for livestock production and their use is nowadays regulated in the European Union by the European Commission Regulation No. 893/2017. Insects have the ability to grow on a different spectrum of substrates, which could be naturally [...] Read more.
Insects are considered a suitable alternative feed for livestock production and their use is nowadays regulated in the European Union by the European Commission Regulation No. 893/2017. Insects have the ability to grow on a different spectrum of substrates, which could be naturally contaminated by mycotoxins. In the present work, the mycotoxin uptake and/or excretion in two different insect species, Alphitobius diaperinus (Lesser Mealworm, LM) and Hermetia illucens (Black Soldier Fly, BSF), grown on naturally contaminated substrates, was evaluated. Among all the substrates of growth tested, the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin 1 and 2 (FB1 and FB2) and zearalenone (ZEN) were found in those based on wheat and/or corn. No mycotoxins were detected in BSF larvae, while quantifiable amount of DON and FB1 were found in LM larvae, although in lower concentration than those detected in the growing substrates and in the residual fractions. Mass balance calculations indicated that BSF and LM metabolized mycotoxins in forms not yet known, accumulating them in their body or excreting in the faeces. Further studies are required in this direction due to the future employment of insects as feedstuff. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Target Analysis and Retrospective Screening of Multiple Mycotoxins in Pet Food Using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080434 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 28 mycotoxins and a post-target screening for other 245 fungal and bacterial metabolites in dry pet food samples were developed using an acetonitrile-based extraction and an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap [...] Read more.
A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 28 mycotoxins and a post-target screening for other 245 fungal and bacterial metabolites in dry pet food samples were developed using an acetonitrile-based extraction and an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) method. The proposed method showed satisfactory validation results according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Average recoveries from 72 to 108% were obtained for all studied mycotoxins, and the intra-/inter-day precision were below 9 and 14%, respectively. Results showed mycotoxin contamination in 99% of pet food samples (n = 89) at concentrations of up to hundreds µg/kg, with emerging Fusarium mycotoxins being the most commonly detected mycotoxins. All positive samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins with the simultaneous presence of up to 16 analytes per sample. In the retrospective screening, up to 54 fungal metabolites were tentatively identified being cyclopiazonic acid, paspalitrem A, fusaric acid, and macrosporin, the most commonly detected analytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pig Urinary Concentration of Mycotoxins and Metabolites Reflects Regional Differences, Mycotoxin Intake and Feed Contaminations
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11070378 - 30 Jun 2019
Abstract
The determination of mycotoxin and metabolite concentrations in human and animal urine is currently used for risk assessment and mycotoxin intake measurement. In this study, pig urine (n = 195) was collected at slaughterhouses in 2012 by the Swedish National Food Agency [...] Read more.
The determination of mycotoxin and metabolite concentrations in human and animal urine is currently used for risk assessment and mycotoxin intake measurement. In this study, pig urine (n = 195) was collected at slaughterhouses in 2012 by the Swedish National Food Agency in three counties representing East, South and West regions of Sweden. Urinary concentrations of four mycotoxins, (deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and ochratoxin A (OTA)), and four key metabolites, (deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, biomarker of AFB1), α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL)) were identified and measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Statistically significant regional differences were detected for both total DON (DON + DOM-1) and total ZEA (ZEA + α-ZOL + β-ZOL) concentrations in pig urine from the three regions. These regional differences were in good agreement with the occurrence of Fusarium graminearum mycotoxins (DON + ZEA) in cereal grains harvested in 2011 in Sweden. There were no statistically significant differences in FB1, AFM1 and OTA urinary concentrations in pigs from the three regions. The overall incidence of positive samples was high for total ZEA (99–100%), total DON (96–100%) and OTA (85–95%), medium for FB1 (30–61%) and low for AFM1 (0–13%) in the three regions. Urinary mycotoxin biomarker concentrations were used to estimate mycotoxin intake and the level of mycotoxins in feeds consumed by the monitored pigs. The back-calculated levels of mycotoxins in feeds were low with the exception of seven samples that were higher the European limits. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Decontamination of Mycotoxin-Contaminated Feedstuffs and Compound Feed
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110617 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
Mycotoxins are known worldwide as fungus-produced toxins that adulterate a wide heterogeneity of raw feed ingredients and final products. Consumption of mycotoxins-contaminated feed causes a plethora of harmful responses from acute toxicity to many persistent health disorders with lethal outcomes; such as mycotoxicosis [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are known worldwide as fungus-produced toxins that adulterate a wide heterogeneity of raw feed ingredients and final products. Consumption of mycotoxins-contaminated feed causes a plethora of harmful responses from acute toxicity to many persistent health disorders with lethal outcomes; such as mycotoxicosis when ingested by animals. Therefore, the main task for feed producers is to minimize the concentration of mycotoxin by applying different strategies aimed at minimizing the risk of mycotoxin effects on animals and human health. Once mycotoxins enter the production chain it is hard to eliminate or inactivate them. This paper examines the most recent findings on different processes and strategies for the reduction of toxicity of mycotoxins in animals. The review gives detailed information about the decontamination approaches to mitigate mycotoxin contamination of feedstuffs and compound feed, which could be implemented in practice. Full article
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