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Special Issue "Selected papers from 1st China Mycotoxin Conference: Current trends in mycotoxin prevention and control"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yang Liu

Deptartment of Food Safety & Quality Control, Institute of Food Science & Technology Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Antonio Logrieco

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, ISPA-CNR, Via G. Amendola, 122/O, I-70126 Bari, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mycology; phytotoxins and mycotoxins, plant pathology, fungal genetic and fermentation technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins contamination in agro-products has been of great concern globally during the last few decades. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi when they infect the agro-products. Most common mycotoxin producing fungi seen are the species of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, and the toxins produced by them are aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, and zearalenone. Globally, several international organizations and countries have set several standard limits on mycotoxin contamination in agro products to prevent it from entering the food chain. In the recent years, several prevention and control measures have been taken in the pre- and post-harvest process to ensure food security, food safety, and to safeguard national economic interests. Fungal genomics play a new role in understanding the pathway of mycotoxins in the early warning and prevention of mycotoxins during pre- and post-harvest times. Advanced technologies have been developed for the rapid detection of mycotoxins in agro-products. Detoxification of mycotoxins has gained a great deal of attention in removing different mycotoxins from food and feed.

 

The aim of this Special Issue is to address a wide range of issues concerning mycotoxins, strongly orientation towards integrated strategies for mycotoxin minimization and including pre- and post-harvest control, plant genetic resistance, biodiversity and genomics of toxigenic fungi natural occurrence, toxicology, and analytical methods. We welcome both research or review articles proposing novelties or overviews, respectively, on these topics.

Prof. Dr. Yang Liu
Prof. Dr. Antonio Logrieco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • fungi
  • detection
  • detoxification
  • pre and post-harvest
  • genomics
  • occurrence

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
An On-Site, Ultra-Sensitive, Quantitative Sensing Method for the Determination of Total Aflatoxin in Peanut and Rice Based on Quantum Dot Nanobeads Strip
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing method was developed based on quantum dot nanobeads (QDNBs) and a test strip for the determination of total aflatoxins (AFTs) in rice and peanuts. The monoclonal antibody against AFT (mAbAFT) was homemade and labeled with [...] Read more.
An on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing method was developed based on quantum dot nanobeads (QDNBs) and a test strip for the determination of total aflatoxins (AFTs) in rice and peanuts. The monoclonal antibody against AFT (mAbAFT) was homemade and labeled with QDNB. After the pre-coating of the AFT antigen on the test line (T line), the competitive immunoreactions were conducted between AFT and AFT antigen on the T line with QDNBs-mAbAFT. Under optimal conditions, this approach allowed a rapid response towards AFT with a considerable sensitivity of 1.4 pg/mL and 2.9 pg/mL in rice and peanut matrices, respectively. The put-in and put-out durations were within 10 min. The recoveries for AFT in rice and peanut sample matrices were recorded from 86.25% to 118.0%, with relative deviations (RSD) below 12%. The assay was further validated via the comparison between this QDNB strip and the conventional HPLC method using spiked samples. Thus, the design provided a potential alternative for on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing of AFT that could also be expanded to other chemical contaminants for food safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Preparation and Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody against Citrinin and the Development of Detection via Indirect Competitive ELISA
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Citrinin (CTN) is a hepato-nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by fungi genera of Aspergillus, Monauscus, and Penicillium. CTN contaminates grains, fruits, juices and vegetables, and causes various toxic effects to humans and animals. It has small molecular weight, which is non-immunogenic to animals. [...] Read more.
Citrinin (CTN) is a hepato-nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by fungi genera of Aspergillus, Monauscus, and Penicillium. CTN contaminates grains, fruits, juices and vegetables, and causes various toxic effects to humans and animals. It has small molecular weight, which is non-immunogenic to animals. Thus, CTN was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA), respectively, by amide bonds using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Mice were immunized with CTN-BSA conjugates, and spleen cells of the immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells to obtain 21H27 hybriodoma cell. Ascitic fluid of hybridoma cell was produced in mice abdomen, and purified using caprylic/ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The 21H27 anti-CTN mcAb was the IgG2a antibody subclass, and cross-reactivity results indicated that anti-CTN mcAb is specific to CTN with high affinity (2.0 × 108 L/mol). Indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) results showed that the linear range of detection was 0.01–5.96 ng/mL and the IC50 was 0.28 ng/mL with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.01 ng/mL. The average recovery was 93.8% ± 1.6% with a coefficient variation of 1.0%–4.3%. Hence, anti-CTN mcAb secreted by 21H27 hybridoma cell was successfully produced and can be used to detect CTN contaminated feed and foodstuffs. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA) was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen)32+-doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs) were sprayed on [...] Read more.
A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA) was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen) 3 2 + -doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs) were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Zearalenone and Ochratoxin A in Naturally Contaminated Corn and Corn Quality Parameters
Received: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are secondary toxic metabolites widely present in grains and grain products. In this study, the effects of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on ZEN and OTA in corn and the quality of irradiated corn were investigated. Results indicated [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are secondary toxic metabolites widely present in grains and grain products. In this study, the effects of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on ZEN and OTA in corn and the quality of irradiated corn were investigated. Results indicated that EBI significantly affected ZEN and OTA. The degradation rates of ZEN and OTA at 10 kGy in solution were 65.6% and 75.2%, respectively. The initial amounts significantly affected the degradation rate. ZEN and OTA in corn were decreased by the irradiation dose, and their degradation rates at 50 kGy were 71.1% and 67.9%, respectively. ZEN and OTA were more easily degraded in corn kernel than in corn flour. Moisture content (MC) played a vital role in ZEN and OTA degradation. High MC was attributed to high ZEN and OTA degradation. The quality of irradiated corn was evaluated on the basis of irradiation dose. L* value changed, but this change was not significant (p > 0.05). By contrast, a* and b* decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with irradiation dose. The fatty acid value increased significantly. The pasting properties, including peak, trough, breakdown, and final and setback viscosities, were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) by irradiation. Our study verified that EBI could effectively degrade ZEN and OTA in corn. Irradiation could also affect corn quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Colloidal Gold‐Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Rapid Qualitative and SemiQuantitative Analysis of Ustiloxins A and B in Rice Samples
Received: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rice false smut is a worldwide devastating rice disease infected by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. Ustiloxin A (UA) and ustiloxin B (UB), cyclopeptide mycotoxins, were the major ustiloxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) that formed in the pathogen‐infected rice [...] Read more.
Rice false smut is a worldwide devastating rice disease infected by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. Ustiloxin A (UA) and ustiloxin B (UB), cyclopeptide mycotoxins, were the major ustiloxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) that formed in the pathogen‐infected rice spikelets. Based on the specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 2D3G5 and 1B5A10, respectively, against UA and UB, the lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) were developed, and the indicator ranges for UA and UB both were 50-100 ng/mL. The cross‐reactivities of UB for UA LFIA, and UA for UB LFIA were 5% and 20%, respectively, which were consistent with the icELISA results reported previously. Even at 50,000 ng/mL, none of other commonly existent metabolites in rice samples caused noticeable inhibition. The LFIAs were used for determination of UA and UB contents in rice FSBs and rice grains, and the results were agreeable with those by HPLC and icELISA. There was no change in the sensitivity of either dipstick stored at 4 °C) after at least three months. The developed LFIA has specificity and sensitivity for detecting UA and UB as well as simplicity to use. It will be a potential point‐of‐care device for rapid evaluation of the rice samples contaminated by UA and UB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Penicillium citrinum Cultured with Different Carbon Sources Identifies Genes Involved in Citrinin Biosynthesis
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Citrinin is a toxic secondary metabolite of Penicillium citrinum and its contamination in many food items has been widely reported. However, research on the citrinin biosynthesis pathway and its regulation mechanism in P. citrinum is rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the [...] Read more.
Citrinin is a toxic secondary metabolite of Penicillium citrinum and its contamination in many food items has been widely reported. However, research on the citrinin biosynthesis pathway and its regulation mechanism in P. citrinum is rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of different carbon sources on citrinin production by P. citrinum and used transcriptome analysis to study the underlying molecular mechanism. Our results indicated that glucose, used as the sole carbon source, could significantly promote citrinin production by P. citrinum in Czapek’s broth medium compared with sucrose. A total of 19,967 unigenes were annotated by BLAST in Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Transcriptome comparison between P. citrinum cultured with sucrose and glucose revealed 1085 differentially expressed unigenes. Among them, 610 were upregulated while 475 were downregulated under glucose as compared to sucrose. KEGG pathway and Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that many metabolic processes (e.g., carbohydrate, secondary metabolism, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism) were affected, and potentially interesting genes that encoded putative components of signal transduction, stress response and transcription factor were identified. These genes obviously had important impacts on their regulation in citrinin biosynthesis, which provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of citrinin biosynthesis by P. citrinum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization for the Production of Deoxynivalenoland Zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum UsingResponse Surface Methodology
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are the most common contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects on animals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins. Here, we have used response surface [...] Read more.
Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are the most common contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects on animals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins. Here, we have used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Fusarium graminearum strain 29 culture conditions for maximal toxin production. Three factors, medium pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimized conditions for DON production were pH 4.91 and an incubation temperature of 23.75 °C for 28 days, while maximal ZEN production required pH 9.00 and an incubation temperature of 15.05 °C for 28 days. The maximum levels of DON and ZEN production were 2811.17 ng/mL and 23789.70 ng/mL, respectively. Considering the total level of DON and ZEN, desirable yields of the mycotoxins were still obtained with medium pH of 6.86, an incubation temperature of 17.76 °C and a time of 28 days. The corresponding experimental values, from the validation experiments, fitted well with these predictions. This suggests that RSM could be used to optimize Fusarium mycotoxin levels, which are further purified for use as potential mycotoxin standards. Furthermore, it shows that acidic pH is a determinant for DON production, while an alkaline environment and lower temperature (approximately 15 °C) are favorable for ZEN accumulation. After extraction, separation and purification processes, the isolated mycotoxins were obtained through a simple purification process, with desirable yields, and acceptable purity. The mycotoxins could be used as potential analytical standards or chemical reagents for routine analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biodegradation Mechanisms of Patulin in Candida guilliermondii: An iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis
Received: 27 November 2016 / Revised: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Patulin, a potent mycotoxin, contaminates fruits and derived products worldwide, and is a serious health concern. Several yeast strains have shown the ability to effectively degrade patulin. However, the mechanisms of its biodegradation still remain unclear at this time. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Patulin, a potent mycotoxin, contaminates fruits and derived products worldwide, and is a serious health concern. Several yeast strains have shown the ability to effectively degrade patulin. However, the mechanisms of its biodegradation still remain unclear at this time. In the present study, biodegradation and involved mechanisms of patulin by an antagonistic yeast Candida guilliermondii were investigated. The results indicated that C. guilliermondii was capable of not only multiplying to a high population in medium containing patulin, but also effectively reducing patulin content in culture medium. Degradation of patulin by C. guilliermondii was dependent on the yeast cell viability, and mainly occurred inside cells. E-ascladiol was the main degradation product of patulin. An iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed that the responses of C. guilliermondii to patulin were complex. A total of 30 differential proteins involved in 10 biological processes were identified, and more than two-thirds of the differential proteins were down-accumulated. Notably, a short-chain dehydrogenase (gi|190348612) was markedly induced by patulin at both the protein and mRNA levels. Our findings will provide a foundation to help enable the commercial development of an enzyme formulation for the detoxification of patulin in fruit-derived products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase activities. [...] Read more.
Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase activities. Several Fusarium species can produce ENNs, BEA or both, but the mechanism(s) enabling these differential metabolic profiles is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing esyn1 transcripts from different Fusarium species. We measured ENNs and BEA production by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and Acquity QDa mass detector (UPLC-PDA-QDa) analyses. We predicted protein structures, compared the predictions by multivariate analysis methods and found a striking correlation between BEA/ENN-producing profiles and ESYN1 three-dimensional structures. Structural differences in the β strand’s Asn789-Ala793 and His797-Asp802 portions of the amino acid adenylation domain can be used to distinguish BEA/ENN-producing Fusarium isolates from those that produce only ENN. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of FvSet1 in Fumonisin B1 Biosynthesis, Vegetative Growth, Fungal Virulence, and Environmental Stress Responses in Fusarium verticillioides
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph, Gibberella moniliformis) is an important plant pathogen that causes seedling blight, stalk rot, and ear rot in maize (Zea mays). During infection, F. verticillioides produce fumonsins B1 (FB1) that pose a serious threat to human and animal [...] Read more.
Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph, Gibberella moniliformis) is an important plant pathogen that causes seedling blight, stalk rot, and ear rot in maize (Zea mays). During infection, F. verticillioides produce fumonsins B1 (FB1) that pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Recent studies showed that Set1, a methyltransferase of H3K4, was responsible for toxin biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. However, to date, the regulation of FvSet1 on FB1 biosynthesis remains unclear. In the current study, we identified only one Set1 ortholog in F. verticillioides (FvSet1) and found that the deletion of FvSET1 led to various defects in fungal growth and pathogenicity. More interestingly, the FvSET1 deletion mutant (ΔFvSet1) showed a significant defect in FB1 biosynthesis and lower expression levels of FUM genes. FvSet1 was also found to play an important role in the responses of F. verticillioides to multiple environmental stresses via regulating the phosphorylation of FvMgv1 and FvHog1. Taken together, these results indicate that FvSet1 plays essential roles in the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, fungal growth and virulence, as well as various stress responses in F. verticillioides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Antagonistic Effect of Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Metabolic Profiling in Serum and Liver of Mice
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg [...] Read more.
Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, and the combined DON + ZEN with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON and 20 mg/kg ZEN for 21 days, were deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL. The data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with variable importance for the projection (VIP) > 1, t-test p value < 0.05. The metabolic pathway analysis was performed with MetaMapp and drawn by CytoScape. Results show that the combined DON and ZEN treatment has an obvious “antagonistic effect” in serum and liver tissue metabolic profiling of mice. The blood biochemical indexes, like alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and albumin (ALB)/globulin (GLO), reveal a moderated trend in the combined DON + ZEN treatment group, which is consistent with histopathological examination. The metabolic pathway analysis demonstrated that the combined DON and ZEN treatment could down-regulate the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and O-glycosyl compounds related glucose metabolism in liver tissue. The metabolic profiling in serum confirmed the finding that the combined DON and ZEN treatment has an “antagonistic effect” on liver metabolism of mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8100277
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 24 September 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening [...] Read more.
Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON). Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10) and temperatures (20–37 °C) values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Contents of Ustiloxins A and B along with Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins isolated from rice false smut balls (FSBs), the ball-like colonies transformed from the individual grains through the filament infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. There were no obvious relations between ustiloxin content and any of the collection [...] Read more.
Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins isolated from rice false smut balls (FSBs), the ball-like colonies transformed from the individual grains through the filament infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. There were no obvious relations between ustiloxin content and any of the collection areas, collection times, or average weight of each FSB. The rice false smut balls at early, middle, and late maturity stages were respectively divided into different parts (glume, chlamydospores, mycelia, and pseudoparenchyma). The highest content of ustiloxins A and B of rice FSBs was found at the early maturity stage. Both ustiloxins A and B were mainly distributed in the middle layer containing mycelia and immature chlamydospores of the FSBs. When the rice FSBs were at the early maturity stage, the total yield of ustiloxins A and B in the middle layer of each ball was 48.3 µg, which was 3.20-fold of the yield (15.1 µg) of the inner part of the ball. The rice FSBs at the early maturity stage are the appropriate materials for the production of ustiloxins A and B. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
A Review: Epigenetic Mechanism in Ochratoxin A Toxicity Studies
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant that has displayed nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mammals. It contaminates a great variety of foodstuffs and threatens people’s lives. The molecular mechanism of OTA-induced toxicity has been studied since 1965. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms are also studied [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant that has displayed nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mammals. It contaminates a great variety of foodstuffs and threatens people’s lives. The molecular mechanism of OTA-induced toxicity has been studied since 1965. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms are also studied in OTA-induced toxicity. Additionally, the mode of OTA epigenetic research has been advanced in research hotspots. However, there is still no epigenetic study of OTA-induced toxicity. In this review, we discuss the relationship between these epigenetic mechanisms and OTA-induced toxicity. We found that studies on the epigenetic mechanisms of OTA-induced toxicity all chose the whole kidney or liver as the model, which cannot reveal the real change in DNA methylation or miRNAs or histone in the target sites of OTA. Our recommendations are as follows: (1) the specific target site of OTA should be detected by advanced technologies; and (2) competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) should be explored with OTA. Full article
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Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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