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Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Penicillium citrinum Cultured with Different Carbon Sources Identifies Genes Involved in Citrinin Biosynthesis

Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
Zhong Shan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Zhongshan 528403, China
Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
College of life science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
Department of Food Engineering, College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600, China
Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Logrieco and Yang Liu
Toxins 2017, 9(2), 69;
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
PDF [1670 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]


Citrinin is a toxic secondary metabolite of Penicillium citrinum and its contamination in many food items has been widely reported. However, research on the citrinin biosynthesis pathway and its regulation mechanism in P. citrinum is rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of different carbon sources on citrinin production by P. citrinum and used transcriptome analysis to study the underlying molecular mechanism. Our results indicated that glucose, used as the sole carbon source, could significantly promote citrinin production by P. citrinum in Czapek’s broth medium compared with sucrose. A total of 19,967 unigenes were annotated by BLAST in Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Transcriptome comparison between P. citrinum cultured with sucrose and glucose revealed 1085 differentially expressed unigenes. Among them, 610 were upregulated while 475 were downregulated under glucose as compared to sucrose. KEGG pathway and Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that many metabolic processes (e.g., carbohydrate, secondary metabolism, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism) were affected, and potentially interesting genes that encoded putative components of signal transduction, stress response and transcription factor were identified. These genes obviously had important impacts on their regulation in citrinin biosynthesis, which provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of citrinin biosynthesis by P. citrinum. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrinin; glucose; Penicillium citrinum; polyketide biosynthesis; sucrose citrinin; glucose; Penicillium citrinum; polyketide biosynthesis; sucrose

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, T.; Jiang, G.; Qu, H.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Jian, Q.; Wu, Y.; Duan, X.; Zhu, X.; Hu, W.; Wang, J.; Gong, L.; Jiang, Y. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Penicillium citrinum Cultured with Different Carbon Sources Identifies Genes Involved in Citrinin Biosynthesis. Toxins 2017, 9, 69.

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