Special Issue "Mycotoxins Study: Toxicology, Identification and Control"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Cristina Juan García
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, E-46100 Valencia, Spain
Interests: The determination of mycotoxins in food, their daily intake, and toxicity are the basis to assess the risk associated with contaminated food and to contribute protecting consumers´ health. Professor Dr. Cristina Juan García main research interest lies in the analysis of mycotoxins in food and feed, through effective extraction and sensitive determination methods to help and contribute to the risk assessment of such contaminants, with a focus on human health. She is also interested in researching factors that influence the intestinal bioavailability and methods to decrease mycotoxins effects through natural compounds or decontaminating procedures. She is also interested in studying the application of new advanced techniques that provide knowledge or help to evaluate the risk assessment of mycotoxins through different matrices.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The evaluation of the presence of mycotoxins in different matrices is achieved through different analytical tools (including quantitative or qualitative determinations). Studies of mycotoxins used QuEChERS, solid–liquid, liquid–liquid, and solid-phase extraction or inmunoaffinity colums for micotoxins isolation, in combination with chromatographyc equipments (GC or LC) coupled to spectrometry detectors (QTrap-MS/MS, MS/MS tandem, QTOF-MS/MS). All these studies represent key steps in the establishment of the limits of detection, limits of quantification, points of identification, accuracy, reproducibility, and/or repeatability of different procedures. The maximum permitted or recommended levels for mycotoxins in different matrices are comprised within a wide range (including the levels tolerated by infants and animals). In addition, the climatic changes influence the growth of fungi in different matrices, therefore, their control and evaluation are demanded by authorities and safety food systems.

These authorities are concerned not only with the determination of mycotoxins presence but also with the toxicological effects of mycotoxins, and in vivo or in vitro assays are necessary for a complete evaluation. In fact, these assays are the basis for the control and prevention of population exposure to mycotoxins in dietary exposure studies. The last surveys focused on regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes) and emerging toxins such as enniatins and beauvericin in adult consumers, while very few studies have monitored mycotoxins levels in infant products.

The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to gather the most recent reports on the toxicological effects of single or combined mycotoxins (genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, or metabolomics effects), the identification of known and unknown mycotoxins, masked mycotoxins, and biometabolized mycotoxins in different matrices (including food, feed, and biological samples), and the development of analytical skills to control their presence. Research papers and review articles describing novelties or overviews, respectively, are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Cristina Juan García
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • in vivo
  • in vitro
  • metabolomics
  • food safety
  • mycotoxin analysis
  • genotoxicity
  • neurotoxicity

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Efficient and Simultaneous Chitosan-Mediated Removal of 11 Mycotoxins from Palm Kernel Cake
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020115 (registering DOI) - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
Mycotoxins are an important class of pollutants that are toxic and hazardous to animal and human health. Consequently, various methods have been explored to abate their effects, among which adsorbent has found prominent application. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has recently been [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are an important class of pollutants that are toxic and hazardous to animal and human health. Consequently, various methods have been explored to abate their effects, among which adsorbent has found prominent application. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has recently been applied for the concurrent evaluation of multiple mycotoxins. This study investigated the optimization of the simultaneous removal of mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using chitosan. The removal of 11 mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) and trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2 and T-2 toxin) from palm kernel cake (PKC) was studied. The effects of operating parameters such as pH (3–6), temperature (30–50 °C) and time (4–8 h) on the removal of the mycotoxins were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Response surface models obtained with R2 values ranging from 0.89–0.98 fitted well with the experimental data, except for the trichothecenes. The optimum point was obtained at pH 4, 8 h and 35 °C. The maximum removal achieved with chitosan for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, ZEA, FB1 and FB2 under the optimized conditions were 94.35, 45.90, 82.11, 84.29, 90.03, 51.30, 90.53 and 90.18%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Study: Toxicology, Identification and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Patulin Mycotoxin in Mango and Orange Fruits, Juices, Pulps, and Jams Marketed in Pakistan
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010052 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
The objective of the study was to explore the incidence of patulin (PAT) mycotoxin in mango and orange fruits and derived products marketed in Pakistan. A total of 274 samples, including 70 mango fruits, 63 mango-based products (juices, pulp, and jam), 77 orange [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to explore the incidence of patulin (PAT) mycotoxin in mango and orange fruits and derived products marketed in Pakistan. A total of 274 samples, including 70 mango fruits, 63 mango-based products (juices, pulp, and jam), 77 orange fruits, and 64 orange-based products, were collected. PAT was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis detector (276 nm). Linear detector response was observed (R2 > 0.99), the limit of detection (LOD) was 5 µg/kg and recovery percentage was 97.4%. The incidence of PAT in mango samples was 61.7%, and the concentration ranged from <LOD to 6415 µg/kg with a mean of 110.9 µg/kg. Our results showed the high susceptibility of mango fruits to patulin, and it was observed that decayed mango fruits were most contaminated with PAT. Among the mango samples, PAT concentration was higher in fruits than in processed products such as mango juice, pulp, and jam. Toxin incidence in orange samples was 52.5% with concentrations from <LOD to 61 µg/kg and a mean of 6.3 µg/kg. As much as 29 samples of mango (21.8%) contained PAT concentration above the regulatory limit (50 µg/kg), whereas there was only one exceeding orange sample (0.7%). Our results show that PAT seems to be a problem in fruits, juices, and derived solid products, especially from mango, and needs surveillance on regular basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Study: Toxicology, Identification and Control)
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