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Open AccessArticle

Efficient and Simultaneous Chitosan-Mediated Removal of 11 Mycotoxins from Palm Kernel Cake

1
Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Science, University of Malaya, 50603 UM Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Science, Government College University Faisalabad, 38000 Punjab, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020115 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Study: Toxicology, Identification and Control)
Mycotoxins are an important class of pollutants that are toxic and hazardous to animal and human health. Consequently, various methods have been explored to abate their effects, among which adsorbent has found prominent application. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has recently been applied for the concurrent evaluation of multiple mycotoxins. This study investigated the optimization of the simultaneous removal of mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using chitosan. The removal of 11 mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) and trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2 and T-2 toxin) from palm kernel cake (PKC) was studied. The effects of operating parameters such as pH (3–6), temperature (30–50 °C) and time (4–8 h) on the removal of the mycotoxins were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Response surface models obtained with R2 values ranging from 0.89–0.98 fitted well with the experimental data, except for the trichothecenes. The optimum point was obtained at pH 4, 8 h and 35 °C. The maximum removal achieved with chitosan for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, ZEA, FB1 and FB2 under the optimized conditions were 94.35, 45.90, 82.11, 84.29, 90.03, 51.30, 90.53 and 90.18%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; mycotoxins; detoxification; LC-MS/MS; optimization chitosan; mycotoxins; detoxification; LC-MS/MS; optimization
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Abbasi Pirouz, A.; Selamat, J.; Zafar Iqbal, S.; Iskandar Putra Samsudin, N. Efficient and Simultaneous Chitosan-Mediated Removal of 11 Mycotoxins from Palm Kernel Cake. Toxins 2020, 12, 115.

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