Integrated Effects of Air Pollutions and Climate Change on Human Health

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Toxicology and Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 12121

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Climate, Air Quality Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
Interests: air pollution; climate change; environmental epidemiology; exposure and health risk assessment; extreme weather influenced health effects; birth outcomes; children’s respiratory health; perinatal health; planetary health; sustainable development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Interests: environmental epidemiology; biostatistics; global environmental change; air pollution; climate change; residential environment; remote sensing modelling; infectious disease modelling

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Guest Editor
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: environmental epidemiology and statistics; satellite-based prediction of air quality; health risk assessment; ambient temperature and health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As humans interact with the environment consistently, a clean environment is essential for human health and well-being. Nowadays, the adverse health effects of various environmental factors, including environmental pollution and climate change, are increasingly of global concern. The complex associations between environmental exposures and various health outcomes and their biological mechanisms are far from clear. Research in multiple fields is urgently needed to help understand the effects of exposure to environmental hazards on people’s health. These studies will provide support for new policies addressing the impact of the environment on health.

The subject areas of this special issue include, but are not limited to:

epidemiological studies on air pollution and climate change and health,

epidemiological studies on the effects of elements in the living environment (e.g., residential greenness, night light, etc.) on health,

new methods for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment,

studies on the health burden of air pollution and climate change.

Dr. Shanshan Li
Prof. Dr. Yuming Guo
Dr. Gongbo Chen
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Climate change
  • Public health
  • Environmental exposure
  • Epidemiology
  • Biostatistics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
Healthier Lifestyles Attenuated Association of Single or Mixture Exposure to Air Pollutants with Cardiometabolic Risk in Rural Chinese Adults
by Xueyan Wu, Xiaotian Liu, Wei Liao, Xiaokang Dong, Ruiying Li, Jian Hou, Zhenxing Mao, Wenqian Huo, Yuming Guo, Shanshan Li, Gongbo Chen and Chongjian Wang
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090541 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
There is little research on how long-term exposure to independent and multiple air pollutants changes cardiometabolic risk in adults. In addition, previous studies focused on only the effect of one or two lifestyles on cardiometabolic risk. The evidence on the interactive effects of [...] Read more.
There is little research on how long-term exposure to independent and multiple air pollutants changes cardiometabolic risk in adults. In addition, previous studies focused on only the effect of one or two lifestyles on cardiometabolic risk. The evidence on the interactive effects of the lifestyle score and exposure to independent and mixtures of air pollutants on cardiometabolic risk is lacking. A total of 33,638 rural residents were included in the cross-sectional study. The three-year average concentrations of air pollutants for participants were predicted by using a satellite-based prediction. The air pollution score was created to assess the combined exposure of four air pollutants (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2). A gender−age-specific cardiometabolic risk score was calculated. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression and quantile g-computation were used to investigate the associations between air pollutants and cardiometabolic risk. Interaction plots were applied to describe the interactive effects of air pollution and the healthy lifestyle score on cardiometabolic risk. Per interquartile range (IQR) unit increases in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, or NO2 were associated with 0.162 (95% CI: 0.091, 0.233), 0.473 (95% CI: 0.388, 0.559), 0.718 (95% CI: 0.627, 0.810), and 0.795 (95% CI: 0.691, 0.898) unit increases in cardiometabolic risk score (all p < 0.05), respectively. A 0.854 (95% CI: 0.768, 0.940) unit increase in cardiometabolic risk was associated with each IQR increase in air pollution score. Furthermore, the strengths of associations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and the air pollution score on cardiometabolic risk score were attenuated with the healthy lifestyle score increase. In addition, there was no statistical significance after the lifestyle score equal to four scores for the effect of PM1 on the cardiometabolic risk score. In conclusions, individual or joint air pollutants were associated with an increased cardiometabolic risk. Improving the healthy lifestyle may be an effective method to improve cardiometabolic health in highly polluted rural regions. Full article
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12 pages, 839 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Long-Term Ozone Exposure and Allergic Rhinitis and Bronchitic Symptoms in Chinese Children
by Pei-En Zhou, Zhengmin (Min) Qian, Stephen Edward McMillin, Michael G. Vaughn, Zhong-Yue Xie, Yu-Jie Xu, Li-Zi Lin, Li-Wen Hu, Bo-Yi Yang, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Wang-Jian Zhang, Ru-Qing Liu, Gongbo Chen and Guang-Hui Dong
Toxics 2021, 9(9), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9090221 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
Numerous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient ozone (O3) could have adverse effects on children’s respiratory health. However, previous studies mainly focused on asthma and wheezing. Evidence for allergic rhinitis and bronchitic symptoms (e.g., persistent cough and phlegm) associated with [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient ozone (O3) could have adverse effects on children’s respiratory health. However, previous studies mainly focused on asthma and wheezing. Evidence for allergic rhinitis and bronchitic symptoms (e.g., persistent cough and phlegm) associated with O3 is limited, and results from existing studies are inconsistent. This study included a total of 59,754 children from the seven northeastern cities study (SNEC), who were aged 2 to 17 years and from 94 kindergarten, elementary and middle schools. Information on doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis (AR), persistent cough, and persistent phlegm was collected during 2012–2013 using a standardized questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Information for potential confounders was also collected via questionnaire. Individuals’ exposure to ambient ozone (O3) during the four years before the investigation was estimated using a satellite-based random forest model. A higher level of O3 was significantly associated with increased risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms. After controlling for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) were 1.13 (1.07–1.18), 1.10 (1.06–1.16), and 1.12 (1.05–1.20) for AR, persistent cough, and persistent phlegm, respectively, associated with each interquartile range (IQR) rise in O3 concentration. Interaction analyses showed stronger adverse effects of O3 on AR in children aged 7–17 years than those aged 2–6 years, while the adverse association of O3 with cough was more prominent in females and children aged 7–12 years than in males and children aged 2–6 and 13–17 years. This study showed that long-term exposure to ambient O3 was significantly associated with higher risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms in children, and the association varies across age and gender. Our findings contribute additional evidence for the importance of controlling O3 pollution and protecting children from O3 exposure. Full article
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13 pages, 1093 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale Spraying of Roads with Water Contributes to, Rather Than Prevents, Air Pollution
by Fengzhu Tan, Yuming Guo, Wei Zhang, Xingyan Xu, Ming Zhang, Fan Meng, Sicen Liu, Shanshan Li and Lidia Morawska
Toxics 2021, 9(6), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060122 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3406
Abstract
Spraying roads with water on a large scale in Chinese cities is one of the supplementary precaution or mitigation actions implemented to control severe air pollution events or heavy haze-fog events in which the mechanisms causing them are not yet fully understood. These [...] Read more.
Spraying roads with water on a large scale in Chinese cities is one of the supplementary precaution or mitigation actions implemented to control severe air pollution events or heavy haze-fog events in which the mechanisms causing them are not yet fully understood. These air pollution events were usually characterized by higher air humidity. Therefore, there may be a link between this action and air pollution. In the present study, the impact of water spraying on the PM2.5 concentration and humidity in air was assessed by measuring chemical composition of the water, undertaking a simulated water spraying experiment, measuring residues and analyzing relevant data. We discovered that spraying large quantities of tap or river water on the roads leads to increased PM2.5 concentration and humidity, and that daily continuous spraying produces a cumulative effect on air pollution. Spraying the same amount of water produces greater increases in humidity and PM2.5 concentration during cool autumn and winter than during hot summer. Our results demonstrate that spraying roads with water increases, rather than decreases, the concentration of PM2.5 and thus is a new source of anthropogenic aerosol and air pollution. The higher vapor content and resultant humidity most likely create unfavorable meteorological conditions for the dispersion of air pollution in autumn and winter with low temperature. Full article
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12 pages, 1639 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Increased Emergency Room Visits for Skin Diseases in Beijing, China
by Wanzhou Wang, Wenlou Zhang, Jingjing Zhao, Hongyu Li, Jun Wu, Furong Deng, Qingbian Ma and Xinbiao Guo
Toxics 2021, 9(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050108 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
Skin diseases have become a global concern. This study aims to evaluate the associations between ambient air pollution and emergency room visits for skin diseases under the background of improving air quality in China. Based on 45,094 cases from a general hospital and [...] Read more.
Skin diseases have become a global concern. This study aims to evaluate the associations between ambient air pollution and emergency room visits for skin diseases under the background of improving air quality in China. Based on 45,094 cases from a general hospital and fixed-site monitoring environmental data from 2014–2019 in Beijing, China, this study used generalized additive models with quasi-Poisson regression to estimate the exposure–health associations at lag 0–1 to lag 0–7. PM2.5 and NO2 exposure were associated with increased emergency room visits for total skin diseases (ICD10: L00-L99). Positive associations of PM2.5, PM10, O3 and NO2 with dermatitis/eczema (ICD-10: L20–30), as well as SO2 and NO2 with urticaria (ICD-10: L50) visits were also found. For instance, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with increases of 0.7% (95%CI: 0.2%, 1.2%) in total skin diseases visits at lag 0–5 and 1.1% (95%CI: 0.6%, 1.7%) in dermatitis/eczema visits at lag 0–1, respectively. For PM2.5, PM10 and CO, stronger annual associations were typically observed in the high-pollution (2014) and low-pollution (2018/2019) years. For instance, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 at lag 0–5 was associated with increases of 1.8% (95%CI: 1.0%, 2.6%) and 2.3% (95%CI: 0.4%, 4.3%) in total skin disease visits in 2014 and 2018, respectively. Our study emphasizes the necessity of controlling the potential health hazard of air pollutants on skin, although significant achievements in air quality control have been made in China. Full article
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