Adverse Health Effects Associated with Air Pollution and Climate Change

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 4067

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Interests: environmental epidemiology; biostatistics; air pollution; climate change; machine learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: environmental epidemiology; air pollution; machine learning; health risk assessment
School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
Interests: environmental epidemiology; reproductive health; air pollution; climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The past decades witnessed the unprecedented economic growth and urbanization of the world, with expansion in all sectors of industry, transport and energy generation. As the consequence of rapid economic growth and huge energy consumption, the adverse health effects of air pollution and climate change are of increasing global concern. A body of evidence suggests that exposure to air pollutants and extremte weather events have adverse impacts on human health.  However, many challenges and knowledge gaps are still remain, such as the potential threhold effects of environmental exposure and the interactive effects of air pollutants and extreme weather events.

We are pleased to invite investigators to submit original articles related to health effects of air pollution and climate change, focusing on new technology, important health outcomes, and key biomarkers. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Health effects of air pollution and climate change (e.g., extreme weather conditions and disaster);
  • New technology and method for environmental exposure assessment;
  • The interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on health;
  • Key biomarkers related to health effects of air pollution and climate change.

Dr. Gongbo Chen
Prof. Dr. Chongjian Wang
Dr. Yuewei Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • air pollution
  • climate change
  • health effects
  • extreme weather
  • biomarker
  • environmental exposure

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1564 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 Chemical Components and Depression Outpatient Visits: A Case-Crossover Analysis in Three Chinese Cities
by Zitong Zhuang, Dan Li, Shiyu Zhang, Zhaoyang Hu, Wenfeng Deng and Hualiang Lin
Toxics 2024, 12(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12020136 - 07 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background: The association between specific chemical components of PM2.5 and depression remains largely unknown. Methods: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to evaluate the relationship of PM2.5 and its chemical components, including black carbon [...] Read more.
Background: The association between specific chemical components of PM2.5 and depression remains largely unknown. Methods: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to evaluate the relationship of PM2.5 and its chemical components, including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4+), with the depression incidence. Daily depression outpatients were enrolled from Huizhou, Shenzhen, and Zhaoqing. Results: Among 247,281 outpatients, we found the strongest cumulative effects of PM2.5 and its chemical components with the odd ratios (ORs) of 1.607 (95% CI: 1.321, 1.956) and 1.417 (95% CI: 1.245, 1.612) at the 50th percentile of PM2.5 and OM at lag 21, respectively. Furthermore, the ORs with SO42− and NH4+ at the 75th percentile on the same lag day were 1.418 (95% CI: 1.247, 1.613) and 1.025 (95% CI: 1.009, 1.140). Relatively stronger associations were observed among females and the elderly. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM2.5 and its chemical components might be important risk factors for depression. Reducing PM2.5 emissions, with a particular focus on the major sources of SO42− and OM, might potentially alleviate the burden of depression in South China. Full article
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12 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Causal Relationships between Air Pollutant Exposure and Bone Mineral Density and the Risk of Bone Fractures: Evidence from a Two-Stage Mendelian Randomization Analysis
by Xiao Hu, Yan Zhao, Tian He, Zhao-Xing Gao, Peng Zhang, Yang Fang, Man Ge, Yi-Qing Xu, Hai-Feng Pan and Peng Wang
Toxics 2024, 12(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12010027 - 30 Dec 2023
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Abstract
A number of studies from the literature have suggested that exposure to air pollutants is associated with a declined bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risks of osteoporosis (OP) and bone fractures. This study was performed to systemically assess the genetically causal associations [...] Read more.
A number of studies from the literature have suggested that exposure to air pollutants is associated with a declined bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risks of osteoporosis (OP) and bone fractures. This study was performed to systemically assess the genetically causal associations of air pollutants with site-/age-specific BMD and risk of bone fractures with the implementation of two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) and multivariate Mendelian randomization (MVMR). The TSMR analysis was implemented to infer the causal associations between air pollutants and BMD and the risk of bone fractures, additional MVMR analysis was used to further estimate the direct causal effects between air pollutants and BMD, the occurrence of OP, and bone fractures. The results showed that NOx exposure contributed to lower femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD) (β = −0.71, 95%CI: −1.22, −0.20, p = 0.006) and total body BMD (TB-BMD) (β = −0.55, 95%CI: −0.90, −0.21, p = 0.002). Additionally, exposure to PM10 was found to be associated with a decreased TB-BMD (B β = −0.42, 95%CI: −0.66, −0.18, p = 0.001), further age-specific subgroup analysis demonstrated the causal effect of PM10 exposure on the decreased TB-BMD in a subgroup aged 45 to 60 years (β = −0.70, 95%CI: −1.12, −0.29, p = 0.001). Moreover, the findings of the MVMR analysis implied that there was a direct causal effect between PM10 exposure and the decreased TB-BMD (45 < age < 60), after adjusting for PM2.5 and PM2.5 —10 exposure. Our study provides additional evidence to support the causal associations of higher concentrations of air pollutant exposure with decreased BMD, especially in those populations aged between 45 to 60 years, suggesting that early intervention measures and public policy should be considered to improve public health awareness and promote bone health. Full article
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14 pages, 1599 KiB  
Article
Association of Fine Particulate Matter Constituents with the Predicted 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Evidence from a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study
by Sheng Wang, Ge Zhao, Caiyun Zhang, Ning Kang, Wei Liao, Chongjian Wang and Fuwei Xie
Toxics 2023, 11(10), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11100812 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Little is known concerning the associations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its constituents with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). A total of 31,162 participants enrolled from the Henan Rural Cohort were used to specify associations of PM2.5 and its constituents [...] Read more.
Little is known concerning the associations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its constituents with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). A total of 31,162 participants enrolled from the Henan Rural Cohort were used to specify associations of PM2.5 and its constituents with ASCVD. Hybrid machine learning was utilized to estimate the 3-year average concentration of PM2.5 and its constituents (black carbon [BC], nitrate [NO3], ammonium [NH4+], inorganic sulfate [SO42−], organic matter [OM], and soil particles [SOIL]). Constituent concentration, proportion, and residual models were utilized to examine the associations of PM2.5 constituents with 10-year ASCVD risk and to identify the most hazardous constituent. The isochronous substitution model (ISM) was employed to analyze the substitution effect between PM2.5 constituents. We found that each 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, BC, NH4+, NO3, OM, SO42−, and SOIL was associated with a 3.5%, 49.3%, 19.4%, 10.5%, 21.4%, 14%, and 28.5% higher 10-year ASCVD risk, respectively (all p < 0.05). Comparable results were observed in proportion and residual models. The ISM found that replacing BC with other constituents will generate the greatest health benefits. The results indicated that long-term exposure to PM2.5 and its constituents were associated with increased risks of ASCVD, with BC being the most attributable constituent. Full article
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11 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene and 1-Nitropyrene in Particulate Matter Increases Oxidative Stress in the Human Body
by Sun-Haeng Choi, Bolormaa Ochirpurev, Akira Toriba, Jong-Uk Won and Heon Kim
Toxics 2023, 11(9), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11090797 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been reported to cause oxidative stress in metabolic processes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between exposure to PAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), in the atmosphere and oxidative stress levels in the human body. This [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been reported to cause oxidative stress in metabolic processes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between exposure to PAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), in the atmosphere and oxidative stress levels in the human body. This study included 44 Korean adults who lived in Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Atmospheric BaP and 1-NP concentrations and urinary 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene (6-OHNP), N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene (1-NAAP), and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations were measured. The oxidative stress level was assessed by measuring urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations. Urinary TBARS and 6-OHNP concentrations significantly differed between winter and summer. BaP exposure was significantly associated with urinary 8-OHdG concentrations in summer. However, atmospheric 1-NP did not show a significant correlation with oxidative stress marker concentrations. Urinary 1-NAAP concentration was a significant determinant for urinary 8-OHdG concentration in summer. Oxidative stress in the body increases in proportion to inhalation exposure to BaP, and more 8-OHdG is produced in the body as the amount of 1-NP, which is metabolized to 1-AP or 1-NAAP, increases. Full article
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