Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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18 pages, 30084 KiB  
Article
Zamia magnifica (Zamiaceae, Cycadales): A New Rupicolous Cycad Species from Sierra Norte, Oaxaca, Mexico
Taxonomy 2023, 3(2), 232-249; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy3020017 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5333
Abstract
Zamia magnifica (Zamiaceae), a new species endemic to Sierra Norte, Oaxaca, Mexico, is described. Zamia magnifica is characterized by having a rupicolous habit, pendent leaves bearing leaflets that are densely tomentose and pink to caramel in color when emerging, and broad oblong leaflets [...] Read more.
Zamia magnifica (Zamiaceae), a new species endemic to Sierra Norte, Oaxaca, Mexico, is described. Zamia magnifica is characterized by having a rupicolous habit, pendent leaves bearing leaflets that are densely tomentose and pink to caramel in color when emerging, and broad oblong leaflets that are coriaceous in texture with few non-prominent denticulations and ovulate strobili with short (<4 cm) peduncles. It is compared to Z. furfuracea and Z. meermanii, the Mesoamerican Zamia species to which it shares the closest morphological resemblance. Full article
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17 pages, 2294 KiB  
Article
Description of the Three Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae) with Phylogenetic Implications
Taxonomy 2023, 3(2), 204-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy3020015 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
The family Elateridae, known as click beetles, is a mega-diverse lineage of Coleoptera. Wireworms are the larval stage of click beetles, which are generalist herbivores and which are recognized as economically important pests of crops. To more effectively control and monitor wireworms, it [...] Read more.
The family Elateridae, known as click beetles, is a mega-diverse lineage of Coleoptera. Wireworms are the larval stage of click beetles, which are generalist herbivores and which are recognized as economically important pests of crops. To more effectively control and monitor wireworms, it is crucial to understand the genetics, taxonomy and phylogenetics of Elateridae. Here, we sequenced and characterized three complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from the subfamily Elaterinae using a next-generation sequencing approach. In addition, we provided the annotated mitogenomes of the newly sequenced species, namely Parasilesis musculus (Candèze, 1873), Melanotus cribricollis Candèze, 1860 and Glyphonyx sp., and compared their arrangement with other closely related species. The secondary structures of tRNA genes and rRNA genes were predicted. Combined with the published mitogenomes of elaterid species, we reconstructed the phylogenetic framework for Elateridae under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods using nucleotide and amino acid sequence datasets separately. The results from the Bayesian analysis based on the nucleotide dataset PCGRNA including all 37 mitochondrial genes were congruent with previous studies. Within the monophyletic Elateridae, two main clades were recovered. The first clade included Elaterinae and Melanotus. The second clade consisted of the remaining subfamilies. Physodactylinae and Cardiophorinae formed a sister group. Agrypninae was monophyletic. A subclade comprised Negastriinae and Dendrometrinae. Full article
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21 pages, 1463 KiB  
Article
Acinetobacter nematophilus sp. nov., Alcaligenes nematophilus sp. nov., Enterobacter nematophilus sp. nov., and Kaistia nematophila sp. nov., Isolated from Soil-Borne Nematodes and Proposal for the Elevation of Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, and Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus to the Species Level
Taxonomy 2023, 3(1), 148-168; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy3010012 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
Four bacterial strains, A-IN1T, A-TC2T, E-TC7T, and K-TC2T, isolated from soil-borne nematodes of the species Oscheius tipulae and Acrobeloides bodenheimeri, were found to represent new species of the genera Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter [...] Read more.
Four bacterial strains, A-IN1T, A-TC2T, E-TC7T, and K-TC2T, isolated from soil-borne nematodes of the species Oscheius tipulae and Acrobeloides bodenheimeri, were found to represent new species of the genera Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, and Kaistia, respectively. In this study, we described these new species using a polyphasic taxonomic approach that included whole-genome and whole-proteome phylogenomic reconstructions, core genome sequence comparisons, and phenotypic characterization. Phylogenomic reconstructions using whole-genome and whole-proteome sequences show that A-IN1T is closely related to Acinetobacter guillouiae DSM 590T and to Acinetobacter bereziniae LMG 1003T. The dDDH values between A-IN1T and these latest strains are 25.1 and 39.6%, respectively, which are below the 70% divergence threshold for prokaryotic species delineation. A-TC2T is closely related to Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis DSM 30030T and to Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus DSM 16503T. The dDDH values between A-TC2T and these latest strains are 47.0 and 66.3%, respectively. In addition, the dDDH values between Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis DSM 30030T, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus DSM 16503T, and Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis are always lower than 70%, demonstrating that the three strains represent species within the genus Alcaligenes rather than subspecies within Alcaligenes faecalis. E-TC7T is closely related to Enterobacter kobei DSM 13645T, Enterobacter chuandaensis 090028T, and to Enterobacter bugandensis STN0717-56T. The dDDH values between E-TC7T and these strains are 43.5, 42.9, and 63.7%, respectively. K-TC2T is closely related to Kaistia terrae DSM 21341T and to Kaistia defluvii JCM 18034T. The dDDH values between these strains are 29.2 and 30.7%, respectively. Several biochemical tests allow to differentiate the type strains of the newly described species from the type strains of their more closely related species. Based on the results of this polyphasic taxonomic approach, the following new species are proposed: Acinetobacter nematophilus sp. nov. with A-IN1T (=CCM 9231T =CCOS 2018T) as the type strain, Alcaligenes nematophilus sp. nov. with A-TC2T (=CCM 9230T =CCOS 2017T) as the type strain, Enterobacter nematophilus sp. nov. with E-TC7T (=CCM 9232T =CCOS 2020T) as the type strain, and Kaistia nematophila sp. nov. with K-TC2T (=CCM 9239T =CCOS 2022T) as the type strain. In addition, we propose the elevation of Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, and Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus to the species level. Therefore, we propose the creation of Alcaligenes parafaecalis sp. nov. with DSM 13975T as the type strain, and Alcaligenes phenolicus sp. nov. with DSM 16503T as the type strain. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the biodiversity and phylogenetic relationships of bacteria associated with soil-borne nematodes. Full article
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15 pages, 4020 KiB  
Article
Deep mtDNA Sequence Divergences and Possible Species Radiation of Whip Spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi, Phrynidae, Phrynus/Paraphrynus) among Caribbean Oceanic and Cave Islands
Taxonomy 2023, 3(1), 133-147; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy3010011 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
Islands—whether classic oceanic islands or habitat islands such as isolated thermal vents, mountain tops, or caves—often promote the diversification of lineages that colonize them. We examined CO1 mtDNA sequence divergences within the tailless whip spider genus Phrynus Lamarck, 1809 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) among oceanic [...] Read more.
Islands—whether classic oceanic islands or habitat islands such as isolated thermal vents, mountain tops, or caves—often promote the diversification of lineages that colonize them. We examined CO1 mtDNA sequence divergences within the tailless whip spider genus Phrynus Lamarck, 1809 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) among oceanic islands and among cave ’islands´ distributed across the Caribbean archipelago and on the continental mainland. The significance of this study lies in the extensive taxon sampling of a supposedly depauperate lineage (considering its age), over a large proportion of its geographical range, and the discovery of deep mtDNA sequence divergences. We sampled thousands of specimens—and sequenced 544, including six outgroup species—across 173 localities on 17 islands (135 localities) and five countries on the North to South American mainland (38 localities), including a total of 63 caves. Classical taxonomy identified ten named Phrynus and two Paraphrynus Moreno, 1940 species. Paraphrynus seems to be paraphyletic and nested in Phrynus. Uncorrected genetic distances within named species and among morphological species ranged up to 15% and 19%, respectively. Geographic distances explained a significant portion of genetic distances on islands (19%, among both subterranean and epigean specimens), and for epigean specimens on the mainland (27%). Species delimitation analyses indicated that the 12 named species harbored from 66 to well over 100 putative species. The highest number of species was indicated by the GMYC method (114 species) while the Bayesian Poisson tree processes (bPTP) and the BP&P relying on the Markov chain Monte Carlo Bayesian Phylogenetic model estimated an upper level of 110 species. On the other hand, the recently recommended and relatively conservative distance-based (phylogeny free) ASAP model has the greatest support for 73 species. In either case, nearly all putative species are tightly limited to a single locality, often a small cave system, and sometimes to the surrounding epigean area. Caribbean Phrynus diversity has likely been vastly underestimated, likely due to both morphological crypsis and the ignorance of Caribbean cave fauna. Although mtDNA sequences can suggest species limits, nuclear DNA sequencing and detailed morphological research are necessary to corroborate them and explore whether this phenomenon constitutes species radiation or perhaps just mtDNA divergences as a consequence of, for example, stationary females and actively dispersing males. Full article
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24 pages, 8542 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Seed Images with Geometric Models, an Approach to the Morphology of Silene (Caryophyllaceae)
Taxonomy 2023, 3(1), 109-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy3010010 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Seed morphological description is traditionally based on adjectives, which originated from the comparison with other shapes, including geometric figures. Nevertheless, descriptions based on this feature are not quantitative and measurements giving the percentage of similarity of seeds with reference figures are not available [...] Read more.
Seed morphological description is traditionally based on adjectives, which originated from the comparison with other shapes, including geometric figures. Nevertheless, descriptions based on this feature are not quantitative and measurements giving the percentage of similarity of seeds with reference figures are not available in the literature. Lateral views of Silene seeds resemble the cardioid and cardioid-derived figures. Dorsal views, nonetheless, resemble ellipses and derivatives, allowing seed shape quantification by comparison with defined geometric figures. In this work, we apply already-described models as well as new models to the morphological analysis of 51 Silene species. Our data revealed the existence of a link between lateral and dorsal models. Lateral models closed in the hilum region (models LM2 and LM4) were associated with those convex models of the dorsal seed views (DM1-DM4, DM10). Lateral models more open around the hilum region adjusted to seeds characterized as dorso canaliculata type better, i.e., to those geometric models with partial concavities in their dorsal views. The relationship between lateral and dorsal models, as well as between the models to their utility in taxonomy, is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Paper Collection of Editorial Board Members of Taxonomy)
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11 pages, 3402 KiB  
Article
A New Giant Petrel (Macronectes, Aves: Procellariidae) from the Pliocene of Taranaki, New Zealand
Taxonomy 2023, 3(1), 57-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy3010006 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5160
Abstract
A new species of giant petrel, Macronectes tinae sp. nov., is described from the Pliocene deposits of South Taranaki, New Zealand. The holotype is a near complete skull and the paratype a fragmentary left humerus; both come from the Tangahoe Formation, dating from [...] Read more.
A new species of giant petrel, Macronectes tinae sp. nov., is described from the Pliocene deposits of South Taranaki, New Zealand. The holotype is a near complete skull and the paratype a fragmentary left humerus; both come from the Tangahoe Formation, dating from the late Pliocene (Piacenzian or “Waipipian”; age estimated as ca. 3.36–3.06 Ma). The new species of giant petrel is the first fossil Macronectes ever reported. It is morphologically similar to the two present-day Macronectes spp., but it was a smaller bird. The skull is diagnosed by its overall smaller size, a proportionately longer apertura nasi ossea, and potentially by a shorter os supraocciptale. The humerus is diagnosed from both species by a proportionately less deep shaft, a more prominent medial portion of the epicondylus ventralis, and a larger and fusiform fossa medialis brachialis. The Tangahoe Formation is proving to be a remarkable source of marine vertebrate fossils and an important piece of the puzzle in understanding the evolution and biogeography of seabirds. Full article
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33 pages, 7976 KiB  
Article
Perils of Underestimating Species Diversity: Revisiting Systematics of Psammocambeva Catfishes (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from the Rio Paraíba do Sul Basin, South-Eastern Brazil
Taxonomy 2022, 2(4), 491-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2040032 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Psammocambeva, a subgenus of Trichomycterus s.s., includes a clade endemic to south-eastern Brazil, the Psammocambeva alpha-clade (PAC), containing species with similar colour pattern and fin morphology, making difficult their identification without accurate examination. The greatest diversity of PAC species occurs in [...] Read more.
Psammocambeva, a subgenus of Trichomycterus s.s., includes a clade endemic to south-eastern Brazil, the Psammocambeva alpha-clade (PAC), containing species with similar colour pattern and fin morphology, making difficult their identification without accurate examination. The greatest diversity of PAC species occurs in the Rio Paraíba do Sul basin area (RPSA), situated within the Atlantic Forest, one of the most important and endangered biodiversity centres in the world. Herein, we: perform a multigene phylogeny focusing on species of PAC; revise morphological characters diagnosing species of PAC from the RPSA, with special attention to those equivocally synonymised in a recent study; describe two new species, and provide a key for species identification. Molecular and morphological evidence supported the recognition of eight valid species belonging to four species complexes. Data indicated that T. auroguttatus, T. travassosi, and T. longibarbatus are valid species. Finally, we discuss the negative impacts of underestimating species diversity in regions under the intense process of natural habitat loss, concluding that integrative approaches are important tools to estimate species diversity, but they should include a range of morphological characters informative to delineate and diagnose groups and their respective species, in association with phylogenies generated by robust molecular datasets. Full article
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8 pages, 281 KiB  
Concept Paper
Evidence-Based Taxonomy: Labels as Illocutionary Acts
Taxonomy 2022, 2(3), 339-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2030026 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5535
Abstract
Concepts in science have an important role: They delimit and specify objects, activities, processes, and abstract entities. When terms are diffuse, mean different things to different persons, and lead more to qualifications than demarcation, they cease to be concepts and may become labels, [...] Read more.
Concepts in science have an important role: They delimit and specify objects, activities, processes, and abstract entities. When terms are diffuse, mean different things to different persons, and lead more to qualifications than demarcation, they cease to be concepts and may become labels, which are informal alternative designations. There are many labels in science and they have become abundant in taxonomy: α-taxonomy, integrative-taxonomy, iterative-taxonomy, etc., are only a few examples. α-taxonomy is a negative label that obtained popularity at the same time the term α-diversity became popular in ecology. The label α-taxonomy conveys a negative meaning to taxonomy because the nature of its evidence—originally morphological—is seen by many as “merely descriptive” and, thereby, supposedly inferior to other forms of evidence. This has contributed to substantial and unwarranted damage to the status of this science and to the careers of taxonomists. The recent history of methodologies for species delimitation shows that what some have considered of low value (morphology), compared to “new” data (molecular), is in many cases the critical factor to delimit species. We propose to eschew these kinds of labels and simply refer to taxonomy to avoid stigmatizing of any kind of practicing taxonomist, whether focused on morphology, cytology, molecular biology, or other fields of biology. Taxonomy implies the use of the current best evidence, theories, and methods to demarcate species and their relationships. Full article
26 pages, 5276 KiB  
Article
Seed Morphological Properties Related to Taxonomy in Silene L. Species
Taxonomy 2022, 2(3), 298-323; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2030024 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2328
Abstract
Silene taxonomy, traditionally based on morphological characteristics, is now driven by DNA sequence analysis. While the usefulness of both morphological and molecular methods remains undisputed, there is an interest in the identification of the morphological characteristics useful in taxonomy. A quantitative morphological analysis [...] Read more.
Silene taxonomy, traditionally based on morphological characteristics, is now driven by DNA sequence analysis. While the usefulness of both morphological and molecular methods remains undisputed, there is an interest in the identification of the morphological characteristics useful in taxonomy. A quantitative morphological analysis of seeds belonging to Silene species is presented here and is based on seed image samples for 95 populations belonging to 52 species (49 species of Silene and 3 related species). According to the silhouette of lateral views of their seed images, Silene species are classified into three groups: smooth, rugose and echinate. The measurements taken for the lateral and dorsal views of the seeds include area, circularity, roundness, aspect ratio and solidity; differences between groups are found for all characteristics. Solidity is the ratio between the area of the seed silhouette and the corresponding convex hull. It is related to seed convexity and is the measurement with the lowest coefficient of variation. In the lateral views, solidity values are conserved, while in the dorsal views, differences are found between the three groups. The group of echinate seeds has the highest values of solidity in the dorsal views, and their species belong to S. subg. Behenantha and S. subg. Lychnis. The group of smooth seeds contains mainly species corresponding to S. subg. Silene, while species of S. subg. Lychnis are absent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Paper Collection of Editorial Board Members of Taxonomy)
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9 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
A New Species of Large Duck (Aves: Anatidae) from the Miocene of New Zealand
Taxonomy 2022, 2(1), 136-144; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2010011 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6871
Abstract
We describe a new species of extinct duck, Miotadorna catrionae sp. nov. (Anatidae, Tadornini, Tadorninae), based on a right humerus from the Miocene lacustrine deposits of St Bathans, Otago, New Zealand. Principal component analysis reveals that the new taxon is distinguished by its [...] Read more.
We describe a new species of extinct duck, Miotadorna catrionae sp. nov. (Anatidae, Tadornini, Tadorninae), based on a right humerus from the Miocene lacustrine deposits of St Bathans, Otago, New Zealand. Principal component analysis reveals that the new taxon is distinguished by its large size and relative proportions. This is the eighth and largest species of duck described from the St Bathans fossil assemblage and further underscores the global importance of this site for understanding anatid evolution. Full article
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17 pages, 13867 KiB  
Article
Taxonomic Revision of the pulcherrima Clade of Metschnikowia (Fungi): Merger of Species
Taxonomy 2022, 2(1), 107-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2010009 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3126
Abstract
The type strains of 10 small-spored species of the ascomycetous yeast genus Metschnikowia usually form a compact group on the phylogenetic trees inferred from barcode sequences. Based on the name of the species, which was described first (Metschnikowia pulcherrima), the [...] Read more.
The type strains of 10 small-spored species of the ascomycetous yeast genus Metschnikowia usually form a compact group on the phylogenetic trees inferred from barcode sequences. Based on the name of the species, which was described first (Metschnikowia pulcherrima), the group is frequently referred to as the pulcherrima clade. All strains produce the iron-chelate pigment pulcherrimin and have antagonistic effects on many microorganisms. Recent results of molecular phylogenetic, genetic, and genomic research raised doubts about the taxonomic division of the clade. Those data—combined with results obtained in this study by comprehensive analysis of primary and secondary barcode sequences, physiological tests, and hybridisation experiments—demonstrate that the species cannot be distinguished from each other by the criteria of any of the phenotypic, phylogenetic, and biological species concepts. Therefore, I propose that the species of the pulcherrima clade be merged into one species under the oldest species name, M. pulcherrima. Full article
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8 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
Hoya longlingensis and H. sichuanensis (Apocynaceae), Two New Species from Southwestern China
Taxonomy 2022, 2(1), 99-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2010008 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4749
Abstract
Hoya longlingensis (E.F. Huang) and H. sichuanensis E.F. Huang are two new species of Apocynaceae from Southwestern China that are described in this study. Morphologically, the two species resemble H. tamdaoensis Rodda & T.B. Tran and H. lyi H. Lév., respectively. However, H. [...] Read more.
Hoya longlingensis (E.F. Huang) and H. sichuanensis E.F. Huang are two new species of Apocynaceae from Southwestern China that are described in this study. Morphologically, the two species resemble H. tamdaoensis Rodda & T.B. Tran and H. lyi H. Lév., respectively. However, H. longlingensis differs from H. tamdaoensis by its elliptic leaves, mid-vein of leaf blades raised adaxially and depressed abaxially, lateral veins 2–4-paired, corolla yellow-green, outer angles of corona convex and spreading outside obviously. While H. sichuanensis differs from H. lyi by its obovate leaves, leaf apex rounded and base cuneate, petioles 1–3.5 cm long and ca. 3 mm in diameter, calyx lobes triangular, and corona whitish. Full article
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32 pages, 2454 KiB  
Article
Herzog Vindicated: Integrative Taxonomy Reveals That Trichostomum brachydontium (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta) Comprises Several Species
Taxonomy 2022, 2(1), 57-88; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2010005 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3640
Abstract
The morphologically variable moss Trichostomum brachydontium is very common in south and west Europe, particularly under Mediterranean and Atlantic climates. A morphological study was conducted alongside a molecular phylogenetic study based on nr ITS and cp-rbcL regions in order to assess if [...] Read more.
The morphologically variable moss Trichostomum brachydontium is very common in south and west Europe, particularly under Mediterranean and Atlantic climates. A morphological study was conducted alongside a molecular phylogenetic study based on nr ITS and cp-rbcL regions in order to assess if T. brachydontium is an exceptionally polymorphic species as evidenced by the number of described infraspecific taxa in the last century or, alternatively, if it includes more than one species, and if so, to find the valid name for them. Phylogenetic analyses of both nuclear and chloroplast datasets show that there are four well-supported clades. While the ITS-based tree is in good agreement with the morphological data, there are a few inconsistencies with reference to the rbcL tree; this may be explained by incomplete lineage sorting by hybridization or by the persistence of isolated ancestral molecular races. The morphological survey revealed well-defined discriminate differences between the four phylogenetic lineages. The taxonomic conclusions include the recognition of four species: T. brachydontium s.s., T. herzogii (a new name proposed for var. cuspidatum), T. littorale, and T. meridionale (a new name proposed for var. densum). Lectotypes are designated for T. brachydontium and T. littorale. Our results underline the ongoing need of integrative studies to examine further the underestimated diversity of the T. brachydontium complex in other regions. Full article
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21 pages, 4168 KiB  
Article
Two New Species of Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae) from Amazonas Department in Northeastern Peru
Taxonomy 2022, 2(1), 20-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2010002 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4322
Abstract
We describe two new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs in the genus Pristimantis from the Andes of northeastern Peru, Amazonas Department. Both species share several characters with other congeners from northern Peru, such as the presence of prominent conical tubercles on their eyelids and [...] Read more.
We describe two new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs in the genus Pristimantis from the Andes of northeastern Peru, Amazonas Department. Both species share several characters with other congeners from northern Peru, such as the presence of prominent conical tubercles on their eyelids and heel, prominent conical tubercles along the outer edge of the tarsus, and discs on fingers and toes widely expanded. However, both species can be diagnosed from morphologically similar Pristimantis in the region. Pristimantis kiruhampatu has axillae, groins, and hidden surfaces of hindlimbs that are cherry with white minute flecks, tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus evident, conical tubercles along the edge of snout and outer edge of tibia, and \/ shaped folds in the scapular region. Pristimantis paulpittmani has yellow or dirty cream groins and hidden surfaces of hindlimbs, whitish cream irises with scattered dark brown reticulations, and a thin vertical dark brown streak at the middle of the eye, snout subacuminate with a conical tubercle at the tip, and lacks a tympanic annulus and membrane. Additionally, we provide a short description of the advertisement call of P. kiruhampatu. Full article
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19 pages, 2933 KiB  
Article
New Techniques for Seed Shape Description in Silene Species
Taxonomy 2022, 2(1), 1-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy2010001 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Seed shape in Silene species is often described by means of adjectives such as reniform, globose, and orbicular, but the application of seed shape for species classification requires quantification. A method for the description and quantification of seed shape consists in the comparison [...] Read more.
Seed shape in Silene species is often described by means of adjectives such as reniform, globose, and orbicular, but the application of seed shape for species classification requires quantification. A method for the description and quantification of seed shape consists in the comparison with geometric models. Geometric models based on mathematical equations were applied to characterize the general morphology of the seeds in 21 species of Silene. In addition to the previously described four models (M1 is the cardioid, and M2 to M4 are figures derived from it), we present four new geometric models (model 5–8). Models 5 and 6 are open cardioids that resemble M3, quite different from the flat models, M2 and M4. Models 7 and 8 were applied to those species not covered by models 2 to 6. Morphological measures were obtained to describe and characterize the dorsal view of the seeds. The analyses done on dorsal views revealed a notable morphological diversity and four groups were identified. A correlation was found between roundness of dorsal view and the geometric models based on lateral views, such that some of the groups defined by seed roundness are also characterized by the similarity to particular models. The usefulness of new morphological tools of seed morphology to taxonomy is discussed. Full article
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10 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
An Extinct New Rail (Gallirallus, Aves: Rallidae) Species from Rapa Island, French Polynesia
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 448-457; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040032 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 4424
Abstract
A new species of rail, Gallirallus astolfoi sp. nov., is described from Rapa Island (Rapa Iti), French Polynesia. The holotype (and single known specimen) is a left tarsometatarsus recovered from Tangarutu Cave. This rail species was apparently endemic to Rapa Iti and potentially [...] Read more.
A new species of rail, Gallirallus astolfoi sp. nov., is described from Rapa Island (Rapa Iti), French Polynesia. The holotype (and single known specimen) is a left tarsometatarsus recovered from Tangarutu Cave. This rail species was apparently endemic to Rapa Iti and potentially flightless. It became extinct after human colonisation of the island. Full article
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13 pages, 5658 KiB  
Article
Ceratozamia aurantiaca (Zamiaceae): A New Cycad Species from the Northern Rainforests of Oaxaca, Mexico
Taxonomy 2021, 1(3), 243-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1030018 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5426
Abstract
Ceratozamia aurantiaca, a new cycad species from Oaxaca, Mexico, is described. The new species is endemic to lowland karst tropical rainforests of the northern mountains (Sierra Norte region). This species is related to C. subroseophylla and C. robusta, together considered part [...] Read more.
Ceratozamia aurantiaca, a new cycad species from Oaxaca, Mexico, is described. The new species is endemic to lowland karst tropical rainforests of the northern mountains (Sierra Norte region). This species is related to C. subroseophylla and C. robusta, together considered part of the C. robusta species complex due to their shared characteristics: robust, upright trunk; large and long leaves with densely armed petioles and linear to subfalcate leaflets; and large megastrobili. Ceratozamia aurantiaca, as the epithet suggests, is easily distinguished from other species by the orange color of its emerging leaves, a trait unique in the genus. Additionally, C. aurantiaca is distinguished from C. subroseophylla and C. robusta by having significantly shorter petioles, wider spacing between leaflets, and wider median leaflets. The taxonomic recognition of this species represents a step toward clarifying species delimitation in the C. robusta complex. Full article
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32 pages, 5027 KiB  
Article
Comparative Osteology, Phylogeny and Classification of the Eastern South American Catfish Genus Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)
Taxonomy 2021, 1(2), 160-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1020013 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5055
Abstract
Trichomycterus has been considered for a long time to be the most problematic genus of the diverse neotropical subfamily Trichomycterinae. Recently, Trichomycterus was restricted to a clade from eastern South America supported by molecular data, but no unique morphological character state was found [...] Read more.
Trichomycterus has been considered for a long time to be the most problematic genus of the diverse neotropical subfamily Trichomycterinae. Recently, Trichomycterus was restricted to a clade from eastern South America supported by molecular data, but no unique morphological character state was found to distinguish it, making it difficult to allocate new species based on morphology alone. The objectives of this study were to conduct an osteological comparative analysis comprising a large sample of valid species of Trichomycterus, to conduct a total evidence phylogenetic analysis, combining osteological characters and a multigene database, and to propose an intrageneric classification based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis. Fifty-two osteological characters were combined with a multigene molecular data set of 2974 bp for 44 species of Trichomycterus, and 21 outgroups generated a well-supported phylogenetic tree, making it possible to delimit and diagnose intrageneric lineages, of which six subgenera are recognized. The high morphological diversity of osteological structures herein first reported for Trichomycterus from eastern South America is possibly related to some ecological specializations. This study shows that osteological characters combined with molecular data may be useful to consistently delimit and distinguish between trichomycterines, shedding light on the still persistent problems in trichomycterine systematics. Full article
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Article
Two New Species of the Mite Genus Stereotydeus Berlese, 1901 (Prostigmata: Penthalodidae) from Victoria Land, and a Key for Identification of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Species
Taxonomy 2021, 1(2), 116-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1020010 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4754
Abstract
Two new mite species belonging to the genus Stereotydeus Berlese, 1901 were discovered from locations along the coast of Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. Previous records of this genus in the area under study only reported the presence of S. belli and S. mollis [...] Read more.
Two new mite species belonging to the genus Stereotydeus Berlese, 1901 were discovered from locations along the coast of Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. Previous records of this genus in the area under study only reported the presence of S. belli and S. mollis. Although those studies included no morphological analyses, it has since been assumed that only these species were present within the area. Specimens of S. ineffabilis sp. nov. and S. nunatakis sp. nov. were obtained, sometimes in sympatry, from four different localities in Central and South Victoria Land and are here described and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Features useful for identification of the two new Stereotydeus species include the size of the specimens, the length of the apical segment of pedipalps, the presence/absence of division of the femora, the position of solenidia, the shape and disposition of the rhagidiform organs on the tarsi, the shape of the apical setae of the tarsi, the numbers of aggenital setae and the position of the anal opening. A key to 14 of the 15 currently described Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Stereotydeus species is provided. Full article
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