Special Issue "Enhancement of Public Real-estate Assets and Cultural Heritage: Management Plans and Models, Innovative Practices and Tools in Supporting the Local Sustainable Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lucia Della Spina
Website1 Website2 Website3 Website4
Guest Editor
Department of Heritage, Architecture, Urban Planning, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Via dell’Università, 25 - 89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Interests: construction and evaluation of sustainability of programs projects and buildings; public and private feasibility of urban transformation; economic evaluation of environmental and cultural assets; complex decision-making processes and integrated assessments; governance of local development processes; economic and financial feasibility of public and private investment; economic evaluations and real estate appraisals; enhancement and management of cultural and environmental assets; sustainability complex programs of urban transformation; project management
Prof. Dr. Francesco Calabrò
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Heritage, Architecture, Urban planning, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, 89124 Reggio Calabria RC, Italy
Interests: Enhancement and management of cultural and environmental assets; Strategic Planning; Sustainability complex programs of urban transformation; Economic and financial feasibility of public and private investment; Governance of local development processes; Public Private Partnership

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, new forms of enhancement of public real-estate assets and cultural heritage is one of the crucial challenges concerning the sustainable use of resources as an investment opportunity, based on research and innovation, dynamic way to stimulate preservation, development, renewal and transmission to future generations of these essential assets for development. The initiatives of local communities to regenerate abandoned spaces are increasingly widespread. Activities in the third sector, profit and non-profit associations, cultural and creative industries, start-up incubators, and crafts are just a few of the activities that are hosted in the enhanced assets. At the heart of these experiences is the desire to encourage economic and social innovation, while at the same time promoting synergy between public and private operators and supporting otherwise difficult development initiatives.

We invites researchers from different backgrounds, to exploring theoretical methodologies and/or presenting case studies deriving from different disciplines and approaches.

The reflections of researchers and scholars may address these topics from multiple perspectives. They may draw from specialized fields within geographic, economic, historic, cultural, architectural, social sciences and theory of decision.

The general aims of the special session are:

  1. Deeping the understanding of the role of cultural heritage valorization and public real-estate assets in local development processes;
  2. Increasing the dissemination of appraisal methods and systematic evaluation tools in the Heritage valuation and management fields;
  3. Providing decision-making support in the planning phase of heritage interventions;
  4. Improving the understanding of the dynamics, benefits, social and economic values of Heritage as a factor attracting innovation towards territory;
  5. Providing policy makers with possible solutions for heritage management as driver for local and sustainable management.

Prof. Dr. Lucia Della Spina
Prof. Dr. Francesco Calabrò
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Public Real-estate Assets
  • Cultural Resources
  • Sustainable Development
  • Heritage Management
  • Planning
  • Real Estate Appraisal
  • Economic Sustainability
  • Bottom-up processes
  • Profit and Non-Profit associations
  • Cultural and creative industries
  • Start-up incubators

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Promoting Research and Landscape Experience in the Management of the Archaeological Networks. A Project-Valuation Experiment in Italy
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104022 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Archaeological sites are part of the history and identity of a community playing a strategic role on the different scales of the cultural and economic common life. Whereas on the one end the most famous archaeological sites attract huge flows of tourists and [...] Read more.
Archaeological sites are part of the history and identity of a community playing a strategic role on the different scales of the cultural and economic common life. Whereas on the one end the most famous archaeological sites attract huge flows of tourists and investment, on the other hand, many minor archaeological sites remain almost ignored and neglected. This study proposes a project-evaluation approach devoted to the “minor” archaeological site development, outlining a territorial, socio-economic, and landscape communication pattern aimed at creating an archaeological network integrating other cultural and natural resources. As such, these networks get able to match the demand of customers who shy away from iper-consumerist tourism and want to deepen their knowledge of a place. The proposed approach integrates knowledge, evaluation, and design in a multiscale pattern whose scope is to foster and extend the archaeological research program, involving public and private stake/stockholders to widen the cultural-contemplative experience and promote further educational events concerning the themes of the local identity. With reference to the archaeological basin of Tornambè, Italy, a Web-GIS knowledge system has been drawn to provide the territorial information requested by the economic-evaluation multiscale pattern implemented to verify the cost-effectiveness of the project. The expected negative results of the economic valuation supported the allocation pattern of the considerable investment costs, as well as the hypothetic scenarios about the evolution of the cultural-contemplative experience due to the extension of the archaeological estate. Some disciplinary remarks propose a heterodox approach for a further interpretation of the economic results and financial indexes, by introducing the monetary dimension of such a social capital asset. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protection of Cultural Heritage Buildings and Artistic Assets from Seismic Hazard: A Hierarchical Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041608 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
The occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes represent a worldwide challenge in the conservation of cultural heritage (CH), which suffer from damage due to high vulnerability conditions. Therefore, the protection of CH from seismic hazard is of paramount importance. Damage and vulnerability [...] Read more.
The occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes represent a worldwide challenge in the conservation of cultural heritage (CH), which suffer from damage due to high vulnerability conditions. Therefore, the protection of CH from seismic hazard is of paramount importance. Damage and vulnerability assessment of CH and artistic assets play a key role in the identification of conservation strategies. Effective strategies require the stabilization of severely damaged buildings and the preventive improvement of constructions structural response to seismic actions. Although the operation of emergency inspections is meant to classify buildings on the basis of buildings residual seismic capacity, investment decisions in restoration and conservation strategies of such vulnerable structures must take into consideration tangible and intangible values of both building structures and artistic goods as well as must combine objectives of verifying structural safety standards and preserving cultural heritage significance. Damage and vulnerability assessment depend on different criteria, which, on the one hand, are related to buildings structural characteristics, materials, and geometrical properties. On the other hand, to the peculiarities and uniqueness of artworks and artistic goods present on structural elements. In this paper, an AHP (absolute) model is proposed to rank multi-criteria prioritization of protection and restoration interventions on a set of 15 churches, which were damaged by earthquakes, occurring in Italy in the last decades. In detail, in order to structure the decision problem, identify key factors, and define the hierarchy, we conducted an extensive literature review and interviewed a pool of experts. Focus groups were organized to develop the set of criteria and sub-criteria and validate the hierarchy by dynamic discussion. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Sustainable Use and Conservation of the Environmental Resources of the Etna Park (UNESCO Heritage): Evaluation Model Supporting Sustainable Local Development Strategies
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041453 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Rural areas are recognized as multifunctional spaces, where traditional agro-silvo-pastoral and other human activities (unrelated rural tourism, ecotourism, processing industries of agricultural and or extractive products, land maintenance, trade in local products, etc.) take place alongside each other. The integrated endogenous development model, [...] Read more.
Rural areas are recognized as multifunctional spaces, where traditional agro-silvo-pastoral and other human activities (unrelated rural tourism, ecotourism, processing industries of agricultural and or extractive products, land maintenance, trade in local products, etc.) take place alongside each other. The integrated endogenous development model, established to mitigate the effects of human activity in protected areas, relies on the enhancement of specific resources of individual territories through the active participation of the community to promote local development. This model is intrinsically connected with the model of sustainable development, based on three cornerstones: environmental, social, and economic sustainability. The difficulty in achieving a reasonable balance among these values relates primarily to areas subject to protection (i.e., Parks and Natural Reserves). Ultimately, the environmental culture emphasizes the sustainability of natural resources, obviously in relation to these values and to the vulnerability of these areas. This paper outlines some relationships between environmental protection and the exercise of agricultural activities and other human activities in protected areas by using the theory of “rough sets”. The study aims to show that in the complex context of Etna Park (recognized World Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2013), the model developed by the “rough sets” could provide useful guidance to policy makers to formulate local development strategies according to a model of the sustainable management of protected areas. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Adaptive Sustainable Reuse for Cultural Heritage: A Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding Approach Supporting Urban Development Processes
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041363 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
The European Union identifies the cultural heritage of cities as the main driver of development strategies. From this perspective, adaptive reuse can play a decisive role not only in terms of increasing the life cycle of the heritage but also as an urban [...] Read more.
The European Union identifies the cultural heritage of cities as the main driver of development strategies. From this perspective, adaptive reuse can play a decisive role not only in terms of increasing the life cycle of the heritage but also as an urban strategy capable of generating new economic, cultural, and social values, thus supporting innovative dynamics of local development. The aim is to propose an integrated evaluation model based on the combined use of multi-criteria techniques, which helps to classify adaptive reuse strategies of unused cultural heritage assets and supports decision-makers in the implementation of development strategies in vulnerable contexts. The case study focuses on the potential reuse of some historical fortifications located along the coasts of the Strait of Messina in Southern Italy. The results obtained show that the proposed model can be a useful decision support tool, in contexts characterized by high complexity, able to guarantee the transparency of the decision-making process, and in which it is necessary to highlight the elements that influence the dynamics of the choice for the construction of shared development strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strategic Planning and Management Model for the Regeneration of Historic Urban Landscapes: The Case of Historic Center of Novi Pazar in Serbia
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041323 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of strategic planning as a sustainable tool for regulating both the protection and development of historic urban landscapes, as well as developing an adequate and effective strategic model and management instruments for implementation. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of strategic planning as a sustainable tool for regulating both the protection and development of historic urban landscapes, as well as developing an adequate and effective strategic model and management instruments for implementation. The role and importance of strategic planning are examined in the context of global transformative actions in the urban governance of community and private sector engagement and sustainable development on the local level. We argue that a specific—tailor-made—integrated strategic urban planning approach could be a useful model, both for development and urban regeneration and for the preservation of protected valuable historic urban landscapes, thus contributing to a sustainable urban revival of wider surrounding territories including cultural, social and economic development. We stand on the position that the sustainable approach to the protection and revitalization of the historic urban landscapes has to be in line with the acknowledgment of specific local community values, contemporary needs, their involvement, and, eventually, their satisfaction. The case study method was based on the example of a protected historic center of Novi Pazar in Serbia to test the possibilities of applying strategic planning model and management for the implementation tailored to the local context. Eventually, the scenario method was applied to test the possibilities of a simulation of the strategic planning model and management instruments for a protected historic center. We found that the appropriate combination and utilization of regulatory, economic and informational management instruments have to be in place in the specific context. We conclude and draw out theoretical and practical remarks from our research that integrated strategic urban planning model should consider the logic and the functioning of the competitive real estate markets, and the sustainable environmental, economic and social effects, potentials and benefits for the locality where they originate, in order to be utilized as the new generative value both for the protection and for the revival of historic city centers. The paper develops a conceptual strategic planning and management model for the regeneration of historic urban landscapes that capture the physical, environmental, economic, and social effects and indicators of a given space. Based on this input, an adequate initial stage of the conceptual strategy by the authors of the paper was developed for the regeneration of the historic urban city center. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Survival of Cultural Firms: A Study of Multiple Accounting Parameters in Spain
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031159 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Cultural firms are an important development factor in economic and social terms. Their objectives are often aimed at maintaining and disseminating the traditions and values of societies. The prosperity of these firms in a nation ensures that its tangible and intangible cultural heritage [...] Read more.
Cultural firms are an important development factor in economic and social terms. Their objectives are often aimed at maintaining and disseminating the traditions and values of societies. The prosperity of these firms in a nation ensures that its tangible and intangible cultural heritage is made known to other nations and generations. Despite their importance, little is known about their survival and the factors associated with it. This paper analyses data from 6951 Spanish firms, of which 2105 are cultural firms. We have studied the survival of non-cultural firms in comparison with cultural firms and also the impact that profitability, solvency and indebtedness may have on their survival. We have used the Kaplan–Meier method in order to assess their survival and the Harrington–Fleming test and the Cox regression model to check the statistical significance of variables. These variables are key factors influencing the survival of cultural enterprises. Particularly, low solvency in firms increases by twenty the risk of disappearance. This paper contributes to literature highlighting some of the key factors for the survival of cultural enterprises. It provides administrations with a roadmap in order to implement measures for the promotion of the cultural industry, favouring the process of enhancement of cultural heritage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Historical School Buildings. A Multi-Criteria Approach for Urban Sustainable Projects
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031076 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
It is recognized, in Europe and elsewhere, that there is a need to implement sustainable urban intervention policies based also on the recovery of existing public real estate assets. In Italy, the schools are a significant part of public property. At this time [...] Read more.
It is recognized, in Europe and elsewhere, that there is a need to implement sustainable urban intervention policies based also on the recovery of existing public real estate assets. In Italy, the schools are a significant part of public property. At this time (2019), many buildings destined for teaching need to be redeveloped, both from a structural and plant engineering point of view, and with regard to the management of the spaces available for teaching and social activities. Although, there have been many attempts by the legislator to regulate the modus operandi in the school construction field, it is clear that there is a lack of a unique regulatory system in which the technical and functional-managerial aspects relating to the same school are considered together. On this basis, with this study a multi-criteria evaluation protocol to support intervention planning for the redevelopment of existing school buildings is proposed. The study defines an evaluation framework with which we can establish the design priorities to be carried out in accordance with the building features and community needs. The evaluation framework is tested on a renewal project regarding a school building located in the historic center of Rome (Italy). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Application of the A’WOT Analysis for the Management of Cultural Heritage Assets: The Case of the Historical Farmhouses in the Aglié Castle (Turin)
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031071 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
In recent years, governments, public institutions, and local communities have devoted growing attention to the identification of promising strategies for the preservation and valorization of cultural heritage assets. Decisions on the management of cultural heritage assets based on multiple, often conflicting, criteria and [...] Read more.
In recent years, governments, public institutions, and local communities have devoted growing attention to the identification of promising strategies for the preservation and valorization of cultural heritage assets. Decisions on the management of cultural heritage assets based on multiple, often conflicting, criteria and on the stakes of various, and potentially non-consensual actors and stakeholders. In this context, in which the trade-offs between the preservation of assets historical symbolic values and the adaptation to alternative and economically profitable uses play a key role in investment decisions, multi-criteria analyses provide robust theoretical and methodological frameworks to support decision-makers in the design and implementation of adaptive reuse strategies for cultural heritage and public real estate assets. In this paper, we provide a multi-criteria decision aiding approach for ranking valorization strategies of cultural heritage assets aimed at promoting their restoration and conservation, as well as at creating cultural and economic benefits. In detail, we present a novel application of the A’WOT analysis to support the design and implementation of alternative management strategies of abandoned cultural heritage assets. The paper focuses on the potential reuse and management of four historical farmhouses (Cascina Mandria, Cascina Lavanderia, Cascina Gozzani, and Cascina Ortovalle) located in the Agliè Castle estate, one of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy, currently listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Valuation of the Vocationality of Cultural Heritage: The Vesuvian Villas
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030943 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
The Vesuvian Villas are a system of architectural assets that, due to important artistic, historical and typological characteristics, have relevance that is not only local. However, due to ineffective management policies and insufficient financial resources, the system of the Vesuvian Villas is subject [...] Read more.
The Vesuvian Villas are a system of architectural assets that, due to important artistic, historical and typological characteristics, have relevance that is not only local. However, due to ineffective management policies and insufficient financial resources, the system of the Vesuvian Villas is subject to abandonment or to invasive transformations for speculative purposes. The management policies for these real estate goods would require a profound theoretical and operational review that, together with the overcoming of the binding instrument as the only guarantee of protection, pursues conservation through synergies founded on appropriate uses of the Vesuvian Villas. This innovative path is difficult to implement due to the substantial rigidity of the architectural structures and the transformations aimed at renewing the forms of use, but mostly for the lack of available financial resources. Starting from the analysis of the relationships between conservation and transformation of the historical architectural asset, the paper proposes a multicriteria analysis model for the evaluation of the "vocational" nature of the "Villa Vesuviana" property, aimed to its conservative reuse. This suitability was assessed starting from a set of indicators explaining the actual state of the building (typological, morphological, structural and artistic characteristics) and its location. The indicators have been evaluated through qualitative judgments made using the hierarchical analysis technique. Particular attention was paid to the evaluation of synergies deriving from complementary uses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development Targets: A Possible Harmonisation? Insights from the European Perspective
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030926 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
The Agenda 2030 includes a set of targets that need to be achieved by 2030. Although none of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focuses exclusively on cultural heritage, the resulting Agenda includes explicit reference to heritage in SDG 11.4 and indirect reference [...] Read more.
The Agenda 2030 includes a set of targets that need to be achieved by 2030. Although none of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focuses exclusively on cultural heritage, the resulting Agenda includes explicit reference to heritage in SDG 11.4 and indirect reference to other Goals. Achievement of international targets shall happen at local and national level, and therefore, it is crucial to understand how interventions on local heritage are monitored nationally, therefore feeding into the sustainable development framework. This paper is focused on gauging the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals with reference to cultural heritage, by interrogating the current way of classifying it (and consequently monitoring). In fact, there is no common dataset associated with monitoring SDGs, and the field of heritage is extremely complex and diversified. The purpose for the paper is to understand if the taxonomy used by different national databases allows consistency in the classification and valuing of the different assets categories. The European case study has been chosen as field of investigation, in order to pilot a methodology that can be expanded in further research. A cross-comparison of a selected sample of publicly accessible national cultural heritage databases has been conducted. As a result, this study confirms the existence of general harmonisation of data towards the achievement of the SDGs with a broad agreement of the conceptualisation of cultural heritage with international frameworks, thus confirming that consistency exists in the classification and valuing of the different assets categories. However, diverse challenges of achieving a consistent and coherent approach to integrating culture in sustainability remains problematic. The findings allow concluding that it could be possible to mainstream across different databases those indicators, which could lead to depicting the overall level of attainment of the Agenda 2030 targets on heritage. However, more research is needed in developing a robust correlation between national datasets and international targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Citizen Action as a Driving Force of Change. The Meninas of Canido, Art in the Street as an Urban Dynamizer
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020740 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 678
Abstract
The austerity policies imposed by the government in the wake of the 2007 crisis have deteriorated the welfare state and limited neighborhood recovery. Considering the inability and inefficiency on the part of administrations to carry out improvement actions in neighborhoods, it is the [...] Read more.
The austerity policies imposed by the government in the wake of the 2007 crisis have deteriorated the welfare state and limited neighborhood recovery. Considering the inability and inefficiency on the part of administrations to carry out improvement actions in neighborhoods, it is the neighborhood action itself that has carried out a series of resilient social innovations to reverse the dynamics. In this article, we will analyze the Canido neighborhood in Ferrol, a city in north-western Spain. Canido is traditional neighborhood that was experiencing a high degree of physical and social deterioration, until a cultural initiative called “Meninas of Canido,” promoted by one of its artist neighbors, recovered its identity and revitalized it from a physical, social, and economic point of view. Currently, the Meninas of Canido has become one of the most important urban art events in Spain and has receives international recognition. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact that this action has had in the neighborhood. For this, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with the local administration, neighborhood association, the precursors of this idea, merchants, and some residents in general, in order to perceive the reception and evolution of this action. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Operational Protocol for the Valorisation of Public Real Estate Assets in Italy
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020732 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
The Italian Treasury Department reports that a quota of the country’s public real estate assets, with an estimated value of some 63 billion euros, consists of properties not directly utilised by the State Government and is therefore available for decommissioning alienation; in other [...] Read more.
The Italian Treasury Department reports that a quota of the country’s public real estate assets, with an estimated value of some 63 billion euros, consists of properties not directly utilised by the State Government and is therefore available for decommissioning alienation; in other words, for adaptive reuse. Numerous legislative initiatives dedicated to this issue over the past 30 years have produced very few comforting results. A plausible explanation for these shortcomings can be traced to the gap between established regulatory principles and the possibilities/capacities of local institutions to apply them. Put another way, legislation and indications, many of interest, have not been supported by adequate economic, structural, and organisational resources. The underlying question is, what is the structure of the decision-making process behind the sale or redevelopment of real estate assets? Beginning with these premises, this paper proposes an operational Business Process Modelling protocol that develops three different indexes—urban values index (Ivu), use index (Iut), and technical-maintenance index (Itm)—which may suggest three hypothetical scenarios of valorisation and three lines of action. A test of this model using a selection of public buildings owned by the City of Pescara showed it to be prognostic of some of the choices subsequently made by the municipal administration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tourist Flow Management: Social Impact Evaluation through Social Network Analysis
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020731 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
The present paper was prompted by the activity carried out within the scope of an EU-funded project (WARMEST). It calls to analyse the reasons for the degradation of the Patio de Los Leones, which attracts over 2 million tourists per year to Granada [...] Read more.
The present paper was prompted by the activity carried out within the scope of an EU-funded project (WARMEST). It calls to analyse the reasons for the degradation of the Patio de Los Leones, which attracts over 2 million tourists per year to Granada in Spain. We review here the most advanced studies and regulations on the assessment of the social impact of mass tourism and present a novel methodology to analyse its effects. We dug into the material available on social networks—especially feedback to posts published on major relevant sites—and got a comprehensive picture of the thoughts that were expressed there and a comprehensive assessment of the citizens’ opinion on the social impact of tourism in Granada. Thus, we obtained a new indicator called “C.1.2 index modified”, which measures the level of dissatisfaction of citizens with the tourists’ pressure; we propose to replace the existing ETIS index with C.1.2, which is mainly based on direct surveys that are often carried out with very limited resources. At the end of the research, we could point out topics that are especially important to the citizens, thus allowing us to define a strategic action plan with a bottom-up approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Vulnerability and Damage between Artistic Assets and Structural Elements: The DataBAES Archive for the Conservation Planning of CH Masonry Buildings in Seismic Areas
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020653 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
Historical buildings in seismic hazard-prone regions need specific measures in safety protection, largely due to the presence of artistic assets and/or decorations, both movable (e.g., statues, pinnacles, etc.) and unmovable (e.g., frescoes, valuable plasters or wall paintings, mosaics, and stuccoes). A correlation of [...] Read more.
Historical buildings in seismic hazard-prone regions need specific measures in safety protection, largely due to the presence of artistic assets and/or decorations, both movable (e.g., statues, pinnacles, etc.) and unmovable (e.g., frescoes, valuable plasters or wall paintings, mosaics, and stuccoes). A correlation of damage between structural systems and artworks is fundamental for defining limit states, which can identify the proper conditions for interventions. Nevertheless, several vulnerability aspects can be identified before a seismic event occurs, the study of which can provide the basic dataset for setting up preventive measures in conservation programs. In this paper, the vulnerability and damage conditions related to structural elements (SE) and unmovable artistic assets (AA) belonging to historical masonry buildings are analysed. Optimized survey forms for the onsite detection of either intrinsic (e.g., compositional) defects or deterioration phenomena for both materials and structure are proposed, and results are provided in a web data system (called DataBAES). This enables us to compare the current levels of vulnerability and damage of AA and SE on a scale of five increasing grades. This procedure has been validated on a series of buildings struck by earthquakes in Italy and can be used for correlations of the seismic behaviour of SE and AA in predictive analyses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solutions for the Sustainable Management of a Cultural Landscape in Danger: Mar Menor, Spain
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010335 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
The focus of this paper is a case study on the municipality of San Javier in Spain. The aim of the analysis was to provide a working model for the integration of the assessment and conservation of built heritage into broader projects devoted [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper is a case study on the municipality of San Javier in Spain. The aim of the analysis was to provide a working model for the integration of the assessment and conservation of built heritage into broader projects devoted to the sustainable restoration of natural spaces undergoing evident declines in habitability. With a population of 31,905, San Javier is located on the edge of the Mar Menor, which is one of the largest permanent salt water lagoons in the Mediterranean. It forms part of the coastal region of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula. San Javier is one of four municipalities that administer this unique ecosystem. However, despite being designated as a protected natural site since its 14 beaches are one of the most important national and international tourist destinations in this Autonomous Community, since 2016, it has suffered one of the worst environmental crises in its history. One of the outcomes of this situation is that the government bodies involved have begun to seek new models for the area’s complete regeneration that would enable sustainable growth and also include the social and economic sectors that have, to date, played a secondary role in managing the area. In this regard, cultural heritage should play a key role. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the region’s cultural heritage, despite the complex issues involved in its management, especially for the local administrative bodies, can contribute to the creation of new models for regeneration. Besides the added value of cultural prestige provided by this area’s unique cultural landscape, which is a further legacy of the region’s history and artistic development, engaging with cultural heritage facilitates the revival of traditional systems that contribute to environmental improvement. Finally, this paper provides tools that enable local groups, and, above all, the residents themselves, to identify with the values of their cultural heritage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development: Impact Assessment of Two Adaptive Reuse Projects in Siracusa, Sicily
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010311 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
In this period of increasing urbanization, cultural heritage can play a key role to achieve sustainable development, as widely recognized by international institutions (i.e., United Nations (UN), UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)). In this [...] Read more.
In this period of increasing urbanization, cultural heritage can play a key role to achieve sustainable development, as widely recognized by international institutions (i.e., United Nations (UN), UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)). In this perspective, it is necessary to operationalize the principles stated at international level and thus new approaches and tools are required. The paper aims to understand the relationships between the implementation of adaptive reuse projects and their success (or not) in terms of impacts on the buildings themselves and on the urban context. The assessment framework for evaluating the impacts of heritage conservation and rehabilitation projects is described through the analysis and comparison of two Italian case studies: the Ancient Market and the Basilica of St. Peter the Apostle, in Siracusa (Italy). Although realized both in the same place (Ortigia, the historic centre of Siracusa), during the same period and by the same architect, these two interventions have produced different results in terms of urban development. A set of indicators, deduced from recent scientific studies, has been used to analyse the different impacts on physical, cultural, social, environmental and economic systems. To understand in depth the causes of these two different results, a survey has been carried out involving experts. The proposed indicators used for the ex-post evaluation can be also adopted in other contexts and for ex ante evaluation, in order to orient the strategic design choices in cultural heritage adaptive reuse projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Public Institutional Forms and Social Innovation in Urban Governance: Insights from the “Mayor’s Office of New Urban Mechanics” (MONUM) in Boston
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010023 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
This paper investigates how public sector institutions change their form and approach to achieve a socially innovative urban governance. The “Mayor’s Office of New Urban Mechanics” (MONUM) in Boston, Massachusetts (USA) proves a representative case of innovation in the public sector. As a [...] Read more.
This paper investigates how public sector institutions change their form and approach to achieve a socially innovative urban governance. The “Mayor’s Office of New Urban Mechanics” (MONUM) in Boston, Massachusetts (USA) proves a representative case of innovation in the public sector. As a new type of government agency, it is essentially an open innovation lab dedicated to innovative evidence-based policymaking. Following a new dynamic organizational pattern in urban governance, MONUM is conducive to project-oriented social innovation practices and horizontal multi-sectoral collaboration among the three societal sectors: public, private, and civil. Its results suggest that first, the peculiarity of MONUM lies in its hybrid and boundary-blurring nature. Second, new institutional forms that experiment with urban governance can rely on multi-sectoral collaboration. Third, MONUM has experimented with a systemic approach to social innovation following the “design thinking theory.” The MONUM case can contribute to the current debate in Europe on the need to harmonize EU policies for an effective social inclusion by promoting the application of the place-sensitive approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time Overrun in Public Works—Evidence from North-East Italy
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7057; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247057 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 528
Abstract
Cost and time overruns in public mega-projects have been widely studied and considered as interdependent factors in the literature on project management and the public economy. On the other hand, small-scale projects for public works (costing under €100 million) are far more common [...] Read more.
Cost and time overruns in public mega-projects have been widely studied and considered as interdependent factors in the literature on project management and the public economy. On the other hand, small-scale projects for public works (costing under €100 million) are far more common and contribute to transforming cities and territories even more than mega-projects. Is the development of these kinds of projects affected in the same way by overrun issues? Do cost and time overruns always go hand in hand? The present contribution tries to answer these questions by means of an empirical study on a dataset of 4781 small public works planned and built in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy) from 1999 to 2018. Specifically, the analysis refers to the stage of development when the decision is made to outsource the work, that is, after the project’s design and before its construction. Our sample of data is considered both as a whole and clustered by period, cost, contractor and category of work. The results of our analysis and statistical modeling are counterintuitive, suggesting that time overruns do not depend on the cost dimension, whereas norms and regulations play a crucial part in extending the duration of public works. The threshold by law of 1 million € costs implies time-consuming procedures to verify abnormal offers in the bid, that double the average award time from 244 days to 479 days. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cultural Heritage and Tourism Basis for Regional Development: Mapping of Scientific Coverage
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6034; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216034 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The aim of this research is to carry out a bibliometric and bibliographic study of the scientific production indexed in the international databases Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) on the use of cultural heritage by tourism as an alternative for regional development. [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to carry out a bibliometric and bibliographic study of the scientific production indexed in the international databases Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) on the use of cultural heritage by tourism as an alternative for regional development. This research allows us to observe the current situation of this area of study and to develop a research roadmap on this subject. The methodology used focuses on applying productivity, dispersion, collaboration, and citation indicators to a set of 103 articles identified through an advanced search of terms, in addition to applying an iterative analysis for the bibliographic study. The main findings of this study show that the documents are mostly analytical, mainly signed by a single author, and the productivity rate per author is 1.04. The co-author index in the subject is 2.34, and the subject is in an exponential growth phase that began in 2004, with a ratio of 6.53 articles/year, with the majority of the production being by a single author per article. The country with the highest production is China, with 28 articles, 26 authors, 28 authorships, and 15 centers, followed by the Russian Federation, with 21 articles. Universiti Sains Malaysia (Malaysia) is the most productive institution, with 15 authorships, and there is a group of aspiring authors (between 2 and 4 articles) whose geographical affiliation is Malaysia, a group that represents 3% of the total of authors and concentrates 17 articles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Public–Private Partnership for the Enhancement of Unused Public Buildings: An Experimental Model of Economic Feasibility Project
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5662; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205662 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
This article is part of the debate on the economic evaluation of urban regeneration projects to be implemented through partnership forms between public and private subjects. It illustrates the results of the research activity carried out by the authors, aimed at developing innovative [...] Read more.
This article is part of the debate on the economic evaluation of urban regeneration projects to be implemented through partnership forms between public and private subjects. It illustrates the results of the research activity carried out by the authors, aimed at developing innovative tools to verify the economic feasibility and the sustainability of projects for the reuse of unused public buildings. Particularly, the study made it possible to develop an experimental model of economic feasibility project to be used in the. The model aims at verifying if the economic conditions are satisfied, and which ones, if any, are appealing for the private involvement within the realization and/or management of collective utility interventions. Significant points of the model are: (1) The inclusion of real estate re-use projects in the wider context of urban and territorial regeneration; (2) the adoption of criteria to assess costs and revenues remarkably eligible, in the authors’ opinion, to understand the effective economic feasibility and/or sustainability of reuse projects, even under the framework of reliable techniques as the ‘Cash Flow Analysis’ and the ‘Discounted Cash Flow Analysis’. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Decision Support System for the Sustainable Reuse of the Former Monastery of “Ritiro del Carmine” in Campania Region
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5244; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195244 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Nowadays, many public administrations have abandoned and underused heritage buildings due to a lack of public resources, although the effective contribution of cultural heritage as a driver and enabler of sustainable development is strongly recognized. Currently, investments in cultural heritage have multidimensional impacts [...] Read more.
Nowadays, many public administrations have abandoned and underused heritage buildings due to a lack of public resources, although the effective contribution of cultural heritage as a driver and enabler of sustainable development is strongly recognized. Currently, investments in cultural heritage have multidimensional impacts (social, economic, historical, and cultural) and can contribute to increasing overall local productivity; improving the wellbeing of inhabitants; and attracting funding from the public, private, and private–social sectors. Lack of public resources has pushed local administrations to favor new forms of valorization of public property that can promote the “adaptive reuse” of historic buildings in order to preserve their social, historical, and cultural values. At the same time, administrations seek to stimulate the experimentation of new circular business, financing, and governance models in heritage conservation, creating synergies between multiple actors; reducing the use of resources; and regenerating values, knowledge, and capital. The objective of this paper is to propose an integrated evaluation model, based on multicriteria analysis, and a financial model to support the choice of an alternative reuse of an ancient monastery in the municipality of Mugnano in the Campania region in order to define a “shared strategy” based on a “bottom-up” approach. This starts from the needs of the local community but does not neglect the historical and cultural values of the heritage building, as well as the economic and financial feasibility. The positive results obtained show that the model proposed can be a useful decision support tool in environments characterized by high complexity such as cultural heritage sites, where the objective is to precisely highlight the elements that influence the dynamics of choice for building shared bottom-up development strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Multi-Criteria Methods for the Enhancement of Historical Buildings
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4526; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174526 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
The protection of cultural heritage is essential to preserve the memory of the territory and its communities, but its enhancement is also important. In this perspective, the theme of choosing the best use for historic buildings, which often make up a substantial and [...] Read more.
The protection of cultural heritage is essential to preserve the memory of the territory and its communities, but its enhancement is also important. In this perspective, the theme of choosing the best use for historic buildings, which often make up a substantial and widespread part of real estate and which can become a driving force for the sustainable development of cities, is important. These decision-making processes find effective support tools in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods, able to consider the multiple financial, social, cultural, and environmental effects that the enhancement project generates. In order to identify the most appropriate evaluation approach to select the best use of the building, this paper proposes a comparison between some of the best-known MCDM methods: Analitic Hierarchy Process (AHP), ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalité (ELECTRE), Tecnique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and the Compromise Ranking Method (VIKOR). The comparative analysis gives rise to the validity of the AHP, which is useful for reducing the problem into its essential components, so as to make a rational comparison among the design alternatives based on different criteria. The novelty of the research is the characterization of the hierarchical structure of the model, as well as the selection of criteria and indicators of economic evaluation. The application of the model to a real case of recovery and enhancement of a former convent in the province of Salerno (Italy) verifies the effectiveness of the tool and its adaptability to the specificities of the case study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How to Assess Urban Regeneration Proposals by Considering Conflicting Values
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3877; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143877 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Urban regeneration has to be based on rigorous methodological frameworks able to find a balance among preservation instances, economic development, urban quality and the well-being of the population. Considering these premises, this research is focused on the definition of the decision-aiding process for [...] Read more.
Urban regeneration has to be based on rigorous methodological frameworks able to find a balance among preservation instances, economic development, urban quality and the well-being of the population. Considering these premises, this research is focused on the definition of the decision-aiding process for the reuse of an abandoned health care facility with several historic buildings. Both public and private interests have been taken into consideration, since they play an important role for the urban regeneration project and for the definition of urban regeneration policies. Given the complexity of this issue, the evaluation process has been structured by combining different methodologies to support the policy cycle: Stakeholder Analysis, to identify the actors engaged (Social sustainability); Nara Grid for the values elicitation of the Built Cultural Heritage (Cultural and environmental sustainability); and the subsequent definition of different sustainable scenarios evaluated by the Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (Economic sustainability). Four alternatives have been assessed with the support of a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) aimed at defining the most balanced one considering heritage significance retention and urban regeneration. This work contributes to the literature on soft OR by exploring interactions among different stakeholders and addresses policy instances by providing a transparent methodology based on value elicitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysing the Mediating Effect of Heritage Between Locals and Visitors: An Exploratory Study Using Mission Patrimoine as a Case Study
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3015; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113015 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The connection among firms and tourists within cultural tourism clusters (CTC) is particularly strong in historical and World Heritage Cities destinations due to the ability of these destinations to contribute to the development of social capital (SC). This ability is explained from the [...] Read more.
The connection among firms and tourists within cultural tourism clusters (CTC) is particularly strong in historical and World Heritage Cities destinations due to the ability of these destinations to contribute to the development of social capital (SC). This ability is explained from the fact there is a strong connection between cultural heritage, identity and sense of belonging. In recent years the meaning of heritage has shifted from national to local importance, based on cultural value rather than on architectural or historical value. Therefore, the participation of local communities is essential in the heritage of sustainable tourism. This allows them not only to express their opinions, but also to actually take part in the processes of planning and management of heritage conservation. Local communities are those that are closely linked to cultural heritage. On the one hand, by applying an ambidextrous management approach to Mission Patrimoine (French lottery launched in 2018 aiming at generating revenue to restore build heritage) the French government has the opportunity to initiate a social capital (SC) initiative associating local stakeholders, namely the local government and the local population, and on the other hand, visitors or tourists. In this paper, a community-based heritage conceptual model is suggested to strengthen the identity sense and to combat the negative effects of tourism. Organisational ambidexterity has been identified as the most suitable approach, due to its ability to contribute to the development of a dialogical spaces. The findings of this research are going beyond the topic of heritage. They are relevant to any research related to sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paradoxes of the Italian Historic Centres between Underutilisation and Planning Policies for Sustainability
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092614 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The paper presents the analysis of the statistical data on population and real estate in 20 small-to-medium-sized cities in Northern Italy and shows a high rate of vacancy of housing and significant shrinkage of businesses and institutions in the historic centres, where urban [...] Read more.
The paper presents the analysis of the statistical data on population and real estate in 20 small-to-medium-sized cities in Northern Italy and shows a high rate of vacancy of housing and significant shrinkage of businesses and institutions in the historic centres, where urban heritage is concentrated. Given these findings, the paper analyses the official city plans of the cities with the worst underutilisation conditions, to understand how the plans have reacted to the decline of the centre. The result shows the extensive planning and regulation activity has very limitedly registered the phenomenon and failed to propose the empty inner cores as resources to reduce land consumption and recycle valuable assets in a circular economic vision. Combining the statistical data and the findings from the city plans, the paper concludes that Italian historic centres are living paradoxes—a collection of beauty, icon of well-being, model of sustainability, but abandoned—and therefore, the dense regulatory mechanisms that were necessary to conserve urban heritage during the decades of economic and demographic growth must be reframed to implement a circular economy and adapt to new requirements for living conditions. Full article
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Forte, F., et al. Valuation of the Vocationality of Cultural Heritage: The Vesuvian Villas. Sustainability 2020, 12, 943
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052069 - 07 Mar 2020
Viewed by 611
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
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