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Special Issue "Sustainability in SMEs"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Beatriz Junquera

Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. del Cristo s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Asturias), Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34-985-10-49-72
Fax: +34-985-10-38-07
Interests: environmental management; technology and innovation management; human resource management; entrepreneurship

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue will comprise a selection of papers addressing competitiveness and sustainability in SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) to simultaneously improve their environmental and organizational performance. Research papers address those concerns linked to: (1) ecological impact by SMEs; (2) environmental strategies in SMEs; (3) relationship between environmental and organizational performance in SMEs; (4) specific characteristics of environmental management in SMEs; (5) barriers towards developed environmental approaches in SMEs; and (e) ways of fostering the most developed environmental strategies in SMEs. Covered topics include the identification of the most usual environmental strategies in SMEs, the reasons which explain that choice, the external factors (environmental stakeholders, clients, suppliers, government, etc.), which foster the environmental development in SMEs, the integration between environmental issues and manufacturing strategy in SMEs, the role of managers to develop the environmental approaches in SMEs, the organizational status of environmental issues in SMEs, among others. Papers selected for the Special Issue are subject to a rigorous peer review procedure with the aim of quick and wide dissemination of research results, developments and applications.

Prof. Dr. Beatriz Junquera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • environmental management
  • SMEs
  • competitiveness
  • environmental performance
  • eco-innovation
  • environmental strategy

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Multi-Dimensional Approach of Green Marketing Competitive Advantage: A Perspective of Small Medium and Micro Enterprises from Western Cape, South Africa
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103764
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The study focuses on green competitive advantage from a multi-dimensional perspective, investigating the impact of green marketing tools and company descriptive variables on these dimensions. The data were collected from small, medium and micro enterprises (SMME) from Western Cape/South Africa, an area marked
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The study focuses on green competitive advantage from a multi-dimensional perspective, investigating the impact of green marketing tools and company descriptive variables on these dimensions. The data were collected from small, medium and micro enterprises (SMME) from Western Cape/South Africa, an area marked by long-term water consumption restrictions. A qualitative approach was considered for variable tailoring to the SMMEs’ peculiarities, followed by a quantitative study, employing a sample of 237 companies, for testing each competitive advantage dimension against the established green marketing tools and company descriptive variables using logistic regressions. Each competitiveness variable was explained by at least one green marketing tool. Donating money and/or allocating time for environmental purposes explained three dependent variables, while selling biodegradable/recycled/refurbished products had an inverse relationship with two of them. Business type and number of operational years had a significant impact on three dimensions. This study enriches the literature by using green competitive advantage dimensions and not a latent factor, analyzing the impact of company descriptive variables as explanatory variables and prompting green strategies for small and medium businesses. The model could be improved by tests in other geographic areas, including green distribution and price variables and other descriptive factors (turnover, responsible investment and internationalization). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Strategic Instrument for Sustainability of Human Resource Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Management Data
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103687
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Quality human resources are an integral part of corporate strategy. Human capital development is an essential step towards the success of the business on the market. This paper fills the hole by providing the information about the ways how to motivate employees in
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Quality human resources are an integral part of corporate strategy. Human capital development is an essential step towards the success of the business on the market. This paper fills the hole by providing the information about the ways how to motivate employees in terms of occupational classification and the age. The aim of the research was to determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the level of importance of employee motivation in terms of occupational classification and the age of respondents and the studied areas of motivation. A total of 3720 employees in small and medium-sized enterprises were analysed all over Slovakia using the method of simple random sampling. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sampling units. The differences in the values of the importance of motivation factors of individual groups were tested using the method of Tukey’s HSD at the level of significance α = 5%. Following the results, the fact that there are significant differences in terms of occupational classification and the age in the analysed areas of motivation can be stated. Therefore, the managers have to motivate employees in different ways that result in the more complicated management of human resources associated with meeting enterprise goals. Thus, the issue of individual motivation programmes created for individual employees tailored to employees’ needs must be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Business Models of SMEs: Challenges in Yacht Tourism Sector
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3437; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103437
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
Despite the high number of active small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in all sectors, current studies have barely developed investigations on the sustainability of their business models so far. The aim of this study was thus to bridge the gap between sustainable business
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Despite the high number of active small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in all sectors, current studies have barely developed investigations on the sustainability of their business models so far. The aim of this study was thus to bridge the gap between sustainable business models of SMEs in the service industry, to uncover the challenges that SMEs face when seeking business model reconfiguration toward sustainability. More specifically, the empirical investigation adopted a case study research design in the context of yacht tourism, as one business form among many within the tourism industry and thus within the broader category of the service industry. Interviews were conducted with seven European SMEs, whose business models were analyzed through the lens of the triple bottom line and sustainability challenges in their business models. The results display a varied typology of case studies, where business model components reveal diverse expressions of facing sustainability challenges. The work discusses reported findings with a cross-case comparison among detected business models and outlines a list of propositions for sustainable business models of SMEs. The paper contributes in continuing the discourse on sustainable business models, adopting the perspective of the challenges for SMEs and offers food for thought for managers of SMEs in comparing their own business with the identified business model types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Readiness of SMEs for Eco-Innovation and Industrial Symbiosis: Development of a Screening Tool
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2861; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082861
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
Despite the high business, innovation and sustainability potential linked with eco-innovation and industrial symbiosis, limited implementation can be observed in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In order to enhance the implementation of these concepts in SMEs, the main goal of this paper is
[...] Read more.
Despite the high business, innovation and sustainability potential linked with eco-innovation and industrial symbiosis, limited implementation can be observed in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In order to enhance the implementation of these concepts in SMEs, the main goal of this paper is to propose a screening tool to identify and evaluate SMEs’ potential for eco-innovation, with a special focus on industrial symbiosis and green business models aspects. In order to accomplish this goal, an action research was developed in two cycles: (1) development and testing of the screening prototype; and (2) improvement and scale-up of the enhanced screening tool, in close collaboration with the research partners. In addition to enabling a better understanding about their own internal processes and activities, the evaluation of the potential of 108 SMEs for eco-innovation provided them with detailed insights about how to reach the potential benefits with industrial symbiosis and green business models. Differently from the identified existing tools, the screening tool proposed in this research aims at supporting companies to understand what their potential for eco-innovation is, combining wider eco-innovation and industrial symbiosis opportunities and green business models, supplemented with a readiness evaluation to explore the existing potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Sustainability Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Southern Brazil
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2460; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072460
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manufacturing, aiming to identify the main practices of sustainability, including the values and transparency, internal audience, environment, supplier relationships, customer and/or consumer relationships, and community relationships. In
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manufacturing, aiming to identify the main practices of sustainability, including the values and transparency, internal audience, environment, supplier relationships, customer and/or consumer relationships, and community relationships. In order to develop this research, a questionnaire was applied on the subject in question, through which the companies were classified as to their reality in relation to corporate social responsibility. Based on the analysis, it was observed that five of these companies obtained a score that indicates that the companies have already assimilated the associated concepts and are clear of the necessary commitments for a socially responsible action. However, given the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that there is a need to strengthen the actions to be taken with regard to corporate social responsibility, since no company has positioned itself in excellence. In addition, some suggestions for new research were identified and discussed in the analysis of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Proactivity and Firms’ Performance: Mediation Effect of Competitive Advantages in Spanish Wineries
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072155
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main aim of this paper is to show the extent to which environmental proactivity is able to generate competitive advantages in a firm in order to improve their economic-financial performance by introducing the role of managerial perception into the analysis. This study
[...] Read more.
The main aim of this paper is to show the extent to which environmental proactivity is able to generate competitive advantages in a firm in order to improve their economic-financial performance by introducing the role of managerial perception into the analysis. This study focuses on Spanish wineries and their environmental practices and covers a total of 4598 wineries with a sample of 142 valid responses during the month of November 2015. The results can be summarized as follows. Firstly, there is positive environmental proactivity in terms of obtaining both cost-based and differentiation-based competitive advantages. Likewise, this proactivity has a positive impact on the manager’s perception of performance. Secondly, obtaining differentiation-based competitive advantages has a positive impact on the manager’s perception of performance although a negative impact on performance itself. There is, however, no significant evidence of the impact of cost-based competitive advantages on financial performance nor on the perception of performance itself, nor the impact of environmental proactivity on financial performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Differences of Corporate Environmental Responsibility in Small and Medium Enterprises: Spain and Norway
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061877
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that are related to Small and Medium Enterprises’ (SMEs’) environmental attitude. We focus on Spain and Norway—two contrasting countries in this regard. Drawing on evidence from the Flash Eurobarometer 381 Survey: SMEs, Resource
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that are related to Small and Medium Enterprises’ (SMEs’) environmental attitude. We focus on Spain and Norway—two contrasting countries in this regard. Drawing on evidence from the Flash Eurobarometer 381 Survey: SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets, the results show that there is a significant difference on environmental commitment in favor of Norway. Our estimation results show that firms’ structural characteristics are strong factors influencing attitudes towards environmental responsibility, but even after controlling for such firm-specific differences, Norwegian firms still show a higher probability for a pro-environmental attitude. Moreover, our estimation results also show that the drivers for firms to go beyond environmental legislation are not the same in the two countries. Norwegian firms are more market-driven than Spanish firms in their pro-environmental attitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Entrepreneurial Leadership, Performance, and Sustainability of Micro-Enterprises in Malaysia
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051591
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study probed into the impact of entrepreneurial leadership dimensions (i.e., responsibility, accountability, analytical thinking, and emotional intelligence) on the performance and sustainability of micro-enterprises in Kelantan, Malaysia, through the lens of resource-based view (RBV) theory. Through the implementation of a cross-sectional design,
[...] Read more.
This study probed into the impact of entrepreneurial leadership dimensions (i.e., responsibility, accountability, analytical thinking, and emotional intelligence) on the performance and sustainability of micro-enterprises in Kelantan, Malaysia, through the lens of resource-based view (RBV) theory. Through the implementation of a cross-sectional design, data were randomly gathered from 403 micro-entrepreneurs whose names appeared in the list of low-income households registered under “Majlis Amanah Rakyat” Kelantan and “Majlis Agama Islam Dan Adat Istiadat” Kelantan. The quantitative data were collected during structured interview sessions held between September and December 2017. The findings of the study revealed that the aspects of responsibility, accountability, and emotional intelligence exhibited significantly positive effects on micro-enterprise performance; while accountability, analytical thinking, and micro-enterprise performance displayed a significantly positive influence on sustainability among micro-enterprises owned by low-income households in Kelantan, Malaysia. The outcomes further portrayed a significant mediating effect of micro-enterprise performance on the correlations of responsibility, analytical thinking, and emotional intelligence with micro-enterprise sustainability. The outcomes of this study extend the scope of RBV theory and simultaneously enhance our understanding pertaining to leadership, performance, and sustainability interplay, particularly within the context of micro-enterprises in emerging economies. As such, it is recommended that the government of Malaysia formulate and to adopt policies that promote varied entrepreneurial-leadership-related traits among budding micro-entrepreneurs, which may not only boost sustainability performance among firms, but also encourage low-income household heads to actively engage in more entrepreneurial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Innovations and Other Processes as Identifiers of Contemporary Trends in the Sustainable Development of SMEs: The Case of Emerging Regional Economies
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051361
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the biggest group of enterprises in the European Union (EU); they are also characteristic of emerging economies. Given this situation, there is a need to provide instruments such as processes that allow them to realize a model
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Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the biggest group of enterprises in the European Union (EU); they are also characteristic of emerging economies. Given this situation, there is a need to provide instruments such as processes that allow them to realize a model of sustainable development. The ability to classify processes and the occurrences within these processes often affects the state of the enterprises. The implementation of innovations, as identified processes, facilities sustainable development for SMEs. The purpose of this article is to find out whether the identification of processes such as innovations has any influence on the competitiveness and sustainable development of SMEs. This study was based on pilot research that examined small and medium enterprises regionally based on the example of an emerging economic region of Poland. The research focused on the identification of the processes and changes happening inside enterprises in terms of understanding the sustainable development concept. The research composition allows the presentation of how SMEs understand the problems analyzed. The study features a new questionnaire, a new definition of sustainable development, and matches those processes identified by the enterprises analyzed with the particular sustainable development dimensions suggested by the authors. In light of the analysis of the literature and the results of this research, the study offers some important contributions in terms of understanding and offering practical meaning to the identification of various processes. The most important finding was that there is a need to raise awareness among entrepreneurs of the fact that innovations are also processes in themselves, which often constitute the sum of other supporting processes occurring within the enterprise. Support in the form of knowledge transfer from experts to SMEs would also be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle An Empirical Study on the Manufacturing Firm’s Strategic Choice for Sustainability in SMEs
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020572
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To survive in the current competitive, unpredictable business environment, it is significant for firms to search and enforce capabilities that lead them to adapt and cope with dynamic changes of environment for their sustainability. We try to connect operation issues with sustainability in
[...] Read more.
To survive in the current competitive, unpredictable business environment, it is significant for firms to search and enforce capabilities that lead them to adapt and cope with dynamic changes of environment for their sustainability. We try to connect operation issues with sustainability in this paper. From the perspective of the dynamic capabilities of the firm, this study suggests a conceptual model that presents relationships among supply chain visibility, modular design, supply chain flexibility, and agility. We do not focus on the module buyer but on the small and middle-sized enterprises (SMEs). An empirical study is performed to verify the relationships proposed, using datasets collected from 232 manufacturing SMEs as module suppliers in South Korea. We used SPSS to analyze data and structural equation modeling to verify the hypotheses of the research model. The important contributions of this study are as follows. Firstly, we suggest relationships among supply chain visibilities and a modular design for supply chain flexibility and agility in sustainable performance. Secondly, we show that supply chain visibility directly leads firms to implement modular design in sustainable development. Thirdly, we verify the importance of supply chain visibility, not for module buyers, but for module suppliers by switching views in terms of SMEs’ sustainability. Lastly, this study shows that the suppliers’ modular design affects supply chain flexibility and agility, which is consistent with the findings presented in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Determinants Linked to Family Business Sustainability in the UAE: An AHP Approach
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010246
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritise the various success factors linked to the sustainability of large and medium sized family businesses (FB) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A well-researched methodology was used for the synthesis of priorities and
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritise the various success factors linked to the sustainability of large and medium sized family businesses (FB) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A well-researched methodology was used for the synthesis of priorities and the measurement of consistencies. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model was developed with seven criteria and 15 sub-criteria gleaned from prior research. Data were collected using an interview-based survey conducted on twelve medium and large sized family firms in the UAE. The data collected were interpreted and a priority vector was assigned. The findings show that large family businesses in the UAE are aware of transition failure and have long-term planning for their future generations in place; however, they need to give more importance to family values and family capital. On the other hand, medium sized family businesses are less aware of transition failure and have limited long-term planning; they are more concerned with short-term returns. Therefore, they need to create and give more importance to succession planning, strategic planning and corporate governance to ensure their business longevity. The study highlights multi-generation family business sustainability, and identifies the major determinants that the family members and business leaders need to consider for their business continuity and survival. The model can be utilized by academics in family business sustainability studies. The findings interpreted can help policy makers and related associations develop various policies based on the specific factors found to run the family businesses in a sustainable manner. The research model had limited dimensions and the findings cannot be generalized. This study is the first to study the determinants of family business sustainability in the context of the UAE using the AHP model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Econometric Modeling of SME Performance. Case of Romania
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010192
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, we analyzed the financial equilibrium factors that have a major impact on SME financial performance, as this performance is considered to have played a pivotal role in Romania’s recovery from the economic crisis. Thus, we built econometric models based
[...] Read more.
In the present study, we analyzed the financial equilibrium factors that have a major impact on SME financial performance, as this performance is considered to have played a pivotal role in Romania’s recovery from the economic crisis. Thus, we built econometric models based on return on assets and return on sales in five economic sectors, i.e., pharmaceuticals, furniture manufacturing, leather garment factories, software firms and textile factories. We show how the enterprises’ performance was influenced by the independent variables of the equilibrium: fixed assets, current assets, inventory, receivables, equity and liabilities. The results indicate that return on assets is influenced by the current assets ratio and the inventory ratio in all models, as well as by the equity-to-total liabilities ratio in 80% of the models. We also notice that assets ratios have the highest influence on performance evaluation, namely inventory ratio in all models and current assets ratio in 87.5% of the models. In addition, liabilities ratios influence performance as follows: equity-to-total liabilities ratio in 80% of the models and total debt-to-assets ratio in 35% of the models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Government Support on Corporate Performance Hedging against International Environmental Regulation
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111980
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Government support systems are crucial for export SMEs (Small to Medium Enterprises) to cope with growing international environmental regulations. However, empirical studies show a limited research area to explore the performance of export SMEs with the help of government support systems to meet
[...] Read more.
Government support systems are crucial for export SMEs (Small to Medium Enterprises) to cope with growing international environmental regulations. However, empirical studies show a limited research area to explore the performance of export SMEs with the help of government support systems to meet international environmental regulations. This study draws implications on the relationship between government support and corporate performance on export SMEs between two countries: Korea and China. Based on 350 samples from Korea and 320 from China, we diagnosed government supports most positively affects corporate performances in the area of eco-innovation. While education, certificate, and tax supports were less pressing areas to support, no significance was found in information support. Furthermore, we found that eco-innovation is the strongest motive to accelerate corporate performance. Finally, the support of Chinese government on firms seems to be more affective when compared to Korean government support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability in SMEs: Top Management Teams Behavioral Integration as Source of Innovativeness
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101899
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Top management teams’ (TMTs’) behavioral integration has received extensive attention from strategic management scholars in recent years. To learn more about the consequences of this phenomenon at the team level, we explore the relationship between TMTs’ behavioral integration with their innovativeness and sustainability
[...] Read more.
Top management teams’ (TMTs’) behavioral integration has received extensive attention from strategic management scholars in recent years. To learn more about the consequences of this phenomenon at the team level, we explore the relationship between TMTs’ behavioral integration with their innovativeness and sustainability orientation. To accomplish this, we surveyed 40 TMTs in Iranian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at two points in time. We ran a hierarchical multiple regression in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Building a theoretical model based on the Upper-Echelons framework, we found that the extent to which a TMT is behaviorally integrated is positively and significantly related to TMT innovativeness. Furthermore, our result reveals that a highly behaviorally integrated TMT is more likely to engage in sustainability-oriented actions. Hence, behaviorally integrated TMTs offer its team members an increased chance of being innovative and generating new ideas as compared to less behaviorally integrated TMTs. Finally, our results indicate that the generation of novel ideas is higher in teams with younger members, and that highly educated TMTs generate more innovative ideas in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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Open AccessArticle Taxpayer’s Perception to Tax Payment in Kind System in Support of SMEs’ Sustainability: Case of the South Korean Government’s Valuation of Unlisted Stocks
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091523
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
PDF Full-text (504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Korea, unlisted stock shares are accepted as payment for inheritance tax. In the case of insufficient cash, a taxpayer can pay the government with listed or unlisted stocks (hereinafter referred to as “tax payment in kind”). The drawback of this tax payment
[...] Read more.
In Korea, unlisted stock shares are accepted as payment for inheritance tax. In the case of insufficient cash, a taxpayer can pay the government with listed or unlisted stocks (hereinafter referred to as “tax payment in kind”). The drawback of this tax payment system is that receiving tax paid with stocks is subject to the valuation of the government and selling the stocks to an open market requires another valuation. The results of these two valuations show considerable differences, and, therefore, the selling price in the open market is very low. This study analyzes how taxpayers recognize the differences in the valuation results of these unlisted stocks and how the differences affect the pricing for repurchasing the stocks from the open market. Results show that high valuation of unlisted stocks in tax payment in kind drives buyers to lower the purchasing price in the open market. This finding implies a problem in the government’s valuation method of unlisted stocks collected as tax. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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