Special Issue "Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Hazards and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Amy Javernick-Will
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder
Interests: Disaster Recovery;Disaster Resiliency;Disaster Risk Reduction; Humanitarian Shelter and Settlements; WASH;Global Engineering; Knowledge Management; Engineering Education
Dr. Aaron Opdyke
Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney
Interests: Disaster Risk Reduction; Humanitarian Shelter and Settlements; Informal Settlements; Housing; Disaster Recovery; Infrastructure Resilience

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue seeks contributions focusing on sheltering and housing in post-disaster settlements. We seek contributions that bridge the humanitarian–development nexus, from pre-disaster resiliency to emergency and temporary shelter, to the long-term development of sustainable housing and settlements. We are interested in contributions which unpack issues of sheltering and housing accessibility, affordability, safety, sustainability, and the associated environmental, social, and economic issues facing displaced populations. We also seek manuscripts which analyze the intersection of built infrastructure systems in post-disaster settlements, such as water, sanitation, power, drainage, and transportation. Contextually, we welcome manuscripts that address response to all types of disasters and conflict.

Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a rigorous peer-review process with the aim of the rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications.

Prof. Dr. Amy Javernick-Will
Dr. Aaron Opdyke
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • shelter
  • housing
  • settlements
  • displaced populations
  • humanitarian response
  • disaster risk reduction
  • disaster recovery
  • emergency management

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessCommunication
Bridging Gaps in Minimum Humanitarian Standards and Shelter Planning by Critical Infrastructures
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020849 - 16 Jan 2021
Abstract
Current agendas such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction or the Sustainable Development Goals are demanding more integration of disaster risk management into other thematic fields and relevant sectors. However, certain thematic fields such as shelter planning and critical infrastructure have [...] Read more.
Current agendas such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction or the Sustainable Development Goals are demanding more integration of disaster risk management into other thematic fields and relevant sectors. However, certain thematic fields such as shelter planning and critical infrastructure have not been integrated yet. This article provides an analysis of minimum humanitarian standards contained in the well-known Sphere handbook. Gaps are identified for several critical infrastructure services. Moreover, guidance on how to derive infrastructure or lifeline needs has been found missing. This article analyses the missing service supply and infrastructure identification items and procedures. The main innovation is a more integrative perspective on infrastructure that can improve existing minimum humanitarian standards. It can guide the provision of infrastructure services to various types for different hazard scenarios, hence make humanitarian aid and shelter planning more sustainable in terms of avoiding infrastructure or lifeline shortages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Relationship between Social Vulnerability, Social Capital, and Housing Resilience
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7718; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187718 - 18 Sep 2020
Abstract
Social vulnerability and social capital have been shown to influence how severely communities are impacted by natural hazards and how quickly they recover. Indices exist to quantify these factors using publicly available data; however, more empirical research is needed to validate these indices [...] Read more.
Social vulnerability and social capital have been shown to influence how severely communities are impacted by natural hazards and how quickly they recover. Indices exist to quantify these factors using publicly available data; however, more empirical research is needed to validate these indices and support their use in pre-disaster planning and decision making. Using data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and data gathered through imagery analysis in Google Earth, this study evaluates the effectiveness of two indices of social vulnerability and social capital to predict housing impacts and rates of recovery in Florida and Puerto Rico following Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017. We found the social vulnerability index to be statistically significant in explaining the variation of housing impacts in both case studies, with varying results for the sub-indices of social vulnerability. Results for the social capital index were mixed between the case studies, and we found no statistically significant relationship between any of the indices and rates of housing recovery. Our results show that indices such as these can be useful, with an awareness of limitations, for researchers and emergency practitioners, and additional empirical analysis is needed to more fully support their efficacy for resilience assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Decision Process for Optimizing Multi-Hazard Shelter Location Using Global Data
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6252; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156252 - 03 Aug 2020
Abstract
Mitigating the effects of natural hazards through infrastructure planning requires integration of diverse types of information from a range of fields, including engineering, geography, social science, and geology. Challenges in data availability and previously siloed data have hindered the ability to obtain the [...] Read more.
Mitigating the effects of natural hazards through infrastructure planning requires integration of diverse types of information from a range of fields, including engineering, geography, social science, and geology. Challenges in data availability and previously siloed data have hindered the ability to obtain the information necessary to support decision making for disaster risk management. This is particularly challenging for areas susceptible to multiple types of natural hazards, especially in low-income communities that lack the resources for data collection. The data revolution is altering this landscape, due to the increased availability of remotely sensed data and global data repositories. This work seeks to leverage these advancements to develop a framework using open global datasets for identifying optimal locations for disaster relief shelters. The goal of this study is to empower low-income regions and make resilience more equitable by providing a multi-hazard shelter planning framework that is accessible to all decision-makers. The tool described integrates spatial multi-criteria decision analysis methods with a network analysis procedure to inform decisions regarding disaster shelter planning and siting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Scalar Approach for Assessing Costs and Benefits of Risk Reduction Alternatives for the People and the City: Cases of Three Resettlements in Visakhapatnam, India
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 5958; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155958 - 24 Jul 2020
Abstract
Resettlement undertaken with the objective of reducing disaster risk often narrowly focuses only on reducing hazard exposure. However, when resettlements are analyzed from the perspective of holistic development outcomes, including livelihood conditions, health implications, social cohesion and employment opportunities, they are often found [...] Read more.
Resettlement undertaken with the objective of reducing disaster risk often narrowly focuses only on reducing hazard exposure. However, when resettlements are analyzed from the perspective of holistic development outcomes, including livelihood conditions, health implications, social cohesion and employment opportunities, they are often found to be lacking. Apart from this contrast between considerations of disaster risk and everyday socio-economic risks at the household or settlement level, resettlement programs also lack a clear focus on achieving wider regional development goals including poverty reduction, economic growth and environmental protection. This relates to the sectorization of attitudes to disaster risk and the lack of integration with development concerns across multiple actors involved. This paper offers an approach: (1) to systematize costs and benefits; and using these (2) to assess policy alternatives that could maximize the beneficial outcomes for the resettlement intervention as well as improve overall sustainability for the urban areas they are set in. This paper first situates “risks” within a larger context of structural risks, and then uses the framework of asset accumulation to recognize the changes experienced by the people as costs or benefits. For this, it goes beyond the resettlement site to a broader regional perspective of the city and reflects on the long-term historical trends as well as future risks created by the intervention in the context of urbanization processes and increasing climate variability. To illustrate the use of this approach in assessing intervention alternatives, the paper analyzes three empirical case studies representing in-situ, voluntary and involuntary resettlements from urban Andhra Pradesh in India. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Post-Disaster Housing Safety in Future Typhoons and Earthquakes
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3837; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093837 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
How residents perceive housing safety affects how structures are designed, built, and maintained. This study assesses the perceptions of housing safety through a survey of over 450 individuals in communities that received post-disaster housing reconstruction assistance following 2013’s Typhoon Yolanda, and that were [...] Read more.
How residents perceive housing safety affects how structures are designed, built, and maintained. This study assesses the perceptions of housing safety through a survey of over 450 individuals in communities that received post-disaster housing reconstruction assistance following 2013’s Typhoon Yolanda, and that were potentially vulnerable to earthquakes. We analyzed how housing design factors, post-disaster program elements, personal characteristics, and hazard type and exposure influenced safety perceptions. Overall, individuals were most concerned with the safety of their roofs during hazard events and perceived their houses would be less safe in a future typhoon than a future earthquake. Housing material significantly impacted safety perceptions, with individuals in wood houses perceiving their houses to be the least safe. Individuals living in areas more exposed to hazards also perceived their houses to be less safe. Being relocated after the typhoon, witnessing good or bad practices during reconstruction, and prior disaster experience also significantly influenced perceptions of housing safety. These results are used to make recommendations on how implementing organizations can most beneficially intervene with program factors to improve local understanding of housing safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pathways to Livable Relocation Settlements Following Disaster
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083474 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Mass relocation—the transfer of communities to new housing developments—is often implemented following disasters, despite criticism that past projects have not created livable communities for residents. Livable relocation communities are those where residents experience quality housing, utilities, social infrastructure, neighborliness, safety, and a sense [...] Read more.
Mass relocation—the transfer of communities to new housing developments—is often implemented following disasters, despite criticism that past projects have not created livable communities for residents. Livable relocation communities are those where residents experience quality housing, utilities, social infrastructure, neighborliness, safety, and a sense of permanence. Numerous conditions may support livability, such as site location, community involvement, and processes of managing construction and beneficiary transfer. We evaluated relocation communities in Tacloban City, Philippines, applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis to identify pathways, or combinations of conditions, that led to built and societal livability. We found pathways to livability generally differed between government and non-government developed sites, with the former benefiting from a slower pace and standard permitting procedures, and the latter by building fast and using scale and need to prompt improved services. An unexpected combination emerged as a pathway to societal livability—being remote and comprised of households originally from a mix of different communities—revealing a new narrative for positive social outcomes in relocation. Three conditions emerged as necessary for achieving overall livability: fast construction, full occupancy, and close proximity to an economic and administrative center. This analysis demonstrates necessary conditions and pathways that implementing agencies can reference in their quest to create livable relocation communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Typhoon Shelter Selection and Evacuee Allocation Model: A Case Study of Macao (SAR), China
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083308 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Typhoon disaster represent one of the most prominent threats to public safety in the Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China and can cause severe economic losses and casualties. Prior to the landing of typhoons, affected people should be evacuated to shelters as [...] Read more.
Typhoon disaster represent one of the most prominent threats to public safety in the Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China and can cause severe economic losses and casualties. Prior to the landing of typhoons, affected people should be evacuated to shelters as soon as possible; this is crucial to prevent injuries and deaths. Various models aim to solve this problem, but the characteristics of disasters and evacuees are often overlooked. This study proposes a model based on the influence of a typhoon and its impact on evacuees. The model’s objective is to minimize the total evacuation distance, taking into account the distance constraint. The model is solved using the spatial analysis tools of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is then applied in Macao to solve the evacuation process for Typhoon Mangkhut 2018. The result is an evacuee allocation plan that can help the government organize evacuation efficiently. Furthermore, the number of evacuees allocated to shelters is compared with shelter capacities, which can inform government shelter construction in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Criteria Location Model of Emergency Shelters in Humanitarian Logistics
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051759 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Natural disasters can cause serious casualties and economic losses, and emergency shelters are effective measures to reduce disaster risks and protect lives. At present, the location models of refuge facilities often ignore the diversion of shelter from the perspective of humanitarian logistics and [...] Read more.
Natural disasters can cause serious casualties and economic losses, and emergency shelters are effective measures to reduce disaster risks and protect lives. At present, the location models of refuge facilities often ignore the diversion of shelter from the perspective of humanitarian logistics and the needs of victims. Such models also seldom consider the impact of the pre-storage of relief materials on the location of shelters. In this study, on the basis of the different needs of disaster victims, shelters are divided into two types—basic life and psychological medical service guarantees. While considering the full coverage of shelter needs, capacities, and budget constraints, the shelter distance, the optimized distribution of refugees, and the pre-stock quantity of goods are optimized. The facility service quality is optimized on the basis of qualitative factors. This study proposes a multi-standard constrained site selection model to optimize the pre-disaster shelter site-allocation problem. The model is helpful for decision makers to influence shelter siting and victims’ allocating process through their expertise and to obtain a solution that compromises multiple objectives. In this study, several basic cases are generated from the actual data of certain areas in Sichuan Province, a disaster-prone region in China, to verify the effectiveness of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Stakeholder Legitimization of the Provision of Emergency Centralized Accommodations to Displaced Persons
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010284 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sudden population influxes into cities—such as those seen during post-disaster migration—place unexpected demands on the urban housing system. Decisions made during these influxes are often controversial, potentially hindering the ability of the organizations involved to respond. This study’s objective was to explore strategies [...] Read more.
Sudden population influxes into cities—such as those seen during post-disaster migration—place unexpected demands on the urban housing system. Decisions made during these influxes are often controversial, potentially hindering the ability of the organizations involved to respond. This study’s objective was to explore strategies (e.g., types of information shared and types of accommodation chosen) that can be used during decision-making processes when providing emergency accommodations to increase stakeholder acceptance, and thus lead to sustainable institutional responses. This study specifically sought to shed light on how, during the Refugee Crisis in Germany of 2015 and 2016, stakeholders legitimized decisions made to provide centralized emergency accommodations to displaced persons. Making this study possible were 25 semi-structured interviews with utility, government, nonprofit, and company employees involved in the provision of centralized accommodations for displaced persons. Interviews were conducted in 2016 and underwent a qualitative analysis. Results indicate that stakeholders primarily legitimized the provision of centralized accommodations based on convictions of right and wrong (moral legitimacy), while they legitimized decisions to not provide such accommodations based on their understanding and experience of practical barriers (cultural-cognitive legitimacy). Recommendations arising from this study include the following: provide information to stakeholders about accommodations’ livability (to gain consequential legitimacy) and past successes (to gain comprehensibility legitimacy), adapt regulations to help stakeholders use procedural legitimacy, and prefer fully renovated buildings or modular housing to buildings with no major renovations or container housing (to gain consequential rather than procedural legitimacy). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
A Review of Temporary Housing Management Modeling: Trends in Design Strategies, Optimization Models, and Decision-Making Methods
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10388; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410388 - 11 Dec 2020
Abstract
Temporary housing plays a critical role in disaster response and recovery by providing a temporary home for displaced people before they return to their permanent residence. In recent years, temporary housing has faced three primary dilemmas related to design type, site selection, and [...] Read more.
Temporary housing plays a critical role in disaster response and recovery by providing a temporary home for displaced people before they return to their permanent residence. In recent years, temporary housing has faced three primary dilemmas related to design type, site selection, and cost. Significant contributions have been made in research and in practice to improve temporary housing management. However, gaps still exist in resolving the dilemmas, and a critical review and evaluation of current methods is needed to determine the path forward and identify priorities of future research. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of prior methods developed and applied towards temporary housing management and identifies future pathways for success in temporary housing research and implementation. The literature review reveals that temporary housing requires further research in proactive management, storage, sustainability, and community resilience to effectively enhance post-disaster temporary housing. This study finds that programs such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and the Sheltering and Temporary Essential Power (STEP) program provide methodologies which can benefit temporary housing implementation, designs, and modeling. In addition, circular economy thinking can enable the recyclability of temporary housing to reduce economic and environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheltering and Housing Displaced Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop