Special Issue "Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ivo Machar
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Development and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Palacky University Olomouc, 17th Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: applying of landscape ecological principles to forest biodiversity conservation; floodplain forest ecology and sustainable management
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Landscape Ecology (LE) as a subdiscipline of ecology is the study of how both landscape structure and dynamics affect the abundance and distribution of organisms. Thus LE is aimed to the effects of patterns and processes in landscape scale. Currently, changing land use is one of the world´s major forces altering ecosystem services in landscapes over the world. Human activities are transforming land at a faster rate and greater extent than at any time in history. This is a perspective challenge for research in the field of emerging sustainability science. Human conversion of natural habitats and land use change is not only a local/regional phenomenon, but it can be considered as one of important global change drivers. Some of global change impacts on biodiversity can be studied only in landscape scale, such as climate change induced shift of vegetation zones. A landscape perspective fosters a multi-scale approach to landscape management and landscape/conservation planning. Also a landscape scale is very useful for innovative applying of the common management paradigm to multiple uses in agriculture, forestry and water resource management. Need of sustainable landscape management and planning is now obvious. Landscape conservation seems to be a new paradigm for the conservation biodiversity. This Special Issue (SI) of Sustainability journal is focused on building of bridge between scientific theory and practice of landscape management and planning based on applying of sustainability as a key conceptual framework. Papers dealing with various theoretical studies, and case studies of best practice of sustainable landscape management and planning across diverse landscapes of the world, are invited. Papers based on holistic and transdisciplinary approach would be valuable for the SI. Also papers focusing on landscape conservation and policy implications under sustainability in practice can be interesting for this special issue.

Assoc. Prof. Ivo Machar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Biodiversity conservation planning
  • Bioindicators of Beta and Gama diversity
  • Ecosystem management
  • Decision support tools for sustainable landscape management and planning 
  • Landscape Planning based on Sustainable Development Principles
  • Land use changes induced by human activities
  • Maintaining of biodiversity via landscape management
  • Mapping and measuring of ecosystem services in landscape perspective
  • Mitigation of land use change in landscape scale     
  • Multi-disciplinary approach to landscape   
  • Stakeholders and decision-makers role in land use
  • Sustainable Agriculture Practice
  • Sustainable Landscape Management
  • Sustainable Forest Management

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062354 - 18 Mar 2020
Abstract
Dynamic changes of landscape structure affect the abundance and distribution of organisms. Currently, changing land-use is one of the major forces altering ecosystem services in landscapes globally. Human activities are transforming land at a faster rate and greater extent than at any time [...] Read more.
Dynamic changes of landscape structure affect the abundance and distribution of organisms. Currently, changing land-use is one of the major forces altering ecosystem services in landscapes globally. Human activities are transforming land at a faster rate and greater extent than at any time in history. This is a perspective challenge for research in the field of emerging sustainability science. The human conversion of natural habitats and land use change is not only a local/regional phenomenon but can be considered as one of important global change drivers. Some of the impacts of global change on biodiversity can be studied only at the landscape scale, such as the climate change-induced shift of vegetation zones. A landscape perspective fosters a multi-scale approach to sustainable landscape management and landscape planning. Additionally, a landscape scale is very useful for the innovative application of the common management paradigm to multiple uses in agriculture, forestry and water resource management. The need for sustainable landscape management and planning is now obvious. Landscape conservation seems to be a new paradigm for the conservation of biodiversity. This Special Issue (SI) of the Sustainability journal is focused on building a bridge between scientific theory and the practice of landscape management and planning based on the application of sustainability as a key conceptual framework. Papers dealing with various theoretical studies and case studies of the best practice for sustainable landscape management and planning across diverse landscapes around the world are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Monetary Assessment of Restored Habitats as a Support Tool for Sustainable Landscape Management in Lowland Cultural Landscapes
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041341 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Surfaces directly influenced by mining and post-mining have risen to prominence in the field of restoration ecology. It is important to gain a better understanding of sustainable landscape management in lowland European cultural landscapes. Sand and gravel-pit areas were selected as study sites, [...] Read more.
Surfaces directly influenced by mining and post-mining have risen to prominence in the field of restoration ecology. It is important to gain a better understanding of sustainable landscape management in lowland European cultural landscapes. Sand and gravel-pit areas were selected as study sites, where mining activities have been the main factor in land use over recent decades. The post-mining restoration of each area disturbed by mining processes was planned according to legally enforced technical and biological restoration protocols, as well as a specific document entitled the Biological Action Plan (BAP). The financial costs of BAPs for individual study sites were compared with the monetary value of habitats over three time periods. The economic evaluation was based on the assessment method of ecological harm to habitats carried out in Hesse (Germany). The results show that the restoration of target habitats after mining will establish and gradually develop new natural habitats with a higher monetary value than before mining, which become refuges of biodiversity in cultural landscapes. The results also indicate that the ecological restoration of post-mining areas can result in a higher monetary value of the restored natural habitats in comparison to the original habitats which were destroyed by mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Willingness to Pay for Forest Existence Value and Sustainability
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030891 - 24 Jan 2020
Abstract
Uganda is richly endowed with flora and fauna. Until the early 2000s, most of the types of vegetation have remained natural/virgin forests and shrubs until recent years, when human activities have damaged them. Understanding the different ways that people value such endangered forest [...] Read more.
Uganda is richly endowed with flora and fauna. Until the early 2000s, most of the types of vegetation have remained natural/virgin forests and shrubs until recent years, when human activities have damaged them. Understanding the different ways that people value such endangered forest resources is very important. The main hypothesis in our study is that willingness to pay (WTP) for forest existence value and sustainability depends on the preference for the same values. In addition, we examined socioeconomic characteristics, such as sex, education, and household incomes, which could influence the WTP for forest existence value and sustainability. We carried out field questionnaire interviews with the aim of ascertaining Willingness to Pay (WTP) for forest existence. The WTP values were in a range between 1 and 200 USD based on the contingent valuation method (CVM). A sample with a size of 203 was interviewed in selected towns and villages in Uganda, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. The cross-tabulation of the expressed preferences illustrates that 81.9% of the representative sample are willing to pay for forest existence value and sustainability. We concluded that the willingness to pay for forest existence significantly depends on the preference for forest existence values and sustainability. Our results equally express that the mean WTP in this region is 15 USD per year and that over 60% are willing to pay this amount. The socioeconomic determinants’ results demonstrate heterogeneity and that over 90% of the respondents are willing to pay for forest existence, conservation, and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Are Valuable and Representative Natural Habitats Sufficiently Protected? Application of Marxan model in the Czech Republic
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010402 - 04 Jan 2020
Abstract
The joint impact of human activities and climate change on natural resources lead to biodiversity loss. Therefore, it is important to select protected areas through systematic conservation planning. The present study assessed how representative natural habitats are protected under the nature conservation network, [...] Read more.
The joint impact of human activities and climate change on natural resources lead to biodiversity loss. Therefore, it is important to select protected areas through systematic conservation planning. The present study assessed how representative natural habitats are protected under the nature conservation network, and to identify new—but so far insufficiently—protected areas containing these habitats for sustainable management. We used the Marxan model to select the most valuable insufficiently protected natural habitats in the Czech Republic as a representative example for a conservation strategy for Central–Eastern European environments. We set three conservation targets (25%, 50%, and 75%), defining how much percent area of valuable representative natural habitats should be added to the area of the habitats already included in the Nature Protection Network. To implement these conservation targets it is necessary to preserve 22,932 ha, 72,429, ha and 124,363 ha respectively of the conservation targets occurring in the insufficiently protected areas, and 17,255 ha, 51,620 ha, and 84,993 ha respectively of the conservation features in the areas without protection status. Marxan was revealed to be an appropriate tool to select the most valuable and insufficiently protected natural habitats for sustainable management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Fiscal Incentives and Sustainable Urbanization: Evidence from China
by Li Ji and Wei Zhang
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010103 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fiscal incentives can affect governments’ behavior and further influence economic and social development. Due to the specific conditions of the household registration system and the land ownership system in China, the urbanization process is dominated by the government. This article conceptually and empirically [...] Read more.
Fiscal incentives can affect governments’ behavior and further influence economic and social development. Due to the specific conditions of the household registration system and the land ownership system in China, the urbanization process is dominated by the government. This article conceptually and empirically investigates the influence of fiscal incentives on sustainable urbanization. We theoretically analyze the fiscal reasons why land urbanization occurs faster than the population urbanization. Then we employ panel data of 30 provinces and autonomous regions in China from 2000 to 2012 to discuss the impact of fiscal incentives on urbanization from four aspects: fiscal revenue, types of taxes, fiscal self-financing rate, and tax losses. The econometric results show that both the local tax revenue and fiscal self-financing rate have a significantly negative effect on the gap between land urbanization and population urbanization. The larger the proportion of business tax, the smaller the gap, and vice versa for value-added tax. The greater the local governments’ tax losses, the greater the gap. The results explain why local governments in China choose land urbanization rather than population urbanization from the perspective of fiscal incentives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Small Farm Activities for the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Landscapes: Case Studies from Europe
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 5966; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215966 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In Europe, a broad variety of agricultural landscape types have originated as a result of traditional farming activities and landscape diversity maintenance over centuries. The rapid development of socio-economic activities during the twentieth century caused significant loss of traditional rural landscapes. Traditional/historical European [...] Read more.
In Europe, a broad variety of agricultural landscape types have originated as a result of traditional farming activities and landscape diversity maintenance over centuries. The rapid development of socio-economic activities during the twentieth century caused significant loss of traditional rural landscapes. Traditional/historical European agricultural landscape types (EALs) represent a type of cultural landscape with many specific unique cultural, historical, and biodiversity patterns. Despite their high value, maintenance in practice is lacking. European farmers and landowners need to learn how to implement innovative multifunctional farming techniques within these landscapes. An online interactive educational tool of the ERASMUS+ FEAL project (FEAL: multifunctional Farming for the sustainability of European Agricultural Landscapes) deals with these topics. Case studies from the FEAL project showed the best examples of sustainable agricultural management practices in different types of EALs. The aim of this article was to evaluate case studies within coordination of information on the environment (CORINE) Land Cover (CLC) 2012 classes representing traditional land use forms, nature and landscape protection areas, and ecologically important areas, as well as High Nature Value (HNV) farmland. Results based on 28 case studies from five European countries interpreted the positive external effects of farms on values of EALs. A prevailing number of farms exhibited a coincidence between CLC 2012 classes with traditional land use forms and HNV farmland and protected areas. Regarding land cover classes with traditional land use forms, key words selected by farmers gave importance to recreation and tourism, furthering of biodiversity, direct sale, social farming, renewable energy, and traditional building. The highest frequencies of the key words were achieved in CLC 2012 classes concerning (to some degree) natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
The Integrated Approach to Landscape Management —Experience from Slovakia
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4554; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174554 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
The integrated approach to landscape management is generally accepted, but its application is not on the desired practical level. Sectoral approaches to decision-making and planning processes still dominate. The presented paper concerns selected aspects of integrated landscape management in Slovakia. This paper reflects [...] Read more.
The integrated approach to landscape management is generally accepted, but its application is not on the desired practical level. Sectoral approaches to decision-making and planning processes still dominate. The presented paper concerns selected aspects of integrated landscape management in Slovakia. This paper reflects the present state of the long-term effort and experiences of the authors in the integration of ecological knowledge in landscape management tools. The basic methodological procedure needed to achieve this goal consists of analysis, mutual comparison, and confrontation of the existing principles and tools used in applied landscape ecology, as well as in legislation and planning practice. The landscape ecological base for the implementation of scientific achievements in landscape management consists of two methods: landscape ecological planning and ecological network planning. These two methods were implemented into the legislation and practice of nature conservation, physical/territorial planning, watershed management, land arrangement projecting, forestry planning, and flood prevention management. Such systematic landscape ecological regulations in planning practice can be considered the basis for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Anthropogenic Landforms in Sustainable Landscape Management
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4331; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164331 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Anthropogenic landforms are attractive landscape structures. They are linked to the cultural elements of the landscape and they also support biodiversity on the landscape level. Concerning their position within heritage concepts, anthropogenic landforms can be seen as a bridge between natural and cultural [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic landforms are attractive landscape structures. They are linked to the cultural elements of the landscape and they also support biodiversity on the landscape level. Concerning their position within heritage concepts, anthropogenic landforms can be seen as a bridge between natural and cultural heritages. This paper is focused on the relevance of anthropogenic landforms to landscape management and planning. The study is based on the concept of geomorphosites, which can be applied within sustainable management and the conservation of geomorphological heritage. The case study was applied in the urban area of Brno (Czech Republic). The results of the study indicated the importance of anthropogenic landforms for urban landscape conservation and sustainable tourism development. The assessment of landforms in the study area enabled to establish a set of recommendations for the sustainable management of anthropogenic landforms in Brno. This study suggested the assessment of anthropogenic landforms as a support tool for sustainable landscape management in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
What is the Development Capacity for Provision of Ecosystem Services in the Czech Republic?
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4273; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164273 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of our study is to identify the evolution of land use and the landscape capacity to provide selected ecosystem services (ESs) over the past 28 years. The results obtained should answer whether the recorded land cover development has manifested in the [...] Read more.
The aim of our study is to identify the evolution of land use and the landscape capacity to provide selected ecosystem services (ESs) over the past 28 years. The results obtained should answer whether the recorded land cover development has manifested in the same way as the development of landscape capacity to provide ESs for four different services. Corine Land Cover (CLC) data are used to describe the land cover for five time periods (1990, 2000, 2006, 2012, and 2018) for the area of interest—the whole of the Czech Republic Identification of persistence area. The main trajectories of land cover developments are calculated using overlay spatial operations in GIS. For each analyzed year of landscape development, land cover is evaluated separately, and basic quantification indicators are calculated. At the same time, the filling capacity of selected ESs is evaluated. The results show that the assessed area had the highest capacity to provide ecological integrity in 1990–2006, and then this slightly decreased due to category changes. From a spatial point of view, the worst development trend is seen for provisioning services, where negative development is represented almost all over the country. Ecological integrity and regulating services have similar spatial characteristics of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Socioeconomic Impacts of the FSC and PEFC Certification Systems on Business Entities and Consumers
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4122; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154122 - 30 Jul 2019
Abstract
The article discusses the issues of effectiveness of the FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) and PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification) certification systems in relation to enterprises and the level to which the systems which present sustainability as a part of their [...] Read more.
The article discusses the issues of effectiveness of the FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) and PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification) certification systems in relation to enterprises and the level to which the systems which present sustainability as a part of their ethos are accepted by consumers. The justifiability and topicality of this issue result from the increasingly strong interest in sustainability of the society as a whole as well as from the long-term vision of sector policies with respect to meeting the objectives of sustainable development. The increasing demand for natural resources exerts pressure on our planet. Sustainability is hence essential for our future and has long been in the centre of the European project. Its economic, social and environmental aspects which form the common objective of society have been acknowledged in EU agreements. A principal document of a global nature is the 2030 UN Agenda for Development, a sustainability programme which has the sustainability of forest ecosystems established in its Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. Visions, direction and goals of sustainable development have also been stipulated in the Paris Agreement on climate change (COP21), in the Addis Ababa action programme and in The Future We Want declaration, namely in its Chapter II, which appeals to enterprises and industries for developing strategies which would contribute to sustainable development. This study aims to analyse and assess the justifiability of the existence of certification systems in relation to processing operators and end consumers in the Czech Republic. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that, despite the strong representation of selected certification systems in the Czech Republic, their effectiveness in economic, social and environmental terms is not perceived exclusively positive by businesses and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
Open AccessArticle
Thorny Shrubs Limit the Browsing Pressure of Large Herbivores on Tree Regeneration in Temperate Lowland Forested Landscapes
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3578; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133578 - 28 Jun 2019
Abstract
Thorny shrubs are considered as an important driver in the natural development of temperate forest structures, particularly in European lowland forests. We assessed the current role of thorny shrubs in the regeneration of deciduous tree species under heavy browsing pressure in a central [...] Read more.
Thorny shrubs are considered as an important driver in the natural development of temperate forest structures, particularly in European lowland forests. We assessed the current role of thorny shrubs in the regeneration of deciduous tree species under heavy browsing pressure in a central European temperate forested landscape. The study’s military training area offered a unique opportunity to investigate the processes in which deciduous tree seedlings grew under thorny shrubs and in the close vicinity of thorny shrubs in a landscape with a high density of large herbivores (red deer and sika deer). We assessed the number of seedlings, species composition, seedling height, and degree of browsing damage, and their relationship to study plots elevation, thorny shrub species, coverage, and height. The regenerated tree seedlings were mostly detected as common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and wild cherry (Cerasus avium). The species of thorny shrubs were blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.), and wild rose (Rosa sp.). We found that the thorny shrubs protected the tree seedlings from browsers to a large extent. However, the effects of thorny shrubs on the tree seedlings’ characteristics varied among the shrub species. While results revealed significant effects of hawthorn and wild rose on the tree seedlings’ abundance and survival, blackthorn’s negative effect of shading the tree seedlings outweighed its protective role. These results indicated a possible mechanism that enabled the regeneration of deciduous tree species under large herbivore pressure. These results can be applied in the landscape planning and forest management of deciduous tree regeneration and forest restoration in temperate forested lowland landscapes, where high densities of large herbivores (without the presence of large predators) usually occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Visitor Preferences and Attendance to Singletrails in the Moravian Karst for the Sustainable Development Proposals
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3560; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133560 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
An optional leisure activity in forest areas for mountainbikers is the subject of discussion in this article. Cycling has become a popular leisure time activity, not only in the Czech Republic but internationally. A bicycle offers the user an unparalleled freedom that seems [...] Read more.
An optional leisure activity in forest areas for mountainbikers is the subject of discussion in this article. Cycling has become a popular leisure time activity, not only in the Czech Republic but internationally. A bicycle offers the user an unparalleled freedom that seems to have great appeal in these globalized, modern times. A singletrail is a narrow single-directional path for mountain bicycles in the landscape, in contrast to the two-lane forest roads mainly intended for the industrial purposes of forest management. The singletrails of Moravský kras (Moravian Karst) are built on the land owned by the Mendel University in Brno (Masaryk Forest Enterprise Křtiny) near the Jedovnice municipality of the Czech Republic. The aim of the article is to assess the attendance of the area using automatic counters, and to analyse the results, especially according to the illegal transits in the area of interest. The preferences of visitors were evaluated using questionnaires as well. Hypotheses were defined, and the chi-square test and Mann-Whitney testing methods were used to validate or improve them. Separate preferences for men and women were analysed in order to detect the differences or similarities of preferences. According to the results, women notably prefer the medium to easiest level of difficulty of the trails while men mainly prefer the trails of medium difficulty, although they use the most difficult trails too. Contact with nature is important for both the target groups. Training on singletrails is not as important for women as for men, but physical activity is very important to both groups. Women mainly ride on the singletrails for the joy of movement, which they consider to be a more important reason than men. The results of this study will be used to improve the area for mountainbikers as well as singletrail design for newly planned areas. Both human preferences and environmental needs will be taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Land Use Management Needed to Conserve the Dragon’s Blood Tree of Socotra Island, a Vulnerable Endemic Umbrella Species
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3557; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133557 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Unsustainable overgrazing is one of the most important threats to the endemic and endangered population of dragon’s blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari) on Socotra Island (Republic of Yemen). However, there is a lack of information about the exact population size and its [...] Read more.
Unsustainable overgrazing is one of the most important threats to the endemic and endangered population of dragon’s blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari) on Socotra Island (Republic of Yemen). However, there is a lack of information about the exact population size and its conservation status. We estimated the population size of D. cinnabari using remote sensing data. The age structure was inferred using a relationship between crown projection area and the number of branch sections. The conservation importance of each sub-population was assessed using a specially developed index. Finally, the future population development (extinction time) was predicted using population matrices. The total population size estimated consists of 80,134 individuals with sub-populations varying from 14 to 32,196 individuals, with an extinction time ranging from 31 to 564 years. Community forestry controlled by a local certification system is suggested as a sustainable land management approach providing traditional and new benefits and enabling the reforestation of endemic tree species on Socotra Island. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Viewshed and Spatial Aesthetic Analyses to Forest Practices for Mountain Scenery Improvement in the Republic of Korea
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092687 - 11 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Forest practices for mountainous areas can enhance the scenery value and function of forests. However, forest scenery management is rarely implemented except for conservation areas and public forests. In this study, we first used the viewshed analysis to extract visible and invisible zones [...] Read more.
Forest practices for mountainous areas can enhance the scenery value and function of forests. However, forest scenery management is rarely implemented except for conservation areas and public forests. In this study, we first used the viewshed analysis to extract visible and invisible zones from the surface areas of ordinary mountains in Korea, and then we used spatial aesthetic analysis to interpret the human-recognized characteristics on the visible zones of mountain scenery. Finally, based on the results of both analyses, reasonable guidelines for forest practice planning were proposed to improve the scenery of ordinary mountains. The result shows that the viewshed analysis made it possible to extract visible and invisible areas from the surface areas of ordinary mountains, and to determine the scale of zoning for forest practices to improve mountain scenery. In addition, using spatial aesthetic analysis, it was possible to explain the characteristics of mountain scenery according to distance and elevational differences between viewpoint and target, and to suggest a treatment target and direction for forest practices to improve the mountain scenery. This study is meaningful in that the viewshed and spatial aesthetic analyses were applied to evaluate the current scenery of ordinary mountains and to present guidelines for forest practice planning to promote their own scenery values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Prioritization and Evaluation of Land Consolidation Projects—Žitava River Basin in a Slovakian Case
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072041 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Experience shows that existing selections (particularly in Slovakia) of cadastral areas for land consolidation (LC) projects have been overwhelmingly subjective based on diverse sources of information, particular interests and the degree of LC’s popularity in different regions. Multi-criteria evaluation and clustering may be [...] Read more.
Experience shows that existing selections (particularly in Slovakia) of cadastral areas for land consolidation (LC) projects have been overwhelmingly subjective based on diverse sources of information, particular interests and the degree of LC’s popularity in different regions. Multi-criteria evaluation and clustering may be an adequate, universal and yet an inexpensive solution as a semi-objective approach for selection and evaluation of land consolidation projects. Based on an analysis of parameters and data from 74 cadastral areas in the Žitava River basin in Slovakia, a set of criteria (geometrical, ownership/social, environmental, erosion, and morphology) and weights for them have been identified and combined into composite indices/criteria for designing a ranking system for LC prioritization and evaluation. However, they are universally applicable/adaptable, and are not limited to a particular territory or country. Presented results for finished projects in the case study area also verify that the selection process has been deeply unsatisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Bird Diversity as a Support Decision Tool for Sustainable Management in Temperate Forested Floodplain Landscapes
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061527 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sustainably managed forests provide multiple ecosystem services in cultural landscapes, including maintaining biodiversity. Better understanding of the benefits regarding the biodiversity of different silvicultural practices is important for sustainable landscape management. Conservation targets in forested landscapes should be determined by land managers and [...] Read more.
Sustainably managed forests provide multiple ecosystem services in cultural landscapes, including maintaining biodiversity. Better understanding of the benefits regarding the biodiversity of different silvicultural practices is important for sustainable landscape management. Conservation targets in forested landscapes should be determined by land managers and policy-makers, based on serious ecological research. This study deals with response of bird diversity to three different habitat types of temperate hardwood floodplain forests, which reflect specific forms of forest management. Research was based on long-term field bird census in the years 1998 to 2002 applying the point count method. Data was analysed using regression analysis with dummy variables. The results of the study indicate that hardwood floodplain forest heterogeneity, supported by different types of forest management (old-growth forest protection, group-selection harvesting and forest edge protection), provides large-scale habitat mosaic conditions suitable for many breeding bird species with different ecological niches. This result suggests that comparison of bird diversity response to different forest management types can be used as a decision support tool for sustainable landscape management strategy and local management practices in forested cultural lowland landscapes. Improvements in both regional and local ecological knowledge are generally needed in order to control floodplain land use decisions, which are typically made on the scale of landscape management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Defining Deforestation Patterns Using Satellite Images from 2000 and 2017: Assessment of Forest Management in Miombo Forests—A Case Study of Huambo Province in Angola
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010098 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
A few studies have recently been published on changes in land use/land cover (LU/LC) of Angolan Miombo forests, however, none have attempted to offer forest management solutions for degraded Miombo forests. Landscapes are witness to past and present natural and social processes influencing [...] Read more.
A few studies have recently been published on changes in land use/land cover (LU/LC) of Angolan Miombo forests, however, none have attempted to offer forest management solutions for degraded Miombo forests. Landscapes are witness to past and present natural and social processes influencing the environment, where each period in the past leaves footprints on the landscape’s development, which can be described by a continual decrease in forest area over time. The expansion of degraded areas from 2000 to 20017 began near urban areas where many Miombo forests have been eliminated or highly degraded, particularly in the southwest and northeast of the Huambo province. Large areas of degraded forests were observed along the Benguela railway (Caminho de ferro de Benguela). Our detailed analysis of the landcover map suggests that the impact has been devastating and there is no form of forest protection, which leads to unregulated exploitation. Descriptions of the Miombo forest dynamics are explained using height–diameter curves developed for different vegetation types that provide important insights about forest structures in the management zones. The height–diameter models differed for all vegetation types, and four management zones (MZ) were created based on a set of particular attributes. The vegetation types differed in each management zone, which included agricultural land and bare soil (MZ–E), grassland or savanna (MZ–C), open Miombo forests (MZ–B), and closed Miombo forests (Miombo forests). The four management zones were easily identified on the available maps and the height–diameter models developed represent a fundamental tool for future studies on forest planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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Typology of Environmental Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in African Great Lakes Region
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113027 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Artisanal and small-scale mining is a widespread economic sector in the African Great Lakes Region, where it has an adverse impact on the population’s environment. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and consider the typology of the environmental impacts of artisanal [...] Read more.
Artisanal and small-scale mining is a widespread economic sector in the African Great Lakes Region, where it has an adverse impact on the population’s environment. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and consider the typology of the environmental impacts of artisanal and small-scale mining, in particular, the anthropogenic influences on topography with regard to the methods used in raw material mining. Among the most significant environmental aspects related to artisanal and small-scale mining are deforestation, changes in landscape structure, influence over geomorphological processes and hydrological river regime, chemical pollution of soil and watercourses, influencing soil production capacity. The aforementioned factors can cause health problems such as silicosis, poisoning by methyl orthophosphate, or injury during the mining activity itself. Artisanal and small-scale mining could initiate new geomorphological processes or modify naturally occurring geomorphological processes. These dynamic processes are influenced by the topography of the relief, soil properties, and rock composition. Anthropogenic activity in these cases may lead to faster reshaping (degradation or abrasion) of soil shapes. This study covers a broad understanding of environmental impacts of artisanal and small-scale mining with a focus on anthropogenic influencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Landscape Management and Planning)
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