Special Issue "Resistance Exercise for Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscle Strength"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paulo Gentil
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Universidade Federal de Goias, Faculdade de Educação Física e Dança, Goiania, Brazil
Interests: resistance training; strength training; interval training; muscle strength; muscle hypertrophy; body composition
Dr. James Fisher
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Southampton Solent University, School of Sport, Health and Social Science, East Park Terrace, Southampton, United Kingdom
Interests: strength training; muscle hypertrophy; efficient resistance exercise (minimal dose); low-back pain and lumbar muscle strengthening; perceptual responses to resistance exercise; fatigue
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Human Performance, Quality of Life and Wellness Research Group, Department of Physical Activity Sciences, Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno 5290000, Chile
Interests: resistance training; plyometric training; interval training; neuromuscular performance optimization; muscle strength; muscle hypertrophy; soccer
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Eduardo Cadore
Website
Guest Editor
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil
Interests: resistance training; strength training; muscle power; explosive strength; aging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resistance training (RT) is a popular form of exercise, commonly performed with a focus on aesthetic and athletic purposes. Moreover, it has also been shown to be effective in preventing and treating many diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and also to improve general health and decrease mortality risk in older people, and cancer patients amongst others.

Most of the benefits attributed to RT are related to its effects on the neuromuscular system, mainly increases in muscle size and strength; however, there is also evidence suggesting that RT might improve cardiovascular fitness, making it an attractive exercise modality to bring about a myriad of benefits.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to present new perspectives in RT prescription and to provide new insights regarding established RT models. We invite investigators to contribute with case studies, original research articles and review articles that would represent and stimulate continuing efforts to answer questions on the acute and chronic effects of RT for health, muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Special attention is given, but no limited to: Comparison of different exercise modes/protocols, individual responsiveness, effects of the manipulation of different variables, influence of external and individual factors (such as nutrition, rest, stress, genetics, and concurrent training, amongst others).

We look forward to receive your contribution.

Dr. Paulo Gentil
Dr. James P. Fisher
Dr. Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
Dr. Eduardo Cadore
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Resistance training
  • Resistance exercise
  • Strength training
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Muscle strength
  • Muscle hypertrophy
  • Oxygen consumption
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Muscle power
  • Explosive strength

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Profiling Isokinetic Strength of Shoulder Rotator Muscles in Adolescent Asymptomatic Male Volleyball Players
Sports 2019, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7020049 - 22 Feb 2019
Abstract
The aim of the study was to describe the strength symmetry of internal and external rotator muscles and the conventional and functional strength balance ratios between these muscles in adolescent male volleyball players. Twenty-eight male adolescent volleyball players (15.5 ± 1.1 years (15–17 [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to describe the strength symmetry of internal and external rotator muscles and the conventional and functional strength balance ratios between these muscles in adolescent male volleyball players. Twenty-eight male adolescent volleyball players (15.5 ± 1.1 years (15–17 years); 73.2 ± 10.9 kg (55.3–100.1 kg) and 184.9 ± 8.4 cm (170–209 cm)) participated in this cross-sectional study. Concentric and eccentric peak torque of external and internal rotator muscles were measured, and conventional and functional strength balance ratios were calculated. The dominant limb presented significantly higher values for peak torque than the non-dominant limb of internal rotator muscles at concentric action assessed at 60°/s (48.7 ± 13.7 Nm and 43.9 ± 11.6 Nm, p = 0.01 and d value = 0.37) and at 240°/s (44.7 ± 11.2 Nm and 41.1 ± 11.0 Nm, p = 0.03 and d = 0.32). However, there was no difference in the peak torque of external rotator muscle between limbs for either angular speed. Regarding strength balance ratios, neither conventional (74.8 ± 14.3 for dominant limb and 80.1 ± 14.0 for non-dominant limb, p = 0.06 and d = 0.37) nor functional ratio (1.2 ± 0.4 for dominant limb and 1.3 ± 0.5 for non-dominant limb, p = 0.06 and d = 0.22) presented significant contralateral differences. Despite the short practice time, adolescent male volleyball athletes already have significant contralateral differences for internal rotator muscles and conventional ratio tends to be asymmetrical. Thus, preventive shoulder-strengthening programs, focused on the internal rotator muscles of the non-dominant limb, aiming to correct contralateral deficiency and conventional ratio, may be warranted for this population in the process of biological growth, maturation and development. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Relative Strength, but Not Absolute Muscle Strength, Is Higher in Exercising Compared to Non-Exercising Older Women
Sports 2019, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010019 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Exercise has been suggested for older adults. However, there is no consensus whether exercising older adults present better strength levels and body composition indexes compared with inactive counterparts. Our aim was to compare absolute and relative isokinetic muscular knee strength and body composition [...] Read more.
Exercise has been suggested for older adults. However, there is no consensus whether exercising older adults present better strength levels and body composition indexes compared with inactive counterparts. Our aim was to compare absolute and relative isokinetic muscular knee strength and body composition between exercising and non-exercising older women. Exercising (n = 20) and non-exercising (n = 21) groups were evaluated for body mass index (BMI), body composition, and isokinetic muscular knee strength. BMI (p = 0.005), total body mass (p = 0.01), fat mass (p = 0.01), and fat mass percentage (p = 0.01) were higher in non-exercising women, and the lean mass percentage was lower in the non-exercising group (p = 0.01). Isokinetic extensor and flexor knee muscle strength for dominant limbs presented higher peak torque values when corrected for total body mass (Nm·kg−1) in the exercising group (p < 0.05). Exercising older women presented better body composition and higher strength relative to total body mass, but not maximum absolute strength. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Repeated Bouts of Advanced Strength Training Techniques: Effects on Volume Load, Metabolic Responses, and Muscle Activation in Trained Individuals
Sports 2019, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010014 - 06 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of advanced training techniques (ATT) on muscular responses and if performing a second training session would negatively affect the training stimulus. Eleven strength-trained males performed a traditional strength training session (TST) and four different ATT: pre-exhaustion A (PE-A), [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of advanced training techniques (ATT) on muscular responses and if performing a second training session would negatively affect the training stimulus. Eleven strength-trained males performed a traditional strength training session (TST) and four different ATT: pre-exhaustion A (PE-A), pre-exhaustion B (PE-B), forced repetitions (FR), and super-set (SS). On day 1, SS produced lower volume load than TST, FR, and PE-B (−16.0%, p ≤ 0.03; −14.9, p ≤ 0.03 and −18.2%, p ≤ 0.01, respectively). On day 2, SS produced lower volumes than all the other ATT (−9.73–−18.5%, p ≤ 0.03). Additionally, subjects demonstrated lower perceived exertion on day 1 compared to day 2 (6.5 ± 0.4 AU vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 AU, p = 0.0001). For blood lactate concentration [La-] on days 1 and 2, [La-] after the tenth set was the highest compared to all other time points (baseline: 1.7 ± 0.2, fifth-set: 8.7 ± 1.0, tenth-set 9.7 ± 0.9, post-5 min: 8.7 ± 0.7 mmol∙L−1, p ≤ 0.0001). Acute muscle swelling was greater immediately and 30-min post compared to baseline (p ≤ 0.0001). On day 2, electromyography (EMG) amplitude on the clavicular head of the pectoralis major was lower for SS than TST, PE-A, and PE-B (−11.7%, p ≤ 0.01; −14.4%, p ≤ 0.009; −20.9%, p = 0.0003, respectively). Detrimental effects to the training stimulus were not observed when ATT (besides SS) are repeated. Strength trained individuals can sustain performance, compared to TST, when they are using ATT in an acute fashion. Although ATT have traditionally been used as a means to optimize metabolic stress, volume load, and neuromuscular responses, our data did not project differences in these variables compared to TST. However, it is important to note that different ATT might produce slight changes in volume load, muscle excitation, and fluid accumulation in strength-trained individuals from session to session. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High 1RM Tests Reproducibility and Validity are not Dependent on Training Experience, Muscle Group Tested or Strength Level in Older Women
Sports 2018, 6(4), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040171 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: The maximal one-repetition test (1-RM) is widely used in scientific research; however, there are conflicting results regarding its reproducibility in elderly populations. The present study aimed to analyze the reproducibility of the test both before and after a 12-week training period by [...] Read more.
Background: The maximal one-repetition test (1-RM) is widely used in scientific research; however, there are conflicting results regarding its reproducibility in elderly populations. The present study aimed to analyze the reproducibility of the test both before and after a 12-week training period by using the bench press and leg press 45° 1-RM tests in the elderly, taking into consideration the training experience and strength level of the women. Methods: Elderly women (n = 376; age, 68.5 ± 14.1 years; height, 162.7 ± 5.5 cm; body mass, 71.2 ± 16.0 kg) who underwent ≥3 months of resistance training performed an initial week of familiarization and a second week of testing and retest, with a 48–72 h interval. Results: The results showed that Kappa indices ranged from 0.93 to 0.95, and the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.99 for both the lower and upper limbs. In addition, minimal detectable changes were found that ranged between 1 and 3%, which means that changes lower than 1 kg could be detected. Conclusion: The present study confirms that the 1-RM test has high reliability and reproducibility in the elderly, for both upper and lower limbs. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Adding Single Joint Exercises to a Resistance Training Programme in Trained Women
Sports 2018, 6(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040160 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: The present study’s aim was to compare the changes in muscle performance and anthropometric measures in trained women performing RT programs composed only of MJ exercises or programmes that involve the addition of SJ exercises. Methods: Seventeen trained women were randomised to [...] Read more.
Background: The present study’s aim was to compare the changes in muscle performance and anthropometric measures in trained women performing RT programs composed only of MJ exercises or programmes that involve the addition of SJ exercises. Methods: Seventeen trained women were randomised to MJ or MJ+SJ. Both groups performed the same MJ exercises following a nonlinear periodisation model for 8 weeks. The only difference was that the MJ+SJ group also performed SJ exercises. The participants were tested for 10 repetition maximum (10 RM), flexed arm circumference, and both biceps and triceps skinfold. Results: Both groups significantly increased 10 RM load for the bench press (12.6% MJ and 9.2% MJ+SJ), triceps (15.6% MJ and 17.9% MJ+SJ), pull down (9.8% MJ and 8.3% MJ+SJ), biceps (14.0% MJ and 13.0% MJ+SJ), leg press (15.2% MJ and 12.8% MJ+SJ) and knee extension (10.2% MJ and 9.1% MJ+SJ). The decreases in triceps (−5.1% MJ and −5.3% MJ+SJ) and biceps (−6.5% MJ and −5.7% MJ+SJ) skinfolds were also significant as were the increases in arm circumference (1.47% MJ and 1.58% MJ+SJ). In all tests there was nothing significantly different between groups. Conclusions: The use of SJ exercises as a complement to a RT programme containing MJ exercises brings no additional benefit to trained women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Volume ‘Daily Max’ Training Compared to Higher Volume Periodized Training in Powerlifters Preparing for Competition—A Pilot Study
Sports 2018, 6(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030086 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The present study looked to examine reduced volume ‘daily max’ (near max loads) training compared to higher volume periodized training in powerlifters preparing for competition. Ten competitive powerlifters were split into 2 groups (MAX group and PER group) and participated in a 10-week [...] Read more.
The present study looked to examine reduced volume ‘daily max’ (near max loads) training compared to higher volume periodized training in powerlifters preparing for competition. Ten competitive powerlifters were split into 2 groups (MAX group and PER group) and participated in a 10-week training intervention either following a “daily max” training protocol or a traditional periodized training protocol while preparing for competition. All participants underwent 1RM testing for squat (SQ), bench press (BP) and deadlift (DL) prior to the 10-week intervention. The MAX group performed single sets of single repetitions using a load equating to an RPE rating of 9–9.5 while the PER group performed higher volume periodized training with loads ranging from 70%1RM up to 93%1RM as well as a taper at the final weeks of the training intervention. Both groups were tested after the 10-week training intervention at the Greek IPF-affiliate National Championships. In the PER group, powerlifting (PL) total increased for P1 and P3 by 2% and 6.5% respectively while P2 experienced no change. In the MAX group PL total increased for P1 and P2 by 4.8% and 4.2% respectively while it decreased by 0.5%, 3.4% and 5% for P3, P4 and P5 respectively. In the MAX group peri PL total increased for P1–4 by 3.6%, 4.2%, 4.5% and 1.8% respectively while it decreased by 1.2% for P5. The results of this pilot study show that single-set, single-rep, RPE based ‘daily max’ training may be a favorable strategy for some beginner-intermediate powerlifters preparing for competition while it may lead to performance decreases for others. Further, it suggests that performance may be comparable to traditional periodized training during shorter training cycles, though future work with larger samples is needed to further test this. Practically ‘daily max’ training may be useful for PL athletes looking to maintain strength during periods with limited training time available. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Non-Linear Resistance Training Program Induced Power and Strength but Not Linear Sprint Velocity and Agility Gains in Young Soccer Players
Sports 2018, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6020043 - 14 May 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Background: The present study evaluated the effects of resistance training (RT) following a non-linear periodization model in the physical fitness of young soccer athletes. Methods: Young soccer players (n = 23) were allocated into two groups: an RT group (RTG), and the [...] Read more.
Background: The present study evaluated the effects of resistance training (RT) following a non-linear periodization model in the physical fitness of young soccer athletes. Methods: Young soccer players (n = 23) were allocated into two groups: an RT group (RTG), and the control group (CON). The RTG underwent 15 weeks of non-linear RT periodization in three weekly sessions in addition to their specific soccer training. The CON continued performing the specific soccer training. Before and after the training period, all of the subjects performed one-repetition maximum (RM) tests for speed, agility, and power (vertical and horizontal jump). Results: The RTG obtained significant gains in one-RM tests (before 64.1 ± 5.8 kg, after 79.1 ± 3.3 kg) and power (vertical jump (before 56 ± 2.7 cm, after 61.3 ± 1.7 cm) and horizontal jump (before 184.5 ± 5.5 cm, after 213.6 ± 3.2 cm)). In contrast, the CON group presented a non-significant increase in one-RM tests and horizontal jump, and a significant reduction in vertical jump (before 55.4 ± 2.2 cm, after 51.3 ± 1.5 cm). Neither group presented significant gains in speed (CON: p = 0.27; RTG: p = 0.72) and agility (CON: p = 0.19; RTG: p = 0.58). Conclusion: Our data suggest that non-linear RT should be inserted into the routine of young soccer athletes for improving strength and power without impairing speed and agility. Full article
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