Boat-Based Sports Biomechanics

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016) | Viewed by 13447

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, 1020 Auckland, New Zealand
Interests: sports injury biomechanics; sports biomechanics; sport injury prevention; sport injury epidemiology; sport anthropometry; equipment testing; meta-analyses; sports technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Boat-based sports at the Olympics include rowing, kayaking, canoe, and sailing. The performance in these sports is influenced by biomechanics, technique-training methods, boat design and set-up, and fluid mechanics. Devices used to measure contributing factors can help with monitoring athlete-boat setup and performance improvement. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an update on boat-based sports biomechanics research.

Prof. Dr. Patria Hume
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • boat-based sports biomechanics
  • rowing
  • kayaking
  • canoe
  • sailing
  • biomechanics
  • technique training methods
  • measurement devices
  • boat design and set-up
  • fluid mechanics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Article
America’s Cup Sailing: Effect of Standing Arm-Cranking (“Grinding”) Direction on Muscle Activity, Kinematics, and Torque Application
by Simon N. Pearson, Patria A. Hume, John Cronin and David Slyfield
Sports 2016, 4(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4030037 - 27 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7559
Abstract
Grinding is a key physical element in America’s Cup sailing. This study aimed to describe kinematics and muscle activation patterns in relation to torque applied in forward and backward grinding. Ten male America’s Cup sailors (33.6 ± 5.7 years, 97.9 ± 13.4 kg, [...] Read more.
Grinding is a key physical element in America’s Cup sailing. This study aimed to describe kinematics and muscle activation patterns in relation to torque applied in forward and backward grinding. Ten male America’s Cup sailors (33.6 ± 5.7 years, 97.9 ± 13.4 kg, 186.6 ± 7.4 cm) completed forward and backward grinding on a customised grinding ergometer. In forward grinding peak torque (77 Nm) occurred at 95° (0° = crank vertically up) on the downward section of the rotation at the end of shoulder flexion and elbow extension. Backward grinding torque peaked at 35° (69 Nm) following the pull action (shoulder extension, elbow flexion) across the top of the rotation. During forward grinding, relatively high levels of torque (>50 Nm) were maintained through the majority (72%) of the cycle, compared to 47% for backward grinding, with sections of low torque corresponding with low numbers of active muscles. Variation in torque was negatively associated with forward grinding performance (r = −0.60; 90% CI −0.88 to −0.02), but positively associated with backward performance (r = 0.48; CI = −0.15 to 0.83). Magnitude and distribution of torque generation differed according to grinding direction and presents an argument for divergent training methods to improve forward and backward grinding performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boat-Based Sports Biomechanics)
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Project Report
Using Rowers’ Perceptions of On-Water Stroke Success to Evaluate Sculling Catch Efficiency Variables via a Boat Instrumentation System
by Sarah-Kate Millar, Anthony R. H. Oldham, Patria A. Hume and Ian Renshaw
Sports 2015, 3(4), 335-345; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports3040335 - 10 Nov 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5436
Abstract
Aim: An effective catch in sculling is a critical determinant of boat velocity. This study used rowers’ performance-based judgments to compare three measures of catch slip efficiency. Two questions were addressed: (1) would rower-judged Yes strokes be faster than No strokes? and (2) [...] Read more.
Aim: An effective catch in sculling is a critical determinant of boat velocity. This study used rowers’ performance-based judgments to compare three measures of catch slip efficiency. Two questions were addressed: (1) would rower-judged Yes strokes be faster than No strokes? and (2) which method of quantifying catch slip best reflected these judgements? Methods: Eight single scullers performed two 10-min blocks of sub maximal on-water rowing at 20 strokes per minute. Every 30 s, rowers reported either Yes or No about the quality of their stroke at the catch. Results: It was found that Yes strokes identified by rowers had, on average, a moderate effect advantage over No strokes with a standardised effect size of 0.43. In addition, a quicker time to positive acceleration best reflected the change in performance; where the standardised mean difference score of 0.57 for time to positive acceleration was larger than the scores of 0.47 for time to PowerLine force, and 0.35 for time to 30% peak pin force catch slip measures. For all eight rowers, Yes strokes corresponded to time to positive acceleration occurring earlier than No strokes. Conclusion: Rower judgements about successful strokes was linked to achieving a quicker time to positive acceleration, and may be of the most value in achieving a higher average boat velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boat-Based Sports Biomechanics)
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