Acute Resistance Exercise: Performance Effects on Competitive Athletes

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2022) | Viewed by 27711

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School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17237 Athens, Greece
Interests: swimming training and performance; training load; swimming physiology; recovery and performance; energy contribution
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Guest Editor
School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17237 Athens, Greece
Interests: biomechanics; training and sports performance; exercise physiology; physical activity; kinematics and kinetics of human movement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resistance exercise is one of the critical components of training in all competitive sports. Several types, various intensities and duration of resistance exercise may be applied acutely, before or after a sport specific training session. Moreover, such an approach is applied following short or long periods of training, and depending on the training periodization, may affect sport specific performance in various ways. In fact, it may alter physiological, biomechanical and sport-related abilities that subsequently affect competitive performance.

We ask you to contribute to this Special Issue by presenting your experimental work, including narrative, systematic reviews or meta-analyses. A 50% discount will be offered to the three best accepted paper as selected by the editors.

Assoc. Prof. Argyris Toubekis
Assoc. Prof. Giorgos Paradisis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • strength training
  • sports performance
  • maximum strength
  • explosive strength
  • strength endurance
  • endurance performance
  • anaerobic power
  • anaerobic capacity

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
The Effects of a Weighted Football Intervention on Ball Velocity of a Standard Football Place-Kick among Elite Gaelic Football Goalkeepers: A Single-Subject Designed Study
by Sam Jermyn, Cian O’Neill, Seán Lacey and Edward K. Coughlan
Sports 2022, 10(11), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10110166 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Weighted football place-kicking acutely enhances the ball velocity (BV) of subsequent standard football place-kicks. However, there is a dearth of research examining the long-term effects of such interventions, with less evidence in existence among elite athlete cohorts. Therefore, the purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Weighted football place-kicking acutely enhances the ball velocity (BV) of subsequent standard football place-kicks. However, there is a dearth of research examining the long-term effects of such interventions, with less evidence in existence among elite athlete cohorts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the individual effects of a 4 week, eight-session weighted Gaelic football intervention on BV of standard Gaelic football place-kicks among six elite male Gaelic football goalkeepers. This research design was based on a pre-, mid-, post-, and retention-test design. A linear mixed model analysis was employed, with time and participants as fixed effects, and the number of place-kicks per testing session as a random effect. Post hoc tests revealed significant changes in BV for five of the six participants (p < 0.05), with three participants experiencing significant BV increases from pre-test to post-test (p < 0.05), while no significant differences were found between post-test and retention-test. The remaining three participants experienced no significant BV differences from pre-test to post-test and retention-test. These findings suggest that a weighted football place-kicking intervention can be a time-efficient means of maintaining and enhancing BV and, thus, kick distance, among elite goalkeepers during pre-season and in-season phases. Full article
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9 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Does the Type of Anaerobic Test Matter? A Comparison between the Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test and Wingate Anaerobic Test in Taekwondo Athletes
by Stefanos Boutios, Alessandra di Cagno, Andrea Buonsenso, Marco Centorbi, Enzo Iuliano, Giuseppe Calcagno and Giovanni Fiorilli
Sports 2022, 10(10), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10100154 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
The specificity of training as well as the specificity of monitoring the training process are believed to be fundamental principles to efficiently plan and carry out the preparation and performance development of athletes. The Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test (TAIKT) is a sport-specific field [...] Read more.
The specificity of training as well as the specificity of monitoring the training process are believed to be fundamental principles to efficiently plan and carry out the preparation and performance development of athletes. The Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test (TAIKT) is a sport-specific field test used to specifically evaluate the anaerobic profile of Taekwondo athletes. The aim of this study was to verify whether TAIKT and the ‘gold standard’ Wingate Anaerobic test (WAnT) were both efficient means to optimally determine the anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity of Greek Taekwondo athletes at a middle-high technical level. Fifteen athletes, 10 females and 5 males (mean age 23.4 ± 4.14 years), underwent the two anaerobic tests (TAIKT and WAnT). The peak of power, the anaerobic capacity, and the peak of blood lactate (BL) were recorded. The two tests showed a moderate correlation with the r value ranging between 0.353 and 0.428, if applied to a sample of middle-high technical level athletes. Regarding the peak of BL, data indicated 40% concordance between the two tests with a coefficient of variation of 12%. Consequently, the two tests were correlated even if not interchangeable due to the different type of exercise required in these assessments. In conclusion, to assess the anaerobic performances and physiological characteristics of Taekwondo athletes, independently of their technical level, the WAnT resulted suitable, while to better assess the functional performance and specific demands of Taekwondo, the TAIKT is more indicated. Full article
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10 pages, 486 KiB  
Article
The Acute Effects of Heavy Sled Towing on Acceleration Performance and Sprint Mechanical and Kinematic Characteristics
by Maria Zisi, Ioannis Stavridis, Georgia-Olanemi Agilara, Theodosia Economou and Giorgos Paradisis
Sports 2022, 10(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10050077 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4533
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heavy sled towing using a load corresponding to a 50% reduction of the individual theoretical maximal velocity (ranged 57–73% body mass) on subsequent 30 m sprint performance, velocity, mechanical variables (theoretical maximal [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heavy sled towing using a load corresponding to a 50% reduction of the individual theoretical maximal velocity (ranged 57–73% body mass) on subsequent 30 m sprint performance, velocity, mechanical variables (theoretical maximal horizontal force, theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, maximal mechanical power output, slope of the linear force–velocity relationship, maximal ratio of horizontal to total force and decrease in the ratio of horizontal to total force) and kinematics (step length and rate, contact and flight time). Twelve (n = 5 males and n = 7 females) junior running sprinters performed an exercise under two intervention conditions in random order. The experimental condition (EXP) consisted of two repetitions of 20 m resisted sprints, while in the control condition (CON), an active recovery was performed. Before (baseline) and after (post) the interventions, the 30 m sprint tests were analyzed. Participants showed faster 30 m sprint times following sled towing (p = 0.005). Running velocity was significantly higher in EXP at 5–10 m (p = 0.032), 10–15 m (p = 0.006), 15–20 m (p = 0.004), 20–25 m (p = 0.015) and 25–30 m (p = 0.014). No significant changes in sprint mechanical variables and kinematics were observed. Heavy sled towing appeared to be an effective post-activation potentiation stimulus to acutely enhance sprint acceleration performance with no effect on the athlete’s running technique. Full article
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11 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Dry-Land and Swimming Priming on 50 m Crawl Performance in Well-Trained Adolescent Swimmers
by Nikolaos Zaras, Andreas Apostolidis, Angeliki Kavvoura and Marios Hadjicharalambous
Sports 2022, 10(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040052 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of dry-land priming (DLP) versus swimming priming (SP) on the 50 m crawl performance of well-trained adolescent swimmers. Thirteen adolescent swimmers were randomly assigned to perform either a DLP or SP 24 h [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of dry-land priming (DLP) versus swimming priming (SP) on the 50 m crawl performance of well-trained adolescent swimmers. Thirteen adolescent swimmers were randomly assigned to perform either a DLP or SP 24 h prior to a 50 m sprint crawl time-trial. Baseline measurements included a 50 m sprint crawl time-trial as a control (C) condition, the evaluation of body composition, countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric peak torque (IPT), and rate of torque development (RTD). Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained following the DLP and SP programs. Both DLP and SP significantly decreased the 50 m crawl time-trial, by −2.51 ± 2.43% and −2.59 ± 1.89% (p < 0.01), respectively, compared with the C time-trial. RPE was not different between DLP and SP (p = 0.919). CMJ performance remained unchanged after DLP and SP programs compared with the C trial (p > 0.05). The percentage decrease in the 50 m crawl after DLP was significantly correlated with the percentage decrease in the 50 m crawl following SP (r = 0.720, p = 0.006). CMJ power, lean body mass, IPT, and RTD were significantly correlated with 50 m crawl performance. These results suggest that both DLP and SP strategies, when applied 24 h prior to a 50 m crawl time-trial, may enhance performance in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Full article
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12 pages, 3071 KiB  
Article
Combined Eccentric-Isokinetic and Isoinertial Training Leads to Large Ring-Specific Strength Gains in Elite Gymnasts
by Christoph Schärer, Pascal Bucher, Fabian Lüthy and Klaus Hübner
Sports 2022, 10(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040049 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4100
Abstract
In male elite gymnastics, lately, eccentric training is often used to improve the maximum specific strength of static elements on rings. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a three-week, gymnastic-specific, eccentric-isokinetic (0.1 m/s) cluster training with a change [...] Read more.
In male elite gymnastics, lately, eccentric training is often used to improve the maximum specific strength of static elements on rings. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a three-week, gymnastic-specific, eccentric-isokinetic (0.1 m/s) cluster training with a change of stimulus after three of six training sessions (eccentric-isokinetic with additional load) on a computer-controlled training device on the improvement of the elements swallow and support scale on rings. Maximum strength and strength endurance in maintaining the static positions of ten international elite male gymnasts were determined on a weekly basis. After three weeks of training, specific maximum strength and strength endurance increased significantly (strength: swallow: +8.72%, p < 0.001; support scale: 8.32%, p < 0.0001; strength endurance: swallow: +122.36%; p = 0.02; Support Scale: +93.30%; p = 0.03). Consequently, top gymnasts can considerably improve ring-specific strength and strength endurance in only three weeks. The separate analysis of the effects of both eccentric-isokinetic training modalities showed that efficiency might even be increased in future training interventions. We suggest using this type of training in phases in which the technical training load is low and monitoring the adaptations in order to compile an individually optimized training after an intervention. Full article
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11 pages, 1078 KiB  
Article
Impact of Low Volume Velocity-Controlled vs. Repetition to Failure Resistance Training Session on Measures of Explosive Performance in a Team of Adolescents Basketball Players
by Ott-Erik Kalmus, Mehis Viru, Brent Alvar and Fernando Naclerio
Sports 2021, 9(8), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9080115 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3429
Abstract
This study examined the short-term effects (post 6 h and 24 h) of two equated (70% of 1 repetition maximum (1-RM)) low volume resistance exercise protocols: (i) velocity-controlled (VC) and (ii) repetition to failure (RTF) on upper and lower body performance in competitive [...] Read more.
This study examined the short-term effects (post 6 h and 24 h) of two equated (70% of 1 repetition maximum (1-RM)) low volume resistance exercise protocols: (i) velocity-controlled (VC) and (ii) repetition to failure (RTF) on upper and lower body performance in competitive adolescent male basketball players. Following a randomized, counterbalanced design, ten participants (age: 16 ± 0.5 years) completed either VC or RTF separated by 72 h. VC consisted of 4 sets of 5 explosive repetitions (≥90% of the maximum velocity). RTF involved 2 sets of 10-RM (with no velocity control). Measurements of 20-m sprint, countermovement jump (CMJ) and medicine ball toss (MBT) were collected before (baseline), post 6 h and 24 h after either VC or RTF. Increases of CMJ post 6 h (VC, +6.7%; RTF, +2.4%) and MBT post 24 h (VC, +4.6%; RTF, +4.2%) were observed after both VC and RTF. Only VC potentiated CMJ after 24 h (+2.0 ± 2.3%). No other changes or differences between protocols were observed. Performing a low volume exercise protocol, either VC or RTF, induced similar potentiation effects on the vertical jump (post 6 h) and medicine ball toss (post 24 h) in adolescent basketball players. Only the VC protocol was still effective to potentiate CMJ performance after 24 h. Full article
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Review

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28 pages, 1921 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Different Relative Loads in Weight Training on Acceleration and Acceleration from Flying Starts
by Jøran Ersdal Fossmo and Roland van den Tillaar
Sports 2022, 10(10), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10100148 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
The purpose of this review was to examine how different relative loads in weight training can improve acceleration over 10 m from a standing or flying start. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the following databases: PubMed, MedLine, Google Scholar, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review was to examine how different relative loads in weight training can improve acceleration over 10 m from a standing or flying start. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the following databases: PubMed, MedLine, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus. Studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: (1) participants were at least 15 years or older and healthy and injury free, (2) the study included at least one exercise for the lower body with a strength training frequency of at least once a week and included a training period of at least four weeks, and (3) interventions with clear pre- and post-test results on 10 m sprint or 10 m flying start are stated. Non-English-language articles were excluded. Percent change and between-group effect size (ES) were calculated to compare the effects of different training interventions. Forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The results were categorized into four groups: (1) explosive weight training with light loads at 30–60% of 1-RM, (2) explosive weight training with moderate loads at 60–85% of 1-RM, (3) maximal weight training at 85–100% of 1-RM, and (4) hypertrophy training at 60–85% of 1-RM. At 10 m, all methods of weight training demonstrated improvements, and maximal weight training demonstrated the highest results with a large ES, while other approaches varied from very small to moderate ES. Weight training showed little progression with a significantly lower effect on flying start across all training methods, except for one group that trained power cleans (hypertrophy) where progress was large. To improve acceleration over the first 10 m, this review demonstrated maximal weight training as the preferred training method. For athletes with a pre-existing high level of strength, it could be more appropriate to use explosive training with light loads or a combination of the two. To a lesser extent, acceleration from a flying start could be improved using both training methods as well. Full article
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15 pages, 1245 KiB  
Review
Acute and Long-Term Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Swimming Training on Swimming Performance
by Gavriil Arsoniadis, Petros Botonis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris Toubekis
Sports 2022, 10(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10030029 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5417
Abstract
Dry-land resistance exercise (RT) is routinely applied concurrent to swimming (SWIM) training sessions in a year-round training plan. To date, the impact of the acute effect of RT on SWIM or SWIM on RT performance and the long-term RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training outcome [...] Read more.
Dry-land resistance exercise (RT) is routinely applied concurrent to swimming (SWIM) training sessions in a year-round training plan. To date, the impact of the acute effect of RT on SWIM or SWIM on RT performance and the long-term RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training outcome has received limited attention. The existing studies indicate that acute RT or SWIM training may temporarily decrease subsequent muscle function. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT may induce similar physiological alterations. Such alterations are dependent on the recovery duration between sessions. Considering the long-term effects of RT-SWIM, the limited existing data present improvements in front crawl swimming performance, dry-land upper and lower body maximum strength, and peak power in swim turn. Accordingly, SWIM-RT training order induces swimming performance improvements in front crawl and increments in maximum dry-land upper and lower body strength. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training applied within a training day leads in similar performance gains after six to twelve weeks of training. The current review suggests that recovery duration between RT and SWIM is a predisposing factor that may determine the training outcome. Competitive swimmers may benefit after concurrent application with both training order scenarios during a training cycle. Full article
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