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Electrochemical Sensors and Platforms: Design and Application

A topical collection in Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This collection belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

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Collection Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 8A, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: electrochemistry; voltammetry; eis; antioxidants; Schiff bases; metal complexes; modified electrodes
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Collection Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 8A, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: investigation of biologically active compounds; voltametric techniques; precipitation; pathological biomineralization; biomineralization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, p.p. 291, 10001 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: electrochemistry; voltammetry; redox mechanisms; bioactive compounds

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Collection Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6, 7624 Pécs, Hungary
Interests: scanning electrochemical microscopy; amperometry; chemical sensors; biosensors

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, electrochemical sensors are widely used in routine analytical measurements as well as in different areas of scientific research. Thanks to the long-lasting devotion and work of a large number of pioneering research groups, certain electrochemical sensors excel in terms of a short response time, high selectivity, sensitivity, lower limit of detection, etc. The flexibility of sensors’ structure and size allow their application in solving reaction mechanisms, in studying the fine details of biological processes or corrosion steps, etc. This has obviously led to a growing amount of interest in the field of electrochemical sensor development. Applications of new mechanisms and materials (such as ceramics, conductive polymers, carbon nanomaterials, semiconductors, metals, etc.) are being tested to improve selective analyte recognition, as well as for signal formation or transmission. New manufacturing methods have been developed or tested for the fabrication of advanced sensors with improved measuring properties. 

This Special Issue entitled “Electrochemical Sensors and Platforms: Design and Application” aims to highlight the current state-of-the-art in the field of sensor design as well as the application of sensors in various analytical tasks (such as environmental monitoring, food analysis, medical applications, and other fields). We invite you to contribute to this Special Issue. Review articles, short communications, and full-size research papers are all welcome.

Dr. Martina Medvidović-Kosanović
Dr. Anamarija Stanković
Dr. Ivana Novak Jovanović
Dr. Géza Nagy
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Sensor design
  • Sensor characterization techniques
  • Intelligent processing of sensor materials
  • Chemical change monitoring
  • Electroanalytical techniques

Published Papers (13 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

16 pages, 2183 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost Electrochemical Formaldehyde Sensor
by Zheyuan Pei, Maxim Balitskiy, Ryan Thalman and Kerry E. Kelly
Sensors 2023, 23(17), 7444; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23177444 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen and an important indoor and outdoor air pollutant. However, current strategies for formaldehyde measurement, such as chromatographic and optical techniques, are expensive and labor intensive. Low-cost gas sensors have been emerging to provide effective measurement of air [...] Read more.
Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen and an important indoor and outdoor air pollutant. However, current strategies for formaldehyde measurement, such as chromatographic and optical techniques, are expensive and labor intensive. Low-cost gas sensors have been emerging to provide effective measurement of air pollutants. In this study, we evaluated eight low-cost electrochemical formaldehyde sensors (SFA30, Sensirion®, Staefa, Switzerland) in the laboratory with a broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy as the reference instrument. As a group, the sensors exhibited good linearity of response (R2 > 0.95), low limit of detection (11.3 ± 2.07 ppb), good accuracy (3.96 ± 0.33 ppb and 6.2 ± 0.3% N), acceptable repeatability (3.46% averaged coefficient of variation), reasonably fast response (131–439 s) and moderate inter-sensor variability (0.551 intraclass correlation coefficient) over the formaldehyde concentration range of 0–76 ppb. We also systematically investigated the effects of temperature and relative humidity on sensor response, and the results showed that formaldehyde concentration was the most important contributor to sensor response, followed by temperature, and relative humidity. The results suggest the feasibility of using this low-cost electrochemical sensor to measure formaldehyde concentrations at relevant concentration ranges in indoor and outdoor environments. Full article
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12 pages, 1298 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Chemical and Electrochemical Approaches to Abacavir Oxidative Stability Testing
by Lucie Pražáková, Jan Fischer, Andrew Taylor and Anna Kubíčková
Sensors 2023, 23(5), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052776 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
A novel electrochemical approach using two different electrode materials, platinum and boron-doped diamond (BDD), was employed to study the oxidative stability of the drug abacavir. Abacavir samples were subjected to oxidation and subsequently analysed using chromatography with mass detection. The type and amount [...] Read more.
A novel electrochemical approach using two different electrode materials, platinum and boron-doped diamond (BDD), was employed to study the oxidative stability of the drug abacavir. Abacavir samples were subjected to oxidation and subsequently analysed using chromatography with mass detection. The type and amount of degradation products were evaluated, and results were compared with traditional chemical oxidation using 3% hydrogen peroxide. The effect of pH on the rate of degradation and the formation of degradation products were also investigated. In general, both approaches led to the same two degradation products, identified using mass spectrometry, and characterised by 319.20 and m/z 247.19. Similar results were obtained on a large-surface platinum electrode at a potential of +1.15 V and a BDD disc electrode at +4.0 V. Degradation of 20% of abacavir, the rate required for pharmaceutical stability studies, took only a few minutes compared to hours required for oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Measurements further showed that electrochemical oxidation in ammonium acetate on both types of electrodes is strongly pHdependent. The fastest oxidation was achieved at pH 9. The pH also affects the composition of the products, which are formed in different proportions depending on the pH of the electrolyte. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

13 pages, 2739 KiB  
Article
Development of a New Electrochemical Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Biopolymer for Determination of 4,4′-Methylene Diphenyl Diamine
by Masoud Ghaani, Duygu Büyüktaş, Daniele Carullo and Stefano Farris
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010046 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
A new molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was proposed to determine 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diamine (MDA) using molecularly imprinted polymer–multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MIP/MWCNTs/GCE). GCE was coated by MWCNTs (MWCNTs/GCE) because of their antifouling qualities and in order to improve the sensor [...] Read more.
A new molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was proposed to determine 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diamine (MDA) using molecularly imprinted polymer–multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MIP/MWCNTs/GCE). GCE was coated by MWCNTs (MWCNTs/GCE) because of their antifouling qualities and in order to improve the sensor sensitivity. To make the whole sensor, a polymeric film made up of chitosan nanoparticles was electrodeposited by the cyclic voltammetry method on the surface of MWCNTs/GCE in the presence of MDA as a template. Different parameters such as scan cycles, elution time, incubation time, molar ratio of template molecules to functional monomers, and pH were optimized to increase the performance of the MIP sensor. With a detection limit of 15 nM, a linear response to MDA was seen in the concentration range of 0.5–100 µM. The imprinting factor (IF) of the proposed sensor was also calculated at around 3.66, demonstrating the extremely high recognition performance of a MIP/MWCNT-modified electrode. Moreover, the sensor exhibited good reproducibility and selectivity. Finally, the proposed sensor was efficiently used to determine MDA in real samples with satisfactory recoveries ranging from 94.10% to 106.76%. Full article
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13 pages, 9754 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of Quartz Crystal Microbalance with a New Ring-Shaped Interdigital Electrode
by Pengyi Wang, Mingxiang Ling and Minghai Li
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7422; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197422 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
In this paper, a new type of ring-shaped interdigital electrode is proposed to improve the accuracy and repeatability of quartz crystal microbalance. The influence of different types of single finger, dot finger, dot double-finger electrodes on mass sensitivity distribution as well as the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new type of ring-shaped interdigital electrode is proposed to improve the accuracy and repeatability of quartz crystal microbalance. The influence of different types of single finger, dot finger, dot double-finger electrodes on mass sensitivity distribution as well as the optimal proportion of finger and gap width are obtained through multi-physical coupling simulation. The results show that the design criteria of interdigital electrodes will not change with the increase in the number of fingers. The gap width should obey the decrease order from central to edge and be about twice the width of finger. The width of the outermost finger and the radius of the middle dot electrode should be maintained at about 0.4 and 0.2 times of the total electrode radius. An experiment was carried out to verify that the quartz wafer with a dot double-finger electrode has high quality factors and less modal coupling, which can satisfy the engineering application well. As a conclusion, this study provides a design idea for the electrode to maintain a uniform distribution of quartz crystal microbalance mass sensitivity. Full article
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19 pages, 7097 KiB  
Article
Voltammetric Detection of Glucose—The Electrochemical Behavior of the Copper Oxide Materials with Well-Defined Facets
by Anna Kusior
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4783; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134783 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Cu2O nanomaterials with well-defined facets and uniform size were synthesized by a wet-chemical method. Regardless of the additive composition, powders crystallize mostly in cuprite form. To compare their electrochemical behavior, the obtained materials were deposited on carbon glassy electrodes. The response [...] Read more.
Cu2O nanomaterials with well-defined facets and uniform size were synthesized by a wet-chemical method. Regardless of the additive composition, powders crystallize mostly in cuprite form. To compare their electrochemical behavior, the obtained materials were deposited on carbon glassy electrodes. The response to glucose from the materials with different exposed facets was recorded with a delay at the anodic curve. The chronoamperometric analyses (AMP) exhibited a lower signal in contrast to the cyclic voltammetry data (CV), indicating that the number of active sites involved in glucose oxidation processes resulting from the structure of the material is insufficient. For samples with dominant (100) or (111) planes, a typical characteristic was observed, however, with an additional peak at the anodic curve. The location of the peaks is approximately the same and no significant differences from the AMP and CV analysis were observed. The sample enclosed by the (111) facets exhibited higher activity; however, as a result of the redox reaction with glucose molecules, the surface state is changing. Cu2O materials enclosed by (100) planes exhibited optimal sensitivity as well as a large detective range. Samples with differential facet exposition present various current–potential profiles, as the effect of binder–particle interaction with Nafion. Full article
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10 pages, 2110 KiB  
Article
Effect of Triclosan and Silver Nanoparticles on DNA Damage Investigated with DNA-Based Biosensor
by Jana Blaškovičová and Ján Labuda
Sensors 2022, 22(12), 4332; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22124332 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent widely used in personal care, healthcare, and clinical practice. One of the most important aspects of toxicological profiling of compounds is their interaction with DNA. In human cells, TCS causes a significant reduction in DNA methylation. [...] Read more.
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent widely used in personal care, healthcare, and clinical practice. One of the most important aspects of toxicological profiling of compounds is their interaction with DNA. In human cells, TCS causes a significant reduction in DNA methylation. The involvement of TCS in chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage, and strand breaks, as well as DNA damage from TCS degradation products, was reported. AgNPs share similarities with TCS in terms of antimicrobial properties, enter the body after exposure, and are used even together with TCS in oral care products. Therefore, their mutual effect on the DNA is of interest. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of TCS on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the biosensor with salmon sperm dsDNA (DNA/GCE), DNA damage by TCS present in phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4 and an additional effect of the immobilized AgNP layer on such DNA damage have been investigated. Two different sizes of AgNPs (about 15 and 37 nm) were tested. Using square-wave voltammetric signals of nucleobases, the portion of survived DNA was 64% in the presence of 15 nm AgNPs compared to 55% in its absence. The protective effect of AgNPs on DNA against TCS-induced DNA damage was found. Full article
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12 pages, 1758 KiB  
Article
A New, MWCNT-Based, Solid-State Thiabendazole-Selective Sensor
by Andrea Dandić, Ivana Novak, Marija Jozanović, Iva Pukleš, Aleksandar Széchenyi, Mateja Budetić and Mirela Samardžić
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3785; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103785 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Direct potentiometric measurements using solid-state sensors have a great potential for thiabendazole (TBZ) determination, considering simplicity, accuracy, and low cost. Modifying the sensing material of the sensor with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) leads to improved analytical properties of the sensor. In this study, [...] Read more.
Direct potentiometric measurements using solid-state sensors have a great potential for thiabendazole (TBZ) determination, considering simplicity, accuracy, and low cost. Modifying the sensing material of the sensor with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) leads to improved analytical properties of the sensor. In this study, a new potentiometric solid-state sensor for TBZ determination, based on MWCNTs modified with a sulfate group, and TBZ ion as sensing material was developed. The sensor exhibited a Nernstian response for TBZ (60.4 mV/decade of activity) in a working range between 8.6 × 10−7 and 1.0 × 10−3 M. The detection limit for TBZ was 6.2 × 10−7 M. The response time of the sensor for TBZ was 8 s, and its signal drift was only 1.7 mV/h. The new sensor is applicable for direct potentiometric determination of TBZ in complex real samples, such as fruit peel. The accuracy of TBZ determination is confirmed using the standard addition method. Full article
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16 pages, 3774 KiB  
Article
A Calibration-Free pH Sensor Using an In-Situ Modified Ir Electrode for Bespoke Application in Seawater
by Yuqi Chen and Richard Compton
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3286; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093286 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
A bespoke calibration-free pH sensor using an in situ modified Ir electrode for applications in seawater is reported. The electrochemical behaviour of an iridium wire in air-saturated synthetic seawater was studied and the formation of pH-sensitive surface layers was observed that featured three [...] Read more.
A bespoke calibration-free pH sensor using an in situ modified Ir electrode for applications in seawater is reported. The electrochemical behaviour of an iridium wire in air-saturated synthetic seawater was studied and the formation of pH-sensitive surface layers was observed that featured three pH-sensitive redox couples, Ir(III/IV), IrOxOI/IrOxOIIH, and Hupd/H+, where Hupd is adsorbed hydrogen deposited at underpotential conditions. The amperometric properties of the electrochemically activated Ir wire were investigated using linear sweep voltammetry first, followed, second, by square wave voltammetry with the formation conditions in seawater for the optimal pH sensitivity of the redox couples identified. The sensor was designed to be calibration-free by measuring the “super-Nernstian” response, in excess of ca 60 mV per pH unit, of Ir(III/IV) relative to the less sensitive upd H oxidation signal with the pH reported on the total pH scale. The pH dependency of the optimised sensor was 70.1 ± 1.4 mV per pH unit at 25 °C, showing a super-Nernstian response of high sensitivity. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

38 pages, 8160 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Sensors Based on the Electropolymerized Natural Phenolic Antioxidants and Their Analytical Application
by Guzel Ziyatdinova, Ekaterina Guss and Elvira Yakupova
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8385; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248385 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3979
Abstract
The design and fabrication of novel electrochemical sensors with high analytical and operational characteristics are one of the sustainable trends in modern analytical chemistry. Polymeric film formation by the electropolymerization of suitable monomers is one of the methods of sensors fabrication. Among a [...] Read more.
The design and fabrication of novel electrochemical sensors with high analytical and operational characteristics are one of the sustainable trends in modern analytical chemistry. Polymeric film formation by the electropolymerization of suitable monomers is one of the methods of sensors fabrication. Among a wide range of the substances able to polymerize, the phenolic ones are of theoretical and practical interest. The attention is focused on the sensors based on the electropolymerized natural phenolic antioxidants and their analytical application. The typical electropolymerization reaction schemes are discussed. Phenol electropolymerization leads to insulating coverage formation. Therefore, a combination of electropolymerized natural phenolic antioxidants and carbon nanomaterials as modifiers is of special interest. Carbon nanomaterials provide conductivity and a high working surface area of the electrode, while the polymeric film properties affect the selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor response for the target analyte or the group of structurally related compounds. The possibility of guided changes in the electrochemical response for the improvement of target compounds’ analytical characteristics has appeared. The analytical capabilities of sensors based on electropolymerized natural phenolic antioxidants and their future development in this field are discussed. Full article
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11 pages, 2042 KiB  
Article
Single-Use Fluidic Electrochemical Paper-Based Analytical Devices Fabricated by Pen Plotting and Screen-Printing for On-Site Rapid Voltammetric Monitoring of Pb(II) and Cd(II)
by Dionysios Soulis, Maria Trachioti, Christos Kokkinos, Anastasios Economou and Mamas Prodromidis
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6908; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206908 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
This work reports the fabrication of integrated electrochemical fluidic paper-based analytical devices (ePADs) using a marker pen drawing and screen-printing. Electrodes were deposited on paper using screen-printing with conductive carbon ink. Then, the desired fluidic patterns were formed on the paper substrate by [...] Read more.
This work reports the fabrication of integrated electrochemical fluidic paper-based analytical devices (ePADs) using a marker pen drawing and screen-printing. Electrodes were deposited on paper using screen-printing with conductive carbon ink. Then, the desired fluidic patterns were formed on the paper substrate by drawing with a commercial hydrophobic marker pen using an inexpensive computer-controlled x-y plotter. The working electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. The analytical utility of the electrochemical PADs is demonstrated through electrochemical determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) by anodic stripping voltammetry. For this purpose, the sample was mixed with a buffer solution and a Bi(III) solution, applied to the test zone of the PAD, the metals were preconcentrated as a bismuth alloy on the electrode surface and oxidized by applying an anodic potential scan. The proposed manufacturing approach enables the large-scale fabrication of fit-for-purpose disposable PADs at low cost which can be used for rapid on-site environmental monitoring. Full article
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14 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
A Pencil-Drawn Electronic Tongue for Environmental Applications
by Dmitry Kirsanov, Subhankar Mukherjee, Souvik Pal, Koustuv Ghosh, Nabarun Bhattacharyya, Rajib Bandyopadhyay, Martin Jendrlin, Aleksandar Radu, Vladimir Zholobenko, Monireh Dehabadi and Andrey Legin
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4471; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134471 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
We report on the development of a simple and cost-effective potentiometric sensor array that is based on manual “drawing” on the polymeric support with the pencils composed of graphite and different types of zeolites. The sensor array demonstrates distinct sensitivity towards a variety [...] Read more.
We report on the development of a simple and cost-effective potentiometric sensor array that is based on manual “drawing” on the polymeric support with the pencils composed of graphite and different types of zeolites. The sensor array demonstrates distinct sensitivity towards a variety of inorganic ions in aqueous media. This multisensor system has been successfully applied to quantitative analysis of 100 real-life surface waters sampled in Mahananda and Hooghly rivers in the West Bengal state (India). Partial least squares regression has been utilized to relate responses of the sensors to the values of different water quality parameters. It has been found that the developed sensor array, or electronic tongue, is capable of quantifying total hardness, total alkalinity, and calcium content in the samples, with the mean relative errors below 18%. Full article
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11 pages, 2455 KiB  
Article
High-Sensitivity Dual Electrochemical QCM for Reliable Three-Electrode Measurements
by Dávid Tóth, Manuel Kasper, Ivan Alic, Mohamed Awadein, Andreas Ebner, Doug Baney, Georg Gramse and Ferry Kienberger
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2592; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082592 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EC-QCM) is a versatile gravimetric technique that allows for parallel characterization of mass deposition and electrochemical properties. Despite its broad applicability, simultaneous characterization of two electrodes remains challenging due to practical difficulties posed by the dampening from fixture [...] Read more.
An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EC-QCM) is a versatile gravimetric technique that allows for parallel characterization of mass deposition and electrochemical properties. Despite its broad applicability, simultaneous characterization of two electrodes remains challenging due to practical difficulties posed by the dampening from fixture parasitics and the dissipative medium. In this study, we present a dual electrochemical QCM (dual EC-QCM) that is employed in a three-electrode configuration to enable consequent monitoring of mass deposition and viscous loading on two crystals, the working electrode (WE) and the counter electrode (CE). A novel correction approach, along with a three standard complex impedance calibration, is employed to overcome the effect of dampening while keeping high spectral sensitivity. Separation of viscous loading and rigid mass deposition is achieved by robust characterization of the complex impedance at the resonance frequency. Validation of the presented system is done by cyclic voltammetry characterization of Ag underpotential deposition on gold. The results indicate mass deposition of 412.2 ng for the WE and 345.6 ng for the CE, reflecting a difference of the initially-present Ag adhered to the surface. We also performed higher harmonic measurements that further corroborate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the dual EC-QCM. The demonstrated approach is especially intriguing for electrochemical energy storage applications where mass detection with multiple electrodes is desired. Full article
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15 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
Use of Amperometric and Potentiometric Probes in Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy for the Spatially-Resolved Monitoring of Severe Localized Corrosion Sites on Aluminum Alloy 2098-T351
by Rejane M. P. da Silva, Javier Izquierdo, Mariana X. Milagre, Abenchara M. Betancor-Abreu, Isolda Costa and Ricardo M. Souto
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041132 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2156
Abstract
Amperometric and potentiometric probes were employed for the detection and characterization of reactive sites on the 2098-T351 Al-alloy (AA2098-T351) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Firstly, the probe of concept was performed on a model Mg-Al galvanic pair system using SECM in the amperometric [...] Read more.
Amperometric and potentiometric probes were employed for the detection and characterization of reactive sites on the 2098-T351 Al-alloy (AA2098-T351) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Firstly, the probe of concept was performed on a model Mg-Al galvanic pair system using SECM in the amperometric and potentiometric operation modes, in order to address the responsiveness of the probes for the characterization of this galvanic pair system. Next, these sensing probes were employed to characterize the 2098-T351 alloy surface immersed in a saline aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The distribution of reactive sites and the local pH changes associated with severe localized corrosion (SLC) on the alloy surface were imaged and subsequently studied. Higher hydrogen evolution, lower oxygen depletion and acidification occurred at the SLC sites developed on the 2098-T351 Al-alloy. Full article
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