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Open AccessArticle

High-Sensitivity Dual Electrochemical QCM for Reliable Three-Electrode Measurements

1
Keysight Technologies GmbH, 4020 Linz, Austria
2
Applied Experimental Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University, 4020 Linz, Austria
3
Keysight Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95052, USA
4
Molecular Biophysics and Membrane Physics, Johannes Kepler University, 4020 Linz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Martina Medvidović-Kosanović, Anamarija Stanković, Ivana Novak Jovanović and Géza Nagy
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2592; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082592
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 4 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors and Platforms: Design and Application)
An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EC-QCM) is a versatile gravimetric technique that allows for parallel characterization of mass deposition and electrochemical properties. Despite its broad applicability, simultaneous characterization of two electrodes remains challenging due to practical difficulties posed by the dampening from fixture parasitics and the dissipative medium. In this study, we present a dual electrochemical QCM (dual EC-QCM) that is employed in a three-electrode configuration to enable consequent monitoring of mass deposition and viscous loading on two crystals, the working electrode (WE) and the counter electrode (CE). A novel correction approach, along with a three standard complex impedance calibration, is employed to overcome the effect of dampening while keeping high spectral sensitivity. Separation of viscous loading and rigid mass deposition is achieved by robust characterization of the complex impedance at the resonance frequency. Validation of the presented system is done by cyclic voltammetry characterization of Ag underpotential deposition on gold. The results indicate mass deposition of 412.2 ng for the WE and 345.6 ng for the CE, reflecting a difference of the initially-present Ag adhered to the surface. We also performed higher harmonic measurements that further corroborate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the dual EC-QCM. The demonstrated approach is especially intriguing for electrochemical energy storage applications where mass detection with multiple electrodes is desired. View Full-Text
Keywords: quartz crystal microbalance; electrochemistry; underpotential deposition; dual QCM; ECQCM quartz crystal microbalance; electrochemistry; underpotential deposition; dual QCM; ECQCM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tóth, D.; Kasper, M.; Alic, I.; Awadein, M.; Ebner, A.; Baney, D.; Gramse, G.; Kienberger, F. High-Sensitivity Dual Electrochemical QCM for Reliable Three-Electrode Measurements. Sensors 2021, 21, 2592. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082592

AMA Style

Tóth D, Kasper M, Alic I, Awadein M, Ebner A, Baney D, Gramse G, Kienberger F. High-Sensitivity Dual Electrochemical QCM for Reliable Three-Electrode Measurements. Sensors. 2021; 21(8):2592. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tóth, Dávid; Kasper, Manuel; Alic, Ivan; Awadein, Mohamed; Ebner, Andreas; Baney, Doug; Gramse, Georg; Kienberger, Ferry. 2021. "High-Sensitivity Dual Electrochemical QCM for Reliable Three-Electrode Measurements" Sensors 21, no. 8: 2592. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082592

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