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Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2021) | Viewed by 45018

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Business and Information Technology, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, Canada
Interests: smart communities for smart cities; big data and security analytics; security and privacy issues in wireless sensor network; mobile wireless ad hoc networks; vehicular ad hoc networks; smart grid security; cloud computing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few years, there have been a large number of advancements in communication and computation technologies, and many of these technologies are being embedded in the vehicles of the future. These vehicles, dubbed “networks-on-wheels”, are able to communicate with various elements of intelligent transportation systems, including pedestrians, vehicles, and infrastructure, and hence led to the term vehicle-to-everything (V2X). Whether based on cellular networks or dedicated short-range communications (DSRC), V2X is the main enabler for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), and has the potential to make the transportation system safer, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly.

This Special Issue of the Sensors magazine looks at recent research and developments in the area of V2X, as well the remaining challenges and road blocks.

Dr. Khalil El-Khatib
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Intelligent vehicles
  • Intelligent transportation systems
  • 5G mobile communication
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle communication
  • V2X communications
  • Vehicle safety
  • Vehicular ad hoc networks
  • Mobility management

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3971 KiB  
Article
Connected Vehicles: V2V and V2I Road Weather and Traffic Communication Using Cellular Technologies
by Muhammad Naeem Tahir, Pekka Leviäkangas and Marcos Katz
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031142 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 11698
Abstract
There is a continuous need to design and develop wireless technologies to meet the increasing demands for high-speed wireless data transfer to incorporate advanced intelligent transport systems. Different wireless technologies are continuously evolving including short-range and long-range (WiMAX, LTE, and 5G) cellular standards. [...] Read more.
There is a continuous need to design and develop wireless technologies to meet the increasing demands for high-speed wireless data transfer to incorporate advanced intelligent transport systems. Different wireless technologies are continuously evolving including short-range and long-range (WiMAX, LTE, and 5G) cellular standards. These emerging technologies can considerably enhance the operational performance of communication between vehicles and road-side infrastructure. This paper analyzes the performance of cellular-based long-term evolution (LTE) and 5GTN (5G Test Network) in pilot field measurements (i.e., vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure) when delivering road weather and traffic information in real-time environments. Measurements were conducted on a test track operated and owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Finland. The results showed that 5GTN outperformed LTE when exchanging road weather and traffic data messages in V2V and V2I scenarios. This comparison was made by mainly considering bandwidth, throughput, packet loss, and latency. The safety critical messages were transmitted at a transmission frequency of 10 Hz. The performance of both compared technologies (i.e., LTE and 5GTN) fulfilled the minimum requirements of the ITS-Assisted Road weather and traffic platform to offer reliable communication for enhanced road traffic safety. The field measurement results also illustrate the advantage of cellular networks (LTE and 5GTN) with a clear potential to use it heterogeneously in future field tests with short-range protocols, e.g., IEEE 802.11p. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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17 pages, 1764 KiB  
Article
Distributed and Scalable Radio Resource Management for mmWave V2V Relays towards Safe Automated Driving
by Yue Yin, Tao Yu, Kazuki Maruta and Kei Sakaguchi
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010093 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
The millimeter-wave (mmWave) Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication system has drawn attention as a critical technology to extend the restricted perception of onboard sensors and upgrade the level of vehicular safety that requires a high data rate. However, co-channel inter-link interference presents significant challenges for [...] Read more.
The millimeter-wave (mmWave) Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication system has drawn attention as a critical technology to extend the restricted perception of onboard sensors and upgrade the level of vehicular safety that requires a high data rate. However, co-channel inter-link interference presents significant challenges for scalable V2V communications. To overcome such limitations, this paper firstly analyzes the required data rate ensuring maneuver safety via mmWave V2V relays in an overtaking traffic scenario. Based on these preparations, we propose a distributed radio resource management scheme that integrates spatial, frequency, and power domains for two transmission ranges (short/long). In the spatial domain, ZigZag antenna configuration is utilized to mitigate the interference, which plays a decisive role in the short inter-vehicle distance. In frequency and power domains, two resource blocks are allocated alternately, and transmit power is controlled to suppress the interference, which has a decisive impact on interference mitigation in the long inter-vehicle distance. Simulation results reveal that the achievable End-to-End (E2E) throughput maintains consistently higher than the required data rate for all vehicles. Most importantly, it works effectively in scalable mmWave V2V topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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15 pages, 3233 KiB  
Article
Decentralized Platoon Join-in-Middle Protocol Considering Communication Delay for Connected and Automated Vehicle
by Geonil Lee and Jae-il Jung
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7126; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217126 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
Cooperative driving is an essential component of intelligent transport systems (ITSs). It promises greater safety, reduced accidents, efficient traffic flow, and fuel consumption reduction. Vehicle platooning is a representative service model for ITS. The principal sub-systems of platooning systems for connected and automated [...] Read more.
Cooperative driving is an essential component of intelligent transport systems (ITSs). It promises greater safety, reduced accidents, efficient traffic flow, and fuel consumption reduction. Vehicle platooning is a representative service model for ITS. The principal sub-systems of platooning systems for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) are cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems and platoon management systems. Based on vehicle state information received through vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, the CACC system allows platoon vehicles to maintain a narrower safety distance. In addition, the platoon management system using V2V communications allows vehicles to perform platoon maneuvers reliably and accurately. In this paper, we propose a CACC system with a variable time headway and a decentralized platoon join-in-middle maneuver protocol with a trajectory planning system considering the V2V communication delay for CAVs. The platoon join-in-middle maneuver is a challenging research subject as the research must consider the requirement of a more precise management protocol and lateral control for platoon safety and string stability. These CACC systems and protocols are implemented on a simulator for a connected and automated vehicle system, PreScan, and we validated our approach using a realistic control system and V2V communication system provided by PreScan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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13 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
A Novel Procedure of Enhancing the Throughput of a Mode-2 Sidelink Based on Partial Sensing
by Seokwon Kang and Seungwon Choi
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6128; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186128 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Partial sensing is used to reduce the power consumption of pedestrian user equipment (P-UE) that operates in the signal environment of a mode-2 sidelink. However, because the data trans-mission is allowed only for the window duration of each corresponding P-UE, the throughput of [...] Read more.
Partial sensing is used to reduce the power consumption of pedestrian user equipment (P-UE) that operates in the signal environment of a mode-2 sidelink. However, because the data trans-mission is allowed only for the window duration of each corresponding P-UE, the throughput of the P-UE decreases by the ratio between the width of the window and the entire data period. This paper presents a novel method for enhancing the throughput of the P-UE that operates with partial sensing in the mode-2 sidelink. The proposed technique employs an additional UE, denoted the roadside unit (RSU), to collect the sensing results from each P-UE that operates with partial sensing. The proposed RSU sequentially aligns all of the partial sensing windows, such that the combination of each partial sensing window can eventually provide an almost complete sensing result. In this study, extensive computer simulations were performed. The results reveal that the proposed method enhances the throughput of each P-UE operating with partial sensing almost to that of full sensing without increasing the required power consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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23 pages, 5378 KiB  
Article
Joint Optimization of Multi-Hop Broadcast Protocol and MAC Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
by Zhonghui Pei, Xiaojun Wang, Zhen Lei, Hongjiang Zheng, Luyao Du and Wei Chen
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6092; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186092 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Beacon messages and emergency messages in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) require a lower delay and higher reliability. The optimal MAC protocol can effectively reduce data collision in VANETs communication, thus minimizing delay and improving reliability. In this paper, we propose a Q-learning [...] Read more.
Beacon messages and emergency messages in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) require a lower delay and higher reliability. The optimal MAC protocol can effectively reduce data collision in VANETs communication, thus minimizing delay and improving reliability. In this paper, we propose a Q-learning MAC protocol based on detecting the number of two-hop neighbors. The number of two-hop neighbors in highway scenarios is calculated with very little overhead using the beacon messages and neighbor locations to reduce the impact of hidden nodes. Vehicle nodes are regarded as agents, using Q-learning and beacon messages to train the near-optimal contention window value of the MAC layer under different vehicle densities to reduce the collision probability of beacon messages. Furthermore, based on the contention window value after training, a multi-hop broadcast protocol combined with contention window adjustment for emergency messages in highway scenarios is proposed to reduce forwarding delay and improve forwarding reliability. We use the trained contention window value and the state information of neighboring vehicles to assign an appropriate forwarding waiting time to the forwarding node. Simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed MAC protocol and multi-hop broadcast protocol and compare them with other related protocols. The results show that our proposed protocols outperform the other related protocols on several different evaluation metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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21 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Carrier Diversity Incorporation to Low-Complexity Near-ML Detection for Multicarrier Systems over V2V Radio Channel
by Jose Alberto Del Puerto-Flores, Fernando Peña-Campos, Ramón Parra-Michel and Carolina Del-Valle-Soto
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6067; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186067 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Inter-carrier interference (ICI) in vehicle to vehicle (V2V) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is a common problem that makes the process of detecting data a demanding task. Mitigation of the ICI in V2V systems has been addressed with linear and non-linear iterative [...] Read more.
Inter-carrier interference (ICI) in vehicle to vehicle (V2V) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is a common problem that makes the process of detecting data a demanding task. Mitigation of the ICI in V2V systems has been addressed with linear and non-linear iterative receivers in the past; however, the former requires a high number of iterations to achieve good performance, while the latter does not exploit the channel’s frequency diversity. In this paper, a transmission and reception scheme for low complexity data detection in doubly selective highly time varying channels is proposed. The technique couples the discrete Fourier transform spreading with non-linear detection in order to collect the available channel frequency diversity and successfully achieving performance close to the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) detector. When compared with the iterative LMMSE detection, the proposed system achieves a higher performance in terms of bit error rate (BER), reducing the computational cost by a third-part when using 48 subcarriers, while in an OFDM system with 512 subcarriers, the computational cost is reduced by two orders of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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21 pages, 1698 KiB  
Article
Automated Driving with Cooperative Perception Based on CVFH and Millimeter-Wave V2I Communications for Safe and Efficient Passing through Intersections
by Ryuichi Fukatsu and Kei Sakaguchi
Sensors 2021, 21(17), 5854; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175854 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
The development of automated driving is actively progressing, and connected cars are also under development. Connected cars are the technology of connecting vehicles to networks so that connected vehicles can enhance their services. Safety services are among the main services expected in connected [...] Read more.
The development of automated driving is actively progressing, and connected cars are also under development. Connected cars are the technology of connecting vehicles to networks so that connected vehicles can enhance their services. Safety services are among the main services expected in connected car society. Cooperative perception belongs to safety services and improves safety by visualizing blind spots. This visualization is achieved by sharing sensor data via wireless communications. Therefore, the number of visualized blind spots highly depends upon the performance of wireless communications. In this paper, we analyzed the required sensor data rate to be shared for the cooperative perception in order to realize safe and reliable automated driving in an intersection scenario. The required sensor data rate was calculated by the combination of recognition and crossing decisions of an automated driving vehicle to adopt realistic assumptions. In this calculation, CVFH was used to derive tight requirements, and the minimum required braking aims to alleviate the traffic congestion around the intersection. At the end of the paper, we compare the required sensor data rate with the outage data rate realized by conventional and millimeter-wave communications, and show that millimeter-wave communications can support safe crossing at a realistic velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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15 pages, 753 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Residual Self-Interference, Hardware Impairment and Cascade Rayleigh Fading on the Performance of Full-Duplex Vehicle-to-Vehicle Relay Systems
by Ba Cao Nguyen, Le The Dung, Huu Minh Nguyen, Taejoon Kim and Young-Il Kim
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5628; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165628 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
In practice, self-interference (SI) in full-duplex (FD) wireless communication systems cannot be completely eliminated due to imperfections in different factors, such as the SI channel estimation and hardware circuits. Therefore, residual SI (RSI) always exists in FD systems. In addition, hardware impairments (HIs) [...] Read more.
In practice, self-interference (SI) in full-duplex (FD) wireless communication systems cannot be completely eliminated due to imperfections in different factors, such as the SI channel estimation and hardware circuits. Therefore, residual SI (RSI) always exists in FD systems. In addition, hardware impairments (HIs) cannot be avoided in FD systems due to the non-ideal characteristics of electronic components. These issues motivate us to consider an FD-HI system with a decode-and-forward (DF) relay that is applied for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. Unlike previous works, the performance of the proposed FD-HI-V2V system is evaluated over cascaded Rayleigh fading channels (CRFCs). We mathematically obtain the exact closed-form expressions of the outage probability (OP), system throughput (ST), and ergodic capacity (EC) of the proposed FD-HI-V2V system under the joint and crossed effects of the RSI, HIs, and CRFCs. We validate all derived expressions via Monte-Carlo simulations. Based on these expressions, the OP, ST, and EC of the proposed FD-HI-V2V system are investigated and compared with other related systems, such as ideal hardware (ID) and half-duplex (HD) systems, as well as a system over traditional Rayleigh fading channels (RFCs), to clearly show the impacts of negative factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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30 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Content Precaching Scheme Based on the Predictive Speed of Vehicles in Content-Centric Vehicular Networks
by Youngju Nam, Hyunseok Choi, Yongje Shin, Euisin Lee and Eun-Kyu Lee
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165376 - 9 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Content-Centric Vehicular Networks (CCVNs) are considered as an attractive technology to efficiently distribute and share contents among vehicles in vehicular environments. Due to the large size of contents such as multimedia data, it might be difficult for a vehicle to download the whole [...] Read more.
Content-Centric Vehicular Networks (CCVNs) are considered as an attractive technology to efficiently distribute and share contents among vehicles in vehicular environments. Due to the large size of contents such as multimedia data, it might be difficult for a vehicle to download the whole of a content within the coverage of its current RoadSide Unit (RSU). To address this issue, many studies exploit mobility-based content precaching in the next RSU on the trajectory of the vehicle. To calculate the amount of the content precaching, they use a constant speed such as the current speed of the vehicle requesting the content or the average speed of vehicles in the next RSU. However, since they do not appropriately reflect the practical speed of the vehicle in the next RSU, they could incorrectly calculate the amount of the content precaching. Therefore, we propose an adaptive content precaching scheme (ACPS) that correctly estimates the predictive speed of a requester vehicle to reflect its practical speed and calculates the amount of the content precaching using its predictive speed. ACPS adjusts the predictive speed to the average speed starting from the current speed with the optimized adaptive value. To compensate for a subtle error between the predictive and the practical speeds, ACPS appropriately adds a guardband area to the precaching amount. Simulation results verify that ACPS achieves better performance than previous schemes with the current or the average speeds in terms of the content download delay and the backhaul traffic overhead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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20 pages, 8139 KiB  
Article
ESCOVE: Energy-SLA-Aware Edge–Cloud Computation Offloading in Vehicular Networks
by Leila Ismail and Huned Materwala
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 5233; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155233 - 2 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2378
Abstract
The vehicular network is an emerging technology in the Intelligent Smart Transportation era. The network provides mechanisms for running different applications, such as accident prevention, publishing and consuming services, and traffic flow management. In such scenarios, edge and cloud computing come into the [...] Read more.
The vehicular network is an emerging technology in the Intelligent Smart Transportation era. The network provides mechanisms for running different applications, such as accident prevention, publishing and consuming services, and traffic flow management. In such scenarios, edge and cloud computing come into the picture to offload computation from vehicles that have limited processing capabilities. Optimizing the energy consumption of the edge and cloud servers becomes crucial. However, existing research efforts focus on either vehicle or edge energy optimization, and do not account for vehicular applications’ quality of services. In this paper, we address this void by proposing a novel offloading algorithm, ESCOVE, which optimizes the energy of the edge–cloud computing platform. The proposed algorithm respects the Service level agreement (SLA) in terms of latency, processing and total execution times. The experimental results show that ESCOVE is a promising approach in energy savings while preserving SLAs compared to the state-of-the-art approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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22 pages, 3655 KiB  
Article
Novel Road Traffic Management Strategy for Rapid Clarification of the Emergency Vehicle Route Based on V2V Communications
by Radwa Ahmed Osman, Amira I. Zaki and Ahmed Kadry Abdelsalam
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 5120; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155120 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2905
Abstract
Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is a promising paradigm that enables all vehicles in the traffic road to communicate with each other to enhance traffic performance and increase road safety. Through vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, vehicles can understand the traffic conditions based on the information sent among [...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is a promising paradigm that enables all vehicles in the traffic road to communicate with each other to enhance traffic performance and increase road safety. Through vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, vehicles can understand the traffic conditions based on the information sent among vehicles on the road. Due to the potential delay caused by traffic jams, emergency vehicles may not be able to reach their destination in the required time, leading to severe losses. The case is more severe especially in developing countries where no emergency-vehicle-dedicated lanes are allocated. In this study, a new emergency vehicle route-clarifying strategy is proposed. The new clarifying strategy is based on vehicular traffic management in different interference medium scenarios. The proposed model aims, through V2V communication, to find the nearest vehicle with which to communicate. This vehicle plays an important role in reducing the travel time: as the emergency message is received, this vehicle will immediately communicate with all the neighboring vehicles on the road. Based on V2V communications, all the vehicles in the road will clear from the lane in the road for the emergency vehicle can safely reach its destination with the minimum possible travel time. The maximum distance between the emergency vehicle and the nearest vehicle was determined under different channel conditions. The proposed strategy applied an optimization technique to find the varied road traffic parameters. The proposed traffic management strategy was evaluated and examined through different assumptions and several simulation scenarios. The obtained results validated the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed model, and also indicated significant improvement in the network’s performance in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and average end-to-end delay (E2E). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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18 pages, 2060 KiB  
Article
Sparse Bayes Tensor and DOA Tracking Inspired Channel Estimation for V2X Millimeter Wave Massive MIMO System
by Kaihua Luo, Xiaoping Zhou, Bin Wang, Jifeng Huang and Haichao Liu
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 4021; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124021 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2328
Abstract
Efficient vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications improve traffic safety, enable autonomous driving, and help to reduce environmental impacts. To achieve these objectives, accurate channel estimation in highly mobile scenarios becomes necessary. However, in the V2X millimeter-wave massive MIMO system, the high mobility of vehicles leads [...] Read more.
Efficient vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications improve traffic safety, enable autonomous driving, and help to reduce environmental impacts. To achieve these objectives, accurate channel estimation in highly mobile scenarios becomes necessary. However, in the V2X millimeter-wave massive MIMO system, the high mobility of vehicles leads to the rapid time-varying of the wireless channel and results in the existing static channel estimation algorithms no longer applicable. In this paper, we propose a sparse Bayes tensor and DOA tracking inspired channel estimation for V2X millimeter wave massive MIMO system. Specifically, by exploiting the sparse scattering characteristics of the channel, we transform the channel estimation into a sparse recovery problem. In order to reduce the influence of quantization errors, both the receiving and transmitting angle grids should have super-resolution. We obtain the measurement matrix to increase the resolution of the redundant dictionary. Furthermore, we take the low-rank characteristics of the received signals into consideration rather than singly using the traditional sparse prior. Motivated by the sparse Bayes tensor, a direction of arrival (DOA) tracking method is developed to acquire the DOA at the next moment, which equals the sum of the DOA at the previous moment and the offset. The obtained DOA is expected to provide a significant angle information update for tracking fast time-varying vehicular channels. The proposed approach is evaluated over the different speeds of the vehicle scenarios and compared to the other methods. Simulation results validated the theoretical analysis and demonstrate that the proposed solution outperforms a number of state-of-the-art researches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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14 pages, 778 KiB  
Communication
A Novel GBSM for Non-Stationary V2V Channels Allowing 3D Velocity Variations
by Naeem Ahmed, Boyu Hua, Qiuming Zhu, Kai Mao and Junwei Bao
Sensors 2021, 21(9), 3271; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093271 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
A new non-stationary (NS) geometry-based stochastic model (GBSM) is presented for developing and testing the communication systems of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) applications, which considers the three-dimensional (3D) scattering environments and allows 3D velocity as well. In this paper, the proposed GBSM for NS V2V [...] Read more.
A new non-stationary (NS) geometry-based stochastic model (GBSM) is presented for developing and testing the communication systems of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) applications, which considers the three-dimensional (3D) scattering environments and allows 3D velocity as well. In this paper, the proposed GBSM for NS V2V channels allowed 3D velocity variations and was more suitable for actual V2V communications because it provided smoother transitions between the consecutive channel segments. The time-variant channel coefficient and the channel parameters, i.e., Doppler frequencies, path delay and power, angle of arrival (AoA), and angle of departure (AoD), were analyzed and derived. Likewise, the theoretical statistical properties as the probability density function (PDF), the auto-correlation function (ACF), and Doppler power spectral density (DPSD) were also analyzed and derived under the von Mises–Fisher (VMF) distribution. Finally, the theoretical and measured results were well coordinated alongside the implemented results, which confirmed the feasibility of the introduced model along with the theoretical expressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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23 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
A Stackelberg Game-Based Caching Incentive Scheme for Roadside Units in VANETs
by Yang Wang, Yuankun Lin, Lingyu Chen and Jianghong Shi
Sensors 2020, 20(22), 6625; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20226625 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
As a key technology of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been promising to provide safety and infotainment for drivers and passengers. To support different applications about traffic safety, traffic efficiency, autonomous driving and entertainment, it is important to [...] Read more.
As a key technology of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been promising to provide safety and infotainment for drivers and passengers. To support different applications about traffic safety, traffic efficiency, autonomous driving and entertainment, it is important to investigate how to effectively deliver content in VANETs. Since it takes resources such as bandwidth and power for base stations (BSs) or roadside units (RSUs) to deliver content, the optimal pricing strategy for BSs and the optimal caching incentive scheme for RSUs need to be studied. In this paper, a framework of content delivery is proposed first, where each moving vehicle can obtain small-volume content files from either the nearest BS or the nearest RSU according to the competition among them. Then, the profit models for both BSs and RSUs are established based on stochastic geometry and point processes theory. Next, a caching incentive scheme for RSUs based on Stackelberg game is proposed, where both competition sides (i.e., BSs and RSUs) can maximize their own profits. Besides, a backward introduction method is introduced to solve the Stackelberg equilibrium. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that BSs can obtain their own optimal pricing strategy for maximizing the profit as well as RSUs can obtain the optimal caching scheme with the maximum profit during the content delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications)
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