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Special Issue "Piezoelectric Transducers"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ivan Felis Enguix
SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Centro Tecnológico Naval y del Mar—Marine Technology Centre (CTN), 30320 Fuente Álamo, Murcia, Spain
Interests: applied physics; complex systems; machine learning; IoT; environmental intelligence; sustainability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This specific volume of piezoelectric transducers aims to combine the advances of this technology from three points of view: the behavior of piezoelectric materials for transducers; the design and characterization of both the parts and the complete transducer; and the main applications of these piezoelectric transducers. Therefore, research articles, both basic and applied, theoretical and experimental, on any of these points of view are welcome. The present Special Issue in Sensors can be a reference and joining point for all researchers working in the field of piezoelectric transducers.

Topics are included but not limited to:

Piezoelectric theory: analytical and numerical solutions:

  • Behavior and properties of piezoelectric materials
  • New compositions of piezoelectric materials
  • Piezoelectric ceramic manufacturing

Transducer design and characterization:

  • Matching layer design
  • Backing design
  • Housing design
  • Full piezoelectric transducers design
  • Optimization of piezoelectric transducers
  • Development of piezoelectric transducers
  • Characterization techniques of piezoelectric transducers
  • Durability and variability of piezoelectric transducer response

Applications of piezoelectric transducers:

  • Underwater sensors (hydrophones)
  • Acoustic communications
  • Power harvesters
  • Medical sensors for monitoring and imaging
  • Medical transducers for energy deposition
  • Non-destructive testing
  • Ultrasonic wave characterization
  • Vibration testing
  • Control systems
  • Precision engineering
  • Resonators
  • Nonlinear and high-voltage applications

Dr. Ivan Felis Enguix
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Signal Processing for Parametric Acoustic Sources Applied to Underwater Communication
Sensors 2020, 20(20), 5878; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205878 - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
For years, in the field of underwater acoustics, a line of research with special relevance for applications of environmental monitoring and maritime security has been developed that explores the possibilities of non-linear phenomena of sound propagation, especially referring to the so-called parametric effect [...] Read more.
For years, in the field of underwater acoustics, a line of research with special relevance for applications of environmental monitoring and maritime security has been developed that explores the possibilities of non-linear phenomena of sound propagation, especially referring to the so-called parametric effect or self-modulation. This article shows the results of using a new modulation technique based on sine-sweep signals, compared to classical modulations (FSK and PSK). For each of these modulations, a series of 16-bit strings of information with different frequencies and durations have been performed, with the same 200 kHz carrier wave. All of them have been tested in the Hydroacoustic Laboratory of the CTN and, through the application of cross-correlation processing, the limitations and improvements of this novel processing technique have been evaluated. This allows reaching better limits in discrimination of bits and signal-to-noise ratio used in underwater parametric acoustic communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Neural Network Self-Tuning Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3342; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123342 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Piezoelectric actuators (PEA) have been widely used in the ultra-precision manufacturing fields. However, the hysteresis nonlinearity between the input voltage and the output displacement, which possesses the properties of rate dependency and multivalued mapping, seriously impedes the positioning accuracy of the PEA. This [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric actuators (PEA) have been widely used in the ultra-precision manufacturing fields. However, the hysteresis nonlinearity between the input voltage and the output displacement, which possesses the properties of rate dependency and multivalued mapping, seriously impedes the positioning accuracy of the PEA. This paper investigates a control methodology without the hysteresis model for PEA actuated nanopositioning systems, in which the inherent drawback generated by the hysteresis nonlinearity aggregates the control accuracy of the PEA. To address this problem, a neural network self-tuning control approach is proposed to realize the high accuracy tracking with respect to the system uncertainties and hysteresis nonlinearity of the PEA. First, the PEA is described as a nonlinear equation with two variables, which are unknown. Then, using the capabilities of super approximation and adaptive parameter adjustment, the neural network identifiers are used to approximate the two unknown variables automatically updated without any off-line identification, respectively. To verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control methodology, a series of experiments is executed on a commercial PEA product. The experimental results illustrate that the established neural network self-tuning control method is efficient in damping the hysteresis nonlinearity and enhancing the trajectory tracking property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Bragg Peak Localization with Piezoelectric Sensors for Proton Therapy Treatment
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102987 - 25 May 2020
Abstract
A full chain simulation of the acoustic hadrontherapy monitoring for brain tumours is presented in this work. For the study, a proton beam of 100 MeV is considered. In the first stage, Geant4 is used to simulate the energy deposition and to study [...] Read more.
A full chain simulation of the acoustic hadrontherapy monitoring for brain tumours is presented in this work. For the study, a proton beam of 100 MeV is considered. In the first stage, Geant4 is used to simulate the energy deposition and to study the behaviour of the Bragg peak. The energy deposition in the medium produces local heating that can be considered instantaneous with respect to the hydrodynamic time scale producing a sound pressure wave. The resulting thermoacoustic signal has been subsequently obtained by solving the thermoacoustic equation. The acoustic propagation has been simulated by FEM methods in the brain and the skull, where a set of piezoelectric sensors are placed. Last, the final received signals in the sensors have been processed in order to reconstruct the position of the thermal source and, thus, to determine the feasibility and accuracy of acoustic beam monitoring in hadrontherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Hysteresis Modelling and Feedforward Control of Piezoelectric Actuator Based on Simplified Interval Type-2 Fuzzy System
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092587 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The piezoelectric actuator is indispensable for driving the micro-manipulator. In this paper, a simplified interval type-2 (IT2) fuzzy system is proposed for hysteresis modelling and feedforward control of a piezoelectric actuator. The partial derivative of the output of IT2 fuzzy system with respect [...] Read more.
The piezoelectric actuator is indispensable for driving the micro-manipulator. In this paper, a simplified interval type-2 (IT2) fuzzy system is proposed for hysteresis modelling and feedforward control of a piezoelectric actuator. The partial derivative of the output of IT2 fuzzy system with respect to the modelling parameters can be analytically computed with the antecedent part of IT2 fuzzy rule specifically designed. In the experiments, gradient based optimization was used to identify the IT2 fuzzy hysteresis model. Results showed that the maximum error of model identification is 0.42% with only 3 developed IT2 fuzzy rules. Moreover, the model validation was conducted to demonstrate the generalization performance of the identified model. Based on the analytic inverse of the developed model, feedforward control experiment for tracking sinusoidal trajectory of 20 Hz was carried out. As a result, the hysteresis effect of the piezoelectric actuator was reduced with the maximum tracking error being 4.6%. Experimental results indicated an improved performance of the proposed IT2 fuzzy system for hysteresis modelling and feedforward control of the piezoelectric actuator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study Comparing the Effectiveness of Physical Isolation and ANN Digital Compensation Methodologies at Eliminating the Stress Wave Effect Error on Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2397; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082397 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Stress wave, accompanied by explosion shock wave overpressure measurement and dynamic pressure calibration on shock tube, could cause error signals in the piezoelectric pressure sensor (PPS) used for measuring and calibrating. We may call this error the stress wave effect (SWE). In this [...] Read more.
Stress wave, accompanied by explosion shock wave overpressure measurement and dynamic pressure calibration on shock tube, could cause error signals in the piezoelectric pressure sensor (PPS) used for measuring and calibrating. We may call this error the stress wave effect (SWE). In this paper, the SWE and its isolation from PPS were studied by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). In the experimental study of SWE, when increasing the input stress, the corresponding output signal of the PPS was analyzed, and the existence of SWE was verified using the result of the spectrum analysis of the output signal. The stress wave isolation pedestal used in the stress wave isolation experiment was made of nylon and plexiglass polymer materials. The effects of the isolation pedestal’s materials and length on the stress wave isolation were analyzed using the study results. Finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with the data of the SWE study and was further applied to compensate the SWE error of the PPS output signal. The compensating results were compared with the isolating results, and the advantages and disadvantages of the digital compensation and physical isolation methods were analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Indoor Test System for Liquid CO2 Phase Change Shock Wave Pressure with PVDF Sensors
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082395 - 23 Apr 2020
Abstract
Liquid carbon dioxide phase change fracturing technology (LCPCFT) has been widely used in engineering blasting due to the advantage of no flames, and no toxic and harmful gas. However, few studies have been conducted on the acquisition of shock wave pressure and its [...] Read more.
Liquid carbon dioxide phase change fracturing technology (LCPCFT) has been widely used in engineering blasting due to the advantage of no flames, and no toxic and harmful gas. However, few studies have been conducted on the acquisition of shock wave pressure and its loading characteristics, which are key parameters in fracturing. Referring to the CO2 in-situ fracturing technology, an indoor test system for shock wave pressure generated during LCPCFT has been built, with a protected polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric sensor. Then three verification experiments with different radial distances between the fracturing tube and test points were carried out on the test system, and in each experiment, four PVDF sensors as four test points were arranged with different axial distance from the detonating point to test the pressure distribution. The experimental results show that when the radial distance between the fracturing tube and test points is not too large (≤345 mm), the pressure generated during LCPCFT is approximately uniformly distributed within the axial length of the fracturing tube, but when it is relatively large (≈895 mm), the results between different test points are in a certain degree of dispersion. And finally, this paper uses the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) of peak pressure and impulse to process the test results to evaluate the reliability and stability of the test system. Evaluation results show that the test results are in good consistency. The test system in this paper has good stability and high reliability. The test system provides a useful tool for accurately obtaining the shock wave pressure, which is helpful for further research on LCPCFT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low Temperature Drifting Acoustic Wave Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Vacuum Cavity for Absolute Pressure Sensing
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061788 - 24 Mar 2020
Abstract
In this paper we demonstrate a novel acoustic wave pressure sensor, based on an aluminum nitride (AlN) piezoelectric thin film. It contains an integrated vacuum cavity, which is micro-fabricated using a cavity silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. This sensor can directly measure the absolute pressure [...] Read more.
In this paper we demonstrate a novel acoustic wave pressure sensor, based on an aluminum nitride (AlN) piezoelectric thin film. It contains an integrated vacuum cavity, which is micro-fabricated using a cavity silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. This sensor can directly measure the absolute pressure without the help of an external package, and the vacuum cavity gives the sensor a very accurate reference pressure. Meanwhile, the presented pressure sensor is superior to previously reported acoustic wave pressure sensors in terms of the temperature drift. With the carefully designed dual temperature compensation structure, a very low temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) is achieved. Experimental results show the sensor can measure the absolute pressure in the range of 0 to 0.4 MPa, while the temperature range is from 20 °C to 220 °C with a TCF of −14.4 ppm/°C. Such a TCF is only about half of that of previously reported works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Wide Bandwidth Class-S Power Amplifiers for Ultrasonic Devices
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010290 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Wide bandwidth ultrasonic devices are a necessity in high-resolution ultrasonic systems. Therefore, constant output voltages need to be produced across the wide bandwidths of a power amplifier. We present the first design of a wide bandwidth class-S power amplifier for ultrasonic devices. The [...] Read more.
Wide bandwidth ultrasonic devices are a necessity in high-resolution ultrasonic systems. Therefore, constant output voltages need to be produced across the wide bandwidths of a power amplifier. We present the first design of a wide bandwidth class-S power amplifier for ultrasonic devices. The −6 dB bandwidth of the developed class-S power amplifier was measured at 125.07% at 20 MHz, thus, offering a wide bandwidth for ultrasonic devices. Pulse-echo measurement is a performance measurement method used to evaluate the performance of ultrasonic transducers, components, or systems. The pulse-echo signals were obtained using an ultrasonic transducer with designed power amplifiers. In the pulse-echo measurements, time and frequency analyses were conducted to evaluate the bandwidth flatness of the power amplifiers. The frequency range of the ultrasonic transducer was measured and compared when using the developed class-S and commercial class-A power amplifiers with the same output voltages. The class-S power amplifiers had a relatively flat bandwidth (109.7 mV at 17 MHz, 112.0 mV at 20 MHz, and 109.5 mV at 23 MHz). When the commercial class-A power amplifier was evaluated under the same conditions, an uneven bandwidth was recorded (110.6 mV at 17 MHz, 111.5 mV at 20 MHz, and 85.0 mV at 23 MHz). Thus, we demonstrated that the designed class-S power amplifiers could prove useful for ultrasonic devices with a wide frequency range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
A Critical Step to Using a Parametric Array Loudspeaker in Mobile Devices
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204449 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A parametric array (PA) loudspeaker is a highly directional audio source that might grant one's convenience if it is used with mobile devices. However, conventional PA loudspeakers is almost impossible to apply in mobile devices using a battery because of the large power [...] Read more.
A parametric array (PA) loudspeaker is a highly directional audio source that might grant one's convenience if it is used with mobile devices. However, conventional PA loudspeakers is almost impossible to apply in mobile devices using a battery because of the large power consumption and large device size. In this study, a PA loudspeaker system (PALS) was fabricated and evaluated to show that those difficulties could be overcome to apply it to mobile devices. In order to construct a PALS for demonstration, a power amplifier and signal-processing unit should also be properly designed and built. The PA source transducer should also be designed and built for a mobile device application. These components were integrated into a single PALS. The PALS generated a 125-dB primary wave and 62 dB of a different frequency wave (DFW) through the PA at 0.45 m in a 3 m × 3 m × 2 m semi-anechoic chamber. We confirmed that the half-power bandwidth (HPBW) formed a 6° beam at 83 kHz of DFW and 90 kHz of the primary wave (PW), and the HPBW formed a 7.3° beam at 5 kHz of DFW and a 7.1° beam at 10 kHz of DFW, respectively. Lastly, the power required was 6.65 W without a matching circuit, and 3.25 W with such a circuit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Analysis of a Magnetically Coupled Multi-Frequency Hybrid Energy Harvester
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143203 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The approach to improve the output power of piezoelectric energy harvester is one of the current research hotspots. In the case where some sources have two or more discrete vibration frequencies, this paper proposed three types of magnetically coupled multi-frequency hybrid energy harvesters [...] Read more.
The approach to improve the output power of piezoelectric energy harvester is one of the current research hotspots. In the case where some sources have two or more discrete vibration frequencies, this paper proposed three types of magnetically coupled multi-frequency hybrid energy harvesters (MHEHs) to capture vibration energy composed of two discrete frequencies. Electromechanical coupling models were established to analyze the magnetic forces, and to evaluate the power generation characteristics, which were verified by the experimental test. The optimal structure was selected through the comparison. With 2 m/s2 excitation acceleration, the optimal peak output power was 2.96 mW at 23.6 Hz and 4.76 mW at 32.8 Hz, respectively. The superiority of hybrid energy harvesting mechanism was demonstrated. The influences of initial center-to-center distances between two magnets and length of cantilever beam on output power were also studied. At last, the frequency sweep test was conducted. Both theoretical and experimental analyses indicated that the proposed MHEH produced more electric power over a larger operating bandwidth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Open AccessArticle
Underwater Spiral Wave Sound Source Based on Phased Array with Three Transducers
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143192 - 19 Jul 2019
Abstract
This paper realizes an underwater spiral wave sound source by using three omni-directional spherical transducers with three different phases. The pressure distribution of the sound field for a phased array is derived using the superposition theory of sound field. The generation of spiral [...] Read more.
This paper realizes an underwater spiral wave sound source by using three omni-directional spherical transducers with three different phases. The pressure distribution of the sound field for a phased array is derived using the superposition theory of sound field. The generation of spiral wave field is presented, the relationship between the performance of phased array sound field and the array parameters is analyzed, and also verified by the finite element method (FEM). A spiral wave sound source with three spherical piezoelectric ceramic transducers is then designed and fabricated based on FEM simulation, and the performance of the sound source is analyzed. Measurements are made in a reverberation pool, and the result shows that the fabricated spiral wave sound source is capable of producing a spiral sound wave. Under a frequency of 3.5 kHz, the phase directivity has a fluctuation of ±21°, and the amplitude directivity range is 4.3 dB, which verifies the realization of the spiral wave sound source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Detection Principles of Temperature Compensated Oscillators with Reactance Influence on Piezoelectric Resonator
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030802 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
This review presents various ways of detection of different physical quantities based on the frequency change of oscillators using piezoelectric crystals. These are influenced by the reactance changes modifying their electrical characteristics. Reactance in series, in parallel, or a combination of reactances can [...] Read more.
This review presents various ways of detection of different physical quantities based on the frequency change of oscillators using piezoelectric crystals. These are influenced by the reactance changes modifying their electrical characteristics. Reactance in series, in parallel, or a combination of reactances can impact the electrical crystal substitute model by influencing its resonant oscillation frequency. In this way, various physical quantities near resonance can be detected with great sensitivity through a small change of capacitance or inductance. A piezoelectric crystal impedance circle and the mode of frequency changing around the resonant frequency change are shown. This review also presents the influence of reactance on the piezoelectric crystal, the way in which the capacitance lost among the crystal’s electrodes is compensated, and how the mode of oscillators’ output frequency is converted to lower frequency range (1–100 kHz). Finally, the review also explains the temperature–frequency compensation of the crystals’ characteristics in oscillators that use temperature–frequency pair of crystals and the procedure of the compensation of crystals own temperature characteristics based on the method switching between the active and reference reactance. For the latter, the experimental results of the oscillator’s output frequency stability (fout = ±0.002 ppm) at dynamical change of environment temperature (0–50 °C) are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers)
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