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Special Issue "Microwave Sensing and Imaging"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrea Randazzo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering, and Naval Architecture, University of Genoa, Via all'Opera Pia 11A, I-16145 Genoa, Italy
Interests: Microwave imaging; Inverse scattering techniques; Numerical methods for electromagnetic scattering and propagation; Smart antennas
Dr. Cristina Ponti
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, “Roma Tre” University, Italy
Interests: electromagnetic scattering, electromagnetic propagation, inverse scattering, antennas
Dr. Alessandro Fedeli
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering, and Naval Architecture, University of Genoa, 16145 Genoa, Italy
Interests: forward and inverse electromagnetic scattering; computational electromagnetics; microwave imaging
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

In the last years, microwave sensing and imaging have acquired an ever-growing importance in several applicative fields, such as non-destructive evaluation in industry and civil engineering, subsurface prospection, security, and biomedical imaging.

In principle, microwave techniques can be used to retrieve information about some physical parameters of the inspected targets (e.g., dielectric properties, shape, etc.) by using safe electromagnetic radiations and cost-effective systems, since the frequency band of interest is the same as in several other commercial apparatuses. Despite the great technological advances attained in the last years in this field, there are still some topics that could be addressed to further improve imaging systems. First, even more efficient and reliable measurement systems need to be designed and validated on a case-by-case basis, especially in realistic scenarios. Second, great attention should be paid to the development of effective data processing algorithms, able to solve the underlying electromagnetic inverse scattering problem (which is generally nonlinear and ill-posed) in order to retrieve the required information about the inspected targets from the measured scattered-field samples. Finally, efficient forward solvers are also fundamental for modeling the electromagnetic interactions between the interrogating fields and the targets in a suitable way.

In such a framework, this Special Issue aims at providing some insights into recent microwave sensing and imaging systems and techniques. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: computational methods for electromagnetic imaging and inverse scattering, analytical and numerical forward modeling techniques in complex scenarios, sensors and antenna design, as well as innovative applications of microwave sensing and imaging.

Prof. Andrea Randazzo
Dr. Cristina Ponti
Dr. Alessandro Fedeli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microwave imaging 
  • Electromagnetic scattering 
  • Inverse scattering 
  • Inverse problems 
  • Electromagnetic modelling and simulation
  • Microwave sensors

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Through-the-Wall Microwave Imaging: Forward and Inverse Scattering Modeling
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2865; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102865 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
The imaging of dielectric targets hidden behind a wall is addressed in this paper. An analytical solver for a fast and accurate computation of the forward scattered field by the targets is proposed, which takes into account all the interactions of the electromagnetic [...] Read more.
The imaging of dielectric targets hidden behind a wall is addressed in this paper. An analytical solver for a fast and accurate computation of the forward scattered field by the targets is proposed, which takes into account all the interactions of the electromagnetic field with the interfaces of the wall. Furthermore, an inversion procedure able to address the full underlying non-linear inverse scattering problem is introduced. This technique exploits a regularizing scheme in Lebesgue spaces in order to reconstruct an image of the hidden targets. Preliminary numerical results are provided in order to initially assess the capabilities of the developed solvers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
A Prototype Microwave System for 3D Brain Stroke Imaging
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092607 - 03 May 2020
Abstract
This work focuses on brain stroke imaging via microwave technology. In particular, the open issue of monitoring patients after stroke onset is addressed here in order to provide clinicians with a tool to control the effectiveness of administered therapies during the follow-up period. [...] Read more.
This work focuses on brain stroke imaging via microwave technology. In particular, the open issue of monitoring patients after stroke onset is addressed here in order to provide clinicians with a tool to control the effectiveness of administered therapies during the follow-up period. In this paper, a novel prototype is presented and characterized. The device is based on a low-complexity architecture which makes use of a minimum number of properly positioned and designed antennas placed on a helmet. It exploits a differential imaging approach and provides 3D images of the stroke. Preliminary experiments involving a 3D phantom filled with brain tissue-mimicking liquid confirm the potential of the technology in imaging a spherical target mimicking a stroke of a radius equal to 1.25 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Orbital Angular Momentum Incident Fields in Linearized Microwave Imaging
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20071905 - 30 Mar 2020
Abstract
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) is gaining great attention in the physics and electromagnetic community owing to an intriguing debate concerning its suitability for widening channel capacity in next-generation wireless communications. While such a debate is still a matter of controversy, we exploit OAM [...] Read more.
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) is gaining great attention in the physics and electromagnetic community owing to an intriguing debate concerning its suitability for widening channel capacity in next-generation wireless communications. While such a debate is still a matter of controversy, we exploit OAM generation for microwave imaging within the classical first order linearized models, i.e., Born and Rytov approximation. Physical insights into different fields carrying -order OAM are conveniently exploited to propose possible alternative imaging approaches and paradigms in microwave imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Validation of Microwave Tomography with the DBIM-TwIST Algorithm for Brain Stroke Detection and Classification
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030840 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
We present an initial experimental validation of a microwave tomography (MWT) prototype for brain stroke detection and classification using the distorted Born iterative method, two-step iterative shrinkage thresholding (DBIM-TwIST) algorithm. The validation study consists of first preparing and characterizing gel phantoms which mimic [...] Read more.
We present an initial experimental validation of a microwave tomography (MWT) prototype for brain stroke detection and classification using the distorted Born iterative method, two-step iterative shrinkage thresholding (DBIM-TwIST) algorithm. The validation study consists of first preparing and characterizing gel phantoms which mimic the structure and the dielectric properties of a simplified brain model with a haemorrhagic or ischemic stroke target. Then, we measure the S-parameters of the phantoms in our experimental prototype and process the scattered signals from 0.5 to 2.5 GHz using the DBIM-TwIST algorithm to estimate the dielectric properties of the reconstruction domain. Our results demonstrate that we are able to detect the stroke target in scenarios where the initial guess of the inverse problem is only an approximation of the true experimental phantom. Moreover, the prototype can differentiate between haemorrhagic and ischemic strokes based on the estimation of their dielectric properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
An Imaging Plane Calibration Method for MIMO Radar Imaging
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5261; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235261 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
In two dimensional cross-range multiple-input multiple-output radar imaging for aerial targets, due to the non-cooperative movement of the targets, the estimated imaging plane parameters, namely the center and the posture angles of the imaging plane, may have deviations from true values, which defocus [...] Read more.
In two dimensional cross-range multiple-input multiple-output radar imaging for aerial targets, due to the non-cooperative movement of the targets, the estimated imaging plane parameters, namely the center and the posture angles of the imaging plane, may have deviations from true values, which defocus the final image. This problem is called imaging plane mismatch in this paper. Focusing on this problem, firstly the deviations of spatial spectrum fulfilling region caused by imaging plane mismatch is analyzed, as well as the errors of the corresponding spatial spectral values. Thereupon, the calibration operation is deduced when the imaging plane parameters are accurately obtained. Afterwards, an imaging plane calibration algorithm is proposed to utilize particle swarm optimization to search out the imaging plane parameters. Finally, it is demonstrated through simulations that the proposed algorithm can accurately estimate the imaging plane parameters and achieve good image focusing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Detecting Axial Ratio of Microwave Field with High Resolution Using NV Centers in Diamond
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102347 - 21 May 2019
Abstract
Polarization property characterization of the microwave (MW) field with high speed and resolution is vitally beneficial as the circularly-polarized MW field plays an important role in the development of quantum technologies and satellite communication technologies. In this work, we propose a scheme to [...] Read more.
Polarization property characterization of the microwave (MW) field with high speed and resolution is vitally beneficial as the circularly-polarized MW field plays an important role in the development of quantum technologies and satellite communication technologies. In this work, we propose a scheme to detect the axial ratio of the MW field with optical diffraction limit resolution with a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Firstly, the idea of polarization selective detection of the MW magnetic field is carried out using a single NV center implanted in a type-IIa CVD diamond with a confocal microscope system achieving a sensitivity of 1.7 μT/Hz. Then, high speed wide-field characterization of the MW magnetic field at the submillimeter scale is realized by combining wide-field microscopy and ensemble NV centers inherent in a general CVD diamond. The precision axial ratio can be detected by measuring the magnitudes of two counter-rotating circularly-polarized MW magnetic fields. The wide-field detection of the axial ratio and strength parameters of microwave fields enables high speed testing of small-scale microwave devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Sensing and Imaging)
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