Advances and Applications of Microwave Imaging

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2022) | Viewed by 8899

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering, and Naval Architecture, University of Genoa, 16145 Genoa, Italy
Interests: electromagnetic scattering; electromagnetic compatibility; antenna design; bioelectromagnetics; open-source codes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering, and Naval Architecture, University of Genoa, 16145 Genoa, Italy
Interests: forward and inverse electromagnetic scattering; computational electromagnetics; microwave imaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first pioneering studies, microwave imaging has appeared as a very promising methodology to inspect structures and bodies in a non-invasive way. Applications are now ranging from medical diagnostics to security, from nondestructive testing to geophysics and archaeology. However, the peculiar nature of microwave radiation and scattering needs to be accounted for in a proper way, by combining accurate measurement systems with suitable imaging algorithms.

As to the measurement devices, which have the objective of collecting data related to the scattered microwave radiation from the structures or bodies under test, great progress has been made throughout the years, but each applicative field presents its own issues and challenges, especially when signals are weak and possibly masked by noise or by other environmental factors.

Starting from the measured data, the retrieval of microwave images of targets requires the resolution of an inverse electromagnetic problem, which is in principle nonlinear and ill-posed. Many different inversion strategies are continuously proposed by the research community: qualitative, quantitative and hybrid techniques exist, with the aim of obtaining high reconstruction accuracy and computational efficiency. Alongside more established techniques, today there is also great interest in applications based on artificial intelligence and machine learning.

However, many efforts are still required to bridge the gap between numerical and theoretical developments and practical applications, and the research community is tirelessly stimulated to find and test new solutions from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints.

The goal of this Special Issue is to collect innovative research contributions in the intriguing and ever-evolving field of microwave imaging. Original research works, as well as tutorials and review papers, are welcome. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Theoretical advances in microwave imaging;
  • Qualitative and radar-based imaging strategies;
  • Quantitative inverse-scattering algorithms;
  • Machine learning methods applied to microwave imaging;
  • Compressive sensing;
  • Forward and inverse electromagnetic scattering models;
  • Numerical and computational issues;
  • Development and validation of microwave imaging systems;
  • Antennas and measurement apparatuses for microwave imaging;
  • Medical, industrial and security applications;
  • Ground penetrating radar systems and processing methods;
  • Microwave imaging based antenna diagnostics;
  • Microwave imaging in earth and atmospheric sciences;
  • Novel applications and research perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Gian Luigi Gragnani
Dr. Alessandro Fedeli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 3853 KiB  
Article
Modeling of a Compact Dual Band and Flexible Elliptical-Shape Implantable Antenna in Multi-Layer Tissue Model
by Sanaa Salama, Duaa Zyoud and Ashraf Abuelhaija
Electronics 2022, 11(20), 3406; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11203406 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
A flexible antenna of compact size with a dual band elliptical-shape implantable is designed for biomedical purposes. The suggested antenna has an elliptical shape to be more comfortable for being implanted in human tissue. The implantable antenna is printed on RO3010 substrate with [...] Read more.
A flexible antenna of compact size with a dual band elliptical-shape implantable is designed for biomedical purposes. The suggested antenna has an elliptical shape to be more comfortable for being implanted in human tissue. The implantable antenna is printed on RO3010 substrate with 2 mm as a thickness and 10.2 as a dielectric constant. It consists of an active planar C-shaped element and a parasitic planar inverted C-shaped element. The proposed antenna is designed with a major axis radius of 12 mm and a minor axis radius of 8 mm. It operates in dual bands: The Industrial Scientific and Medical band (ISM) [2.4 GHz–3.5 GHz] and Medical Implant Communications Service band (MICS) [394 MHz–407.61 MHz]. A short-circuited pin is used to minimize the antenna’s overall size and for further size reduction a capacitive load is used between the radiator and the ground plane. For biocompatibility, a thin-thickness layer of Alumina is used as a superstrate. The suggested antenna is tested in a multi-layer tissue model and the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value is computed. The proposed antenna was fabricated, and the reflection coefficient is measured and compared with simulated results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Microwave Imaging)
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14 pages, 2047 KiB  
Article
Forward-Looking Imaging Based on the Linear Wavefront of the Modulated Field
by Yiming Zhong, Yi Zhang, Yiwen Yu, Houjun Sun and Xiangdong Zhang
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11132083 - 2 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1357
Abstract
The vortex electromagnetic wave improves the range-azimuth forward-looking imaging performance with its spiral spatial phase distribution. However, the beam of the vortex electromagnetic wave is divergent, which makes it difficult to detect the targets near the center of the beam. In addition, the [...] Read more.
The vortex electromagnetic wave improves the range-azimuth forward-looking imaging performance with its spiral spatial phase distribution. However, the beam of the vortex electromagnetic wave is divergent, which makes it difficult to detect the targets near the center of the beam. In addition, the vortex electromagnetic wave only has the phase change in the azimuth direction and can hardly estimate the elevation position of the targets. In this paper, a linear wavefront control method based on the amplitude weighting of the array antenna is proposed. The modulated field has a phase gradient in both azimuth and elevation directions and has a maximum radiation intensity in the center of the beam. The imaging model based on the modulated field is theoretically derived and simulations are conducted to demonstrate the imaging performance. The modulated field constructed by the linear array can realize range-azimuth two-dimensional imaging with azimuth resolution of 1/5 beam width. The modulated field constructed by the circular array can realize range-azimuth-elevation three-dimensional imaging, and the resolution of the azimuth and elevation directions is 1/3 of the beam width. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Microwave Imaging)
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33 pages, 9113 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Finite Element/Finite Difference Domain Decomposition Method for Applications in Microwave Imaging
by Larisa Beilina and Eric Lindström
Electronics 2022, 11(9), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11091359 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
A new domain decomposition method for Maxwell’s equations in conductive media is presented. Using this method, reconstruction algorithms are developed for the determination of the dielectric permittivity function using time-dependent scattered data of an electric field. All reconstruction algorithms are based on an [...] Read more.
A new domain decomposition method for Maxwell’s equations in conductive media is presented. Using this method, reconstruction algorithms are developed for the determination of the dielectric permittivity function using time-dependent scattered data of an electric field. All reconstruction algorithms are based on an optimization approach to find the stationary point of the Lagrangian. Adaptive reconstruction algorithms and space-mesh refinement indicators are also presented. Our computational tests show the qualitative reconstruction of the dielectric permittivity function using an anatomically realistic breast phantom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Microwave Imaging)
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16 pages, 4231 KiB  
Article
Resolution of Born Scattering in Curve Geometries: Aspect-Limited Observations and Excitations
by Ehsan Akbari Sekehravani, Giovanni Leone and Rocco Pierri
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243089 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3396
Abstract
In inverse scattering problems, the most accurate possible imaging results require plane waves impinging from all directions and scattered fields observed in all observation directions around the object. Since this full information is infrequently available in actual applications, this paper is concerned with [...] Read more.
In inverse scattering problems, the most accurate possible imaging results require plane waves impinging from all directions and scattered fields observed in all observation directions around the object. Since this full information is infrequently available in actual applications, this paper is concerned with the mathematical analysis and numerical simulations to estimate the achievable resolution in object reconstruction from the knowledge of the scattered far-field when limited data are available at a single frequency. The investigation focuses on evaluating the Number of Degrees of Freedom (NDF) and the Point Spread Function (PSF), which accounts for reconstructing a point-like unknown and depends on the NDF. The discussion concerns objects belonging to curve geometries, in this case, circumference and square scatterers. In addition, since the exact evaluation of the PSF can only be accomplished numerically, an approximated closed-form evaluation is introduced and compared with the exact one. The approximation accuracy of the PSF is verified by numerical results, at least within its main lobe region, which is the most critical as far as the resolution discussion is concerned. The main result of the analysis is the space variance of the PSF for the considered geometries, showing that the resolution is different over the investigation domain. Finally, two numerical applications of the PSF concept are shown, and their relevance in the presence of noisy data is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Microwave Imaging)
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