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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 7th IEEE International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE 2018)"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Trong-Yen Lee

Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hardware–software co-design; intelligent vehicle chip design
Guest Editor
Prof. Yen-Lin Chen

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, 10608 Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: artificial intelligence; intelligent image analytics; embedded systems; pattern recognition; intelligent vehicles
Guest Editor
Prof. Yu-Cheng Fan

Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (02)2771-2171 Ext.2246
Interests: 3D television; LiDAR system; multimedia system; VLSI design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 7th IEEE International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE 2018) will take place in Taipei, Taiwan, 7–9 May, 2017. Over the years, the ISNE conference has continuously provided a platform for experts, scholars, and researchers from all over the world to convene and share novel ideas on next-generation electronics. Authors of the selected papers are invited to submit the extended versions (at least 50% extension for the submissions) of their original papers and contributions regarding the following topics:

  • Biomedical Sensors and Actuators
  • Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) Techniques
  • Microelectronic Devices and Integrated Circuit Technologies for Sensors and Actuators
  • Mobile Ad-Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks.
  • Photodetectors, Fiber Optics and Fiber Sensing
  • Sensor Applications on Computer Communication and Multimedia Techniques
  • Sensor Applications on Power and Control Engineering

Prof. Trong-Yen Lee
Prof. Yen-Lin Chen
Prof. Yu-Cheng Fan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomedical Sensors
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Microelectronic Devices
  • Optic Sensing
  • Sensor Networks
  • Computer Communication and Multimedia Techniques
  • Power and Control Engineering

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Displaying articles 1-8
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Research

Open AccessArticle A Novel Dual-Band Six-Phase Voltage-Control Oscillator
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4025; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114025
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
The paper presents a novel dual-band six-phase voltage-control oscillator. The voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a single-ended delay cell architecture has a lower power consumption, a smaller chip area, and a larger output swing than one with a differential delay cell architecture. However, the
[...] Read more.
The paper presents a novel dual-band six-phase voltage-control oscillator. The voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a single-ended delay cell architecture has a lower power consumption, a smaller chip area, and a larger output swing than one with a differential delay cell architecture. However, the conventional even-phase outputs ring-type VCO cannot be implemented using single-ended delay cells. In other words, the VCO with single-ended delay cells meets most of the requirements of a sensor circuit system, except even-phase outputs function. This work presents a dual-band six-phase ring type VCO, which is implemented using the proposed single-ended delay cell. The proposed VCO both exhibits the advantages of single-ended delay cells and differential delay cells. The proposed delay cell has a band-switching function, which improves the jitter performance of a VCO in which it is used. The proposed VCO can be operated at 890–1080 MHz. The peak-to-peak jitter and the root mean square jitter are the 35.5 ps and 2.8 ps (at 1 GHz), respectively. The maximal power consumption is approximately 6.4 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V in a United Microelectronics Corporation 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The area of the chip is 0.195 × 0.208 mm2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Reliability Scheduling Algorithm for the Static Segment of FlexRay on Vehicle Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3783; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113783
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
FlexRay is a next-generation in-vehicle communication protocol which works in real time with flexibility. The most common applications in FlexRay are high bandwidth. X-by-wire applications, such as brake by wire and throttle by wire. However, there is no mechanism which can prevent transient
[...] Read more.
FlexRay is a next-generation in-vehicle communication protocol which works in real time with flexibility. The most common applications in FlexRay are high bandwidth. X-by-wire applications, such as brake by wire and throttle by wire. However, there is no mechanism which can prevent transient faults in the application layer of FlexRay. If a transient fault occurs during driving, this would be very dangerous; therefore, we propose a fast reliability scheduling algorithm (FRSA) to improve the communication reliability of FlexRay. The proposed method reduces the probability of transient faults in one clock cycle by using a retransmission mechanism to recover the transient errors, and further improves computational complexity using the lookup table method to ensure system reliability. In this paper, we analyze a related literature to establish the system reliability constraints needed to evaluate the necessary time and slot usage, and the proposed cost function is used to evaluate the performance and efficiency when the number of messages is increased. Experimental results show that the proposed FRSA reduces execution time by an average 70.76% and cost by an average 13.33% more than the other existing methods. This method can be useful to others, especially regarding research about periodic time-triggered communication systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensing and Reliability Improvement of Electrostatic-Discharge Transient by Discrete Engineering for High-Voltage 60-V n-Channel Lateral-Diffused MOSFETs with Embedded Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3340; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103340
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
High-voltage n-channel lateral-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nLDMOS) components, fabricated by a TSMC 0.25-μm 60-V bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process with drain-side embedded silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) of the n-p-n-arranged and p-n-p-arranged types, were investigated, in order to determine the devices’ electrostatic discharge (ESD)-sensing behavior
[...] Read more.
High-voltage n-channel lateral-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nLDMOS) components, fabricated by a TSMC 0.25-μm 60-V bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process with drain-side embedded silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) of the n-p-n-arranged and p-n-p-arranged types, were investigated, in order to determine the devices’ electrostatic discharge (ESD)-sensing behavior and capability by discrete anode engineering. As for the drain-side n-p-n-arranged type with discrete-anode manners, transmission–line–pulse (TLP) testing results showed that the ESD ability (It2 value) was slightly upgraded. When the discrete physical parameter was 91 rows, the optimal It2 reached 2.157 A (increasing 17.7% compared with the reference sample). On the other hand, the drain-side SCR p-n-p-arranged type with discrete-anode manner had excellent SCR behavior, and its It2 values could be increased to >7 A (increasing >281.9% compared with the reference DUT). Moreover, under discrete anode engineering, the drain-side SCR n-p-n-arranged and p-n-p-arranged types had clearly higher ESD ability, except for the few discrete physical parameters. Therefore, using the anode discrete engineering, the ESD dissipation ability of a high-voltage (HV) nLDMOS with drain-side SCRs will have greater effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of a High-Performance Multi-Annular Backscattered Electron Detector for Desktop SEM
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093093
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Scanning electron microscopy has been developed for topographic analysis at the nanometer scale. Herein, we present a silicon p-n diode with multi-annular configuration to detect backscattering electrons (BSE) in a homemade desktop scanning electron microscope (SEM). The multi-annular configuration enables the enhancement of
[...] Read more.
Scanning electron microscopy has been developed for topographic analysis at the nanometer scale. Herein, we present a silicon p-n diode with multi-annular configuration to detect backscattering electrons (BSE) in a homemade desktop scanning electron microscope (SEM). The multi-annular configuration enables the enhancement of the topography contrast of 82.11 nA/μm as compared with the commercial multi-fan-shaped BSE detector of 40.08 nA/μm. Additionally, we integrated it with lateral p-n junction processing and aluminum grid structure to increase the sensitivity and efficiency of the multi-annular BSE detector that gives higher sensitivity of atomic number contrast and better surface topography contrast of BSE images for low-energy detection. The responsivity data also shows that MA-AL and MA p-n detectors have higher gain value than the MA detector does. The standard deviation of measurements is no higher than 1%. These results verify that MA p-n and MA-AL detectors are stable and can function well in SEM for low-energy applications. It is demonstrated that the multi-annular (MA) detectors are well suited for imaging in SEM systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Learning-Directed Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Scheme with Adjustable Performance for Single-Core and Multi-Core Embedded and Mobile Systems
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093068
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is a well-known method for saving energy consumption. Several DVFS studies have applied learning-based methods to implement the DVFS prediction model instead of complicated mathematical models. This paper proposes a lightweight learning-directed DVFS method that involves using
[...] Read more.
Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is a well-known method for saving energy consumption. Several DVFS studies have applied learning-based methods to implement the DVFS prediction model instead of complicated mathematical models. This paper proposes a lightweight learning-directed DVFS method that involves using counter propagation networks to sense and classify the task behavior and predict the best voltage/frequency setting for the system. An intelligent adjustment mechanism for performance is also provided to users under various performance requirements. The comparative experimental results of the proposed algorithms and other competitive techniques are evaluated on the NVIDIA JETSON Tegra K1 multicore platform and Intel PXA270 embedded platforms. The results demonstrate that the learning-directed DVFS method can accurately predict the suitable central processing unit (CPU) frequency, given the runtime statistical information of a running program, and achieve an energy savings rate up to 42%. Through this method, users can easily achieve effective energy consumption and performance by specifying the factors of performance loss. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrical and Physical Characteristics of WO3/Ag/WO3 Sandwich Structure Fabricated with Magnetic-Control Sputtering Metrology
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092803
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
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Abstract
In this work, three layers of transparent conductive films of WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) were deposited on a glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of WO3 (around 50~60 nm) and Ag (10~20 nm) films were mainly the
[...] Read more.
In this work, three layers of transparent conductive films of WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) were deposited on a glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of WO3 (around 50~60 nm) and Ag (10~20 nm) films were mainly the changeable factors to achieve the optimal transparent conductivity attempting to replace the indium tin oxide (ITO) in cost consideration. The prepared films were cardinally subjected to physical and electrical characteristic analyses by means of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and Keithley 4200 semiconductor parameter analyzer. The experimental results show as the thickness of the Ag layer increases from 10 nm to 20 nm, the resistance becomes smaller. While the thickness of the WO3 layer increases from 50 nm to 60 nm, its electrical resistance becomes larger. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Planar-Type Top-Illuminated InP-Based Avalanche Photodetector on Conductive Substrate with Operating Speeds Exceeding 10 Gbps
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092800
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a high-speed top-illuminated InP-based avalanche photodetector (APD) fabricated on conductive InP-wafer using planar processes. The proposed device was then evaluated in terms of DC and dynamic performance characteristics. The design is based on a separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a high-speed top-illuminated InP-based avalanche photodetector (APD) fabricated on conductive InP-wafer using planar processes. The proposed device was then evaluated in terms of DC and dynamic performance characteristics. The design is based on a separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication (SAGCM) epitaxial-structure. An electric field-profile of the SAGCM layers was derived from the epitaxial structure. The punch-through voltage of the SAGCM APD was controlled to within 16–17 V, whereas the breakdown voltage (VBR) was controlled to within 28–29 V. We obtained dark current of 2.99 nA, capacitance of 0.226 pF, and multiplication gain of 12, when the APD was biased at 0.9 VBR at room temperature. The frequency-response was characterized by comparing the calculated 3-dB cut-off modulation-frequency (f3-dB) and f3-dB values measured under various multiplication gains and modulated incident powers. The time-response of the APD was evaluated by deriving eye-diagrams at 0.9 VBR using pseudorandom non-return to zero codes with a length of 231-1 at 10–12.5 Gbps. There was a notable absence of intersymbol-interference, and the signals remained error-free at data-rates of up to 12.5 Gbps. The correlation between the rise-time and modulated-bandwidth demonstrate the suitability of the proposed SAGCM-APD chip for applications involving an optical-receiver at data-rates of >10 Gbps. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Steep Switching of In0.18Al0.82N/AlN/GaN MIS-HEMT (Metal Insulator Semiconductor High Electron Mobility Transistors) on Si for Sensor Applications
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092795
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
InAlN/Al/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) directly on Si with dynamic threshold voltage for steep subthreshold slope (<60 mV/dec) are demonstrated in this study, and attributed to displacement charge transition effects. The material analysis with High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HR-XRD) and the relaxation by
[...] Read more.
InAlN/Al/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) directly on Si with dynamic threshold voltage for steep subthreshold slope (<60 mV/dec) are demonstrated in this study, and attributed to displacement charge transition effects. The material analysis with High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HR-XRD) and the relaxation by reciprocal space mapping (RSM) are performed to confirm indium barrier composition and epitaxy quality. The proposed InAlN barrier HEMTs exhibits high ON/OFF ratio with seven magnitudes and a steep threshold swing (SS) is also obtained with SS = 99 mV/dec for forward sweep and SS = 28 mV/dec for reverse sweep. For GaN-based HEMT directly on Si, this study displays outstanding performance with high ON/OFF ratio and SS < 60 mV/dec behaviors. Full article
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