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Special Issue "Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Intelligent Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sandra Sendra
Website
Guest Editor
Signal Theory, Telematics and Communications Department (TSTC), Universidad de Granada, C/Periodista Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, Granada 18071, Spain
Interests: wireless sensor networks; electronic design; underwater communications; environmental monitoring; sensors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is more and more widespread. Over the years, the evolution of technology has led to the development of integrated devices and systems for monitoring different environments. The use of sensors and their integration in networks facilitates the processes of gathering measures even in adverse environments. Furthermore, the combination of WSNs with software applications and intelligent algorithms generates interesting proposals where the collected data is used to make intelligent decisions to solve a possible situation.

There are fields of application where new proposals and solutions are required, where the development of low-cost sensors would enhance many aspects such as sustainability in the production sector and industrial environments, the improvement in the people quality of life and healthcare or the maintenance and protection of natural environments, among many others.

To highlight the latest developments in this relevant field, we welcome articles to our upcoming Special Issue "Intelligent Sensors Application in Monitoring". Both research papers and review articles will be considered. We welcome submissions spanning topics across sensor devices, smart WSNs, and intelligent sensors application for enhancing the monitoring tasks.

The list of possible topics includes, but is not limited to:

  • Smart sensor applications for WSNs
  • WSNs in Smart Cities
  • Sensor network optimization
  • New generation of communication technology
  • 5G - WSNs
  • Low-cost systems for intelligent monitoring
  • Intelligent deployments for industrial and production sector
  • Precision  agriculture
  • Underwater and marine environment
  • Rural areas
Prof. Dr. Sandra Sendra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Practical Multi-Sensor Cooling Demand Estimation Approach Based on Visual, Indoor and Outdoor Information Sensing
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3591; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113591 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The operating efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system is critical for building energy performance. Demand-based control is an efficient HVAC operating strategy, which can provide an appropriate level of HVAC services based on the recognition of actual cooling “demand.” The [...] Read more.
The operating efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system is critical for building energy performance. Demand-based control is an efficient HVAC operating strategy, which can provide an appropriate level of HVAC services based on the recognition of actual cooling “demand.” The cooling demand primarily relies on the accurate detection of occupancy. The current researches of demand-based HVAC control tend to detect the occupant count using cameras or other sensors, which often impose high computation and costs with limited real-life applications. Instead of detecting the occupant count, this paper proposes to detect the occupancy density. The occupancy density (estimated by image foreground moving pixels) together with the indoor and outdoor information (acquired from existing sensors) are used as inputs to an artificial neural network model for cooling demand estimation. Experiments have been implemented in a university design studio. Results show that, by adding the occupancy density, the cooling demand estimation error is greatly reduced by 67.4% and the R value is improved from 0.75 to 0.96. The proposed approach also features low-cost, computationally efficient, privacy-friendly and easily implementable. It shows good application potentials and can be readily incorporated into existing building management systems for improving energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
A Blockchain-Based Authorization System for Trustworthy Resource Monitoring and Trading in Smart Communities
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103561 - 20 Oct 2018
Cited by 17
Abstract
Resource consumption in residential areas requires novel contributions in the field of consumer information management and collaborative mechanisms for the exchange of resources, in order to optimize the overall consumption of the community. We propose an authorization system to facilitate access to consumer [...] Read more.
Resource consumption in residential areas requires novel contributions in the field of consumer information management and collaborative mechanisms for the exchange of resources, in order to optimize the overall consumption of the community. We propose an authorization system to facilitate access to consumer information and resource trading, based on blockchain technology. Our proposal is oriented to the Smart communities, an evolution of Community Energy Management Systems, in which communities are involved in the monitoring and coordination of resource consumption. The proposed environment allows a more reliable management of monitoring and authorization functions, with secure data access and storage and delegation of controller functions among householders. We provide the definition of virtual assets for energy and water resource sharing as an auction, which encourages the optimization of global consumption and saves resources. The proposed solution is implemented and validated in application scenarios that demonstrate the suitability of the defined consensus mechanism, trustworthiness in the level of provided security for resource monitoring and delegation and reduction on resource consumption by the resource trading contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
An Aquatic Mobile Sensing USV Swarm with a Link Quality-Based Delay Tolerant Network
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103440 - 13 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The Smart City concept is starting to extend into maritime environments alongside with the increase of Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV) models on the market. Consequently, by joining both Smart City and USV technologies, a set of platforms and applications for aquatic environments are [...] Read more.
The Smart City concept is starting to extend into maritime environments alongside with the increase of Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV) models on the market. Consequently, by joining both Smart City and USV technologies, a set of platforms and applications for aquatic environments are emerging. This work proposes a low-cost aquatic mobile sensing platform for data gathering with a swarm of USVs communicating through a Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN). A set of DTN link quality-based routing strategies select the best quality path in a dynamic approach so the sensed information is able to reach the mobile gateway in a reliable way. A Link Quality Estimation (LQE) approach is proposed and its accuracy is evaluated through real experimentation. An aquatic simulation environment, considering both navigation and communication layers, was also proposed and used to evaluate the performance of the proposed routing strategies, and complement real environment performance studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Performance Optoelectronic Sensor Device for Nitrate Nitrogen in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103382 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The determination of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in recirculating aquaculture systems is of great significance for the health assessment of the living environment of aquatic animals. Unfortunately, the commonly used spectrophotometric methods often yield unstable results, especially when the ambient temperature varies [...] Read more.
The determination of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in recirculating aquaculture systems is of great significance for the health assessment of the living environment of aquatic animals. Unfortunately, the commonly used spectrophotometric methods often yield unstable results, especially when the ambient temperature varies greatly in the field measurement. Here, we have developed a novel handheld absorbance measurement sensor based on the thymol-NO3-N chromogenic rearrangement reaction. In terms of hardware, the sensor adopts a dual channel/dual wavelength colorimeter structure that features a modulated light source transmitter and a synchronous detector receiver. The circuit measures the ratio of light absorbed by the sample and reference containers at two LEDs with peak wavelengths at 420 nm and 450 nm. Using the modulated source and synchronous detector rather than a constant (DC) source eliminates measurement errors due to ambient light and low frequency noise and provides higher accuracy. In terms of software, we design a new quantitative analysis algorithm for absorbance by studying colloid absorbing behavior. The application of a buffer operator embedded in the algorithm makes the sensor get the environmental correction function. The results have shown that the sensitivity, repeatability, precision and environmental stability are higher than that by ordinary spectrophotometry. Lastly, we have a brief overview of future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Wireless Sensor Networks for Long-Term Monitoring of Urban Noise
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093161 - 19 Sep 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Noise pollution in urban environments is becoming increasingly common and it has potential to negatively impact people’s health and decrease overall productivity. In order to alleviate these effects, it is important to better quantify noise patterns and levels through data collection and analysis. [...] Read more.
Noise pollution in urban environments is becoming increasingly common and it has potential to negatively impact people’s health and decrease overall productivity. In order to alleviate these effects, it is important to better quantify noise patterns and levels through data collection and analysis. Wireless sensor networks offer a method for achieving this with a higher level of granularity than traditional handheld devices. In this study, a wireless sensing unit (WSU) was developed that possesses the same functionality as a handheld sound level meter. The WSU is comprised of a microcontroller unit that enables on-board computations, a wireless transceiver that uses Zigbee protocol for data transmission, and an external peripheral board that houses the microphone transducer. The WSU utilizes on-board data processing techniques to monitor noise by computing equivalent continuous sound levels, LeqT, which effectively minimizes data transmission and increases the overall longevity of the node. Strategies are also employed to ensure real-time functionality is maintained on the sensing unit, with a focus on preventing bottlenecks between data acquisition, data processing, and wireless transmission. Four units were deployed in two weeks field validation test and were shown to be capable of monitoring noise for extended periods of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Precision and Accuracy of a Direct-Reading Miniaturized Monitor in PM2.5 Exposure Assessment
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093089 - 13 Sep 2018
Cited by 19
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision, accuracy, practicality, and potential uses of a PM2.5 miniaturized monitor (MM) in exposure assessment. These monitors (AirBeam, HabitatMap) were compared with the widely used direct-reading particulate matter monitors and a gravimetric reference [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision, accuracy, practicality, and potential uses of a PM2.5 miniaturized monitor (MM) in exposure assessment. These monitors (AirBeam, HabitatMap) were compared with the widely used direct-reading particulate matter monitors and a gravimetric reference method for PM2.5. Instruments were tested during 20 monitoring sessions that were subdivided in two different seasons to evaluate the performance of sensors across various environmental and meteorological conditions. Measurements were performed at an urban background site in Como, Italy. To evaluate the performance of the instruments, different analyses were conducted on 8-h averaged PM2.5 concentrations for comparison between direct-reading monitors and the gravimetric method, and minute-averaged data for comparison between the direct-reading instruments. A linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the two measurement methods, when compared, could be considered comparable and/or mutually predictive. Further, Bland-Altman plots were used to determine whether the methods were characterized by specific biases. Finally, the correlations between the error associated with the direct-reading instruments and the meteorological parameters acquired at the sampling point were investigated. Principal results show a moderate degree of agreement between MMs and the reference method and a bias that increased with an increase in PM2.5 concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study of LoRa Transmission over Seawater
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2853; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092853 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) are gaining attention in both academia and industry by offering the possibility of connecting a large number of nodes over extended distances. LoRa is one of the technologies used as a physical layer in such networks. This [...] Read more.
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) are gaining attention in both academia and industry by offering the possibility of connecting a large number of nodes over extended distances. LoRa is one of the technologies used as a physical layer in such networks. This paper investigates the LoRa links over seawater in two typical scenarios: clear Line-of-Sight (LOS) and obstructed path in two different Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio bands: 868 MHz and 434 MHz. We used three different LoRa devices in the experiments: the Own Developed LoRa Transceiver (ODT) and two commercial transceivers. Firstly we investigated transceivers’ Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Signal-to-Noise (SNR) measurement chain linearity and provided correction factors for RSSI to correlate it with actual signal levels received at transceivers’ inputs. Next, we carried out field experiments for three different LoRa Spreading Factors, S F [ 7 , 10 , 12 ] , within a bandwidth of B W = 125 kHz and Coding Rate C R = 4 / 6 . The experiments showed that LoRa links are fully feasible over seawater at distances at least 22 km long, using only low-cost off-the-shelf rubber duck antennas in LOS path condition in both ISM bands. In addition, we showed that LoRa links can be established over 28 km obstructed LOS oversea path in ISM 434 MHz band, but using costly, higher gain antennas. Furthermore, the laboratory experiments revealed that RSSI is linear in a wide range, up to 50 dBm, whereas the SNR measurement chain goes into saturation for Received Signal Strength (RSS) values higher than 100 dBm. These findings enabled accurate interpretation of the results obtained in field experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Motion Estimation for Video Stabilization Based on an IMU Sensor
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082708 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Recorded video data must be clear for accuracy and faster analysis during post-processing, which often requires video stabilization systems to remove undesired motion. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid method to estimate the motion and to stabilize videos by the switching function. [...] Read more.
Recorded video data must be clear for accuracy and faster analysis during post-processing, which often requires video stabilization systems to remove undesired motion. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid method to estimate the motion and to stabilize videos by the switching function. This method switched the estimated motion between a Kanade–Lucus–Tomasi (KLT) tracker and an IMU-aided motion estimator. It facilitated the best function to stabilize the video in real-time as those methods had numerous advantages in estimating the motion. To achieve this, we used a KLT tracker to correct the motion for low rotations and an IMU-aided motion estimator for high rotation, owing to the poor performance of the KLT tracker during larger movements. Furthermore, a Kalman filter was used to remove the undesired motion and hence smoothen the trajectory. To increase the frame rate, a multi-threaded approach was applied to execute the algorithm in the array. Irrespective of the situations exposed to the experimental results of the moving camera from five video sequences revealed that the proposed algorithm stabilized the video efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessCommunication
A Low-Cost, Stand-Alone Sensory Platform for Monitoring Extreme Solar Overirradiance Events
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082685 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this paper, we present a low-cost, stand-alone sensory platform developed for in situ monitoring of environmental parameters, for use in the Amazon region in the north of Brazil. The mission of the platform is to perform monitoring and identification of overirradiance (solar [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a low-cost, stand-alone sensory platform developed for in situ monitoring of environmental parameters, for use in the Amazon region in the north of Brazil. The mission of the platform is to perform monitoring and identification of overirradiance (solar irradiance > 1000 W/m2) and extreme overirradiance events (solar irradiance > 1300 W/m2) using a photovoltaic based irradiance sensor. The sensory platform was built using the ESP8266 microcontroller, an open embedded computer capable of Wi-Fi communication using the IEEE 802.11 standard, and small photovoltaic modules, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, voltage, and current sensors, enabling the development of a low-cost system (€70/R$350.00 BRL). Calibration and tests were conducted at the Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Belém campus, Pará, where the platform measured an extreme overirradiance of 1321 W/m2 at a low-latitude (1 °S) and low altitude (7 m above sea level). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiparametric Monitoring in Equatorian Tomato Greenhouses (III): Environmental Measurement Dynamics
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2557; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082557 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
World population growth currently brings unequal access to food, whereas crop yields are not increasing at a similar rate, so that future food demand could be unmet. Many recent research works address the use of optimization techniques and technological resources on precision agriculture, [...] Read more.
World population growth currently brings unequal access to food, whereas crop yields are not increasing at a similar rate, so that future food demand could be unmet. Many recent research works address the use of optimization techniques and technological resources on precision agriculture, especially in large demand crops, including climatic variables monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, few studies have focused on analyzing the dynamics of the environmental measurement properties in greenhouses. In the two companion papers, we describe the design and implementation of three WSNs with different technologies and topologies further scrutinizing their comparative performance, and a detailed analysis of their energy consumption dynamics is also presented, both considering tomato greenhouses in the Andean region of Ecuador. The three WSNs use ZigBee with star topology, ZigBee with mesh topology (referred to here as DigiMesh), and WiFi with access point topology. The present study provides a systematic and detailed analysis of the environmental measurement dynamics from multiparametric monitoring in Ecuadorian tomato greenhouses. A set of monitored variables (including CO2, air temperature, and wind direction, among others) are first analyzed in terms of their intrinsic variability and their short-term (circadian) rhythmometric behavior. Then, their cross-information is scrutinized in terms of scatter representations and mutual information analysis. Based on Bland–Altman diagrams, good quality rhythmometric models were obtained at high-rate sampling signals during four days when using moderate regularization and preprocessing filtering with 100-coefficient order. Accordingly, and especially for the adjustment of fast transition variables, it is appropriate to use high sampling rates and then to filter the signal to discriminate against false peaks and noise. In addition, for variables with similar behavior, a longer period of data acquisition is required for the adequate processing, which makes more precise the long-term modeling of the environmental signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiparametric Monitoring in Equatorian Tomato Greenhouses (II): Energy Consumption Dynamics
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082556 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Tomato greenhouses are a crucial element in the Equadorian economy. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received much attention in recent years in specialized applications such as precision farming. The energy consumption in WSNs is relevant nowadays for their adequate operation, and attention is [...] Read more.
Tomato greenhouses are a crucial element in the Equadorian economy. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received much attention in recent years in specialized applications such as precision farming. The energy consumption in WSNs is relevant nowadays for their adequate operation, and attention is being paid to analyzing the affecting factors, energy optimization techniques working on the network hardware or software, and characterizing the consumption in the nodes (especially in the ZigBee standard). However, limited information exists on the analysis of the consumption dynamics in each node, across different network technologies and communication topologies, or on the incidence of data transmission speed. The present study aims to provide a detailed analysis of the dynamics of the energy consumption for tomato greenhouse monitoring in Ecuador, in three types of WSNs, namely, ZigBee with star topology, ZigBee with mesh topology (referred to here as DigiMesh), and WiFi with access point topology. The networks were installed and maintained in operation with a line of sight between nodes and a 2-m length, whereas the energy consumption measurements of each node were acquired and stored in the laboratory. Each experiment was repeated ten times, and consumption measurements were taken every ten milliseconds at a rate of fifty thousand samples for each realization. The dynamics were scrutinized by analyzing the recorded time series using stochastic-process analysis methods, including amplitude probability functions and temporal autocorrelation, as well as bootstrap resampling techniques and representations of various embodiments with the so-called M-mode plots. Our results show that the energy consumption of each network strongly depends on the type of sensors installed in the nodes and on the network topology. Specifically, the CO2 sensor has the highest power consumption because its chemical composition requires preheating to start logging measurements. The ZigBee network is more efficient in energy saving independently of the transmission rate, since the communication modules have lower average consumption in data transmission, in contrast to the DigiMesh network, whose consumption is high due to its topology. Results also show that the average energy consumption in WiFi networks is the highest, given that the coordinator node is a Meshlium™ router with larger energy demand. The transmission duration in the ZigBee network is lower than in the other two networks. In conclusion, the ZigBee network with star topology is the most energy-suitable one when designing wireless monitoring systems in greenhouses. The proposed methodology for consumption dynamics analysis in tomato greenhouse WSNs can be applied to other scenarios where the practical choice of an energy-efficient network is necessary due to energy constrains in the sensor and coordinator nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiparametric Monitoring in Equatorian Tomato Greenhouses (I): Wireless Sensor Network Benchmarking
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082555 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
In recent years, attention has been paid to wireless sensor networks (WSNs) applied to precision agriculture. However, few studies have compared the technologies of different communication standards in terms of topology and energy efficiency. This paper presents the design and implementation of the [...] Read more.
In recent years, attention has been paid to wireless sensor networks (WSNs) applied to precision agriculture. However, few studies have compared the technologies of different communication standards in terms of topology and energy efficiency. This paper presents the design and implementation of the hardware and software of three WSNs with different technologies and topologies of wireless communication for tomato greenhouses in the Andean region of Ecuador, as well as the comparative study of the performance of each of them. Two companion papers describe the study of the dynamics of the energy consumption and of the monitored variables. Three WSNs were deployed, two of them with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with star and mesh topologies (ZigBee and DigiMesh, respectively), and a third with the IEEE 802.11 standard with access point topology (WiFi). The measured variables were selected after investigation of the climatic conditions required for efficient tomato growth. The measurements for each variable could be displayed in real time using either a laboratory virtual instrument engineering workbench (LabVIEWTM) interface or an Android mobile application. The comparative study of the three networks made evident that the configuration of the DigiMesh network is the most complex for adding new nodes, due to its mesh topology. However, DigiMesh maintains the bit rate and prevents data loss by the location of the nodes as a function of crop height. It has been also shown that the WiFi network has better stability with larger precision in its measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Event-Based Communication and Finite-Time Consensus Control of Mobile Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2547; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082547 - 03 Aug 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
This paper deals with the problem of environmental monitoring by designing a cooperative control scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed cooperative control scheme includes three main modules: a wireless communication module, a direction decision module, and a motion control module. In the [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the problem of environmental monitoring by designing a cooperative control scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed cooperative control scheme includes three main modules: a wireless communication module, a direction decision module, and a motion control module. In the wireless communication module, an event-based communication rule is proposed, which means that mobile sensor nodes do not send their positions, velocities, and the data of environmental attributes to the other sensor nodes in real-time for the coordination and control of mobile sensor networks. Due to using the event-based communication rule, the communication bandwidth can be saved. In the direction decision module, a radial basis function network is used to model the monitored environment and is updated in terms of the sampled environmental data and the environmental data from the other sensor nodes by the wireless communication module. The updated environment model is used to guide the mobile sensor network to move towards the region of interest in order to efficiently model the distribution map of environmental attributes, such as temperature, salinity, and pH values for the monitored environment. In the motion control module, a finite-time consensus control approach is proposed to enable the sensor nodes to quickly change their movement directions in light of the gradient information from the environment model. As a result of using the event-based communication rule in the wireless communication module, the proposed control approach can also lower the updating times of the control signal. In particular, the proposed cooperative control scheme is still efficient under the directed wireless communication situation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed cooperative control scheme is illustrated for the problem of environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Inductive Loop Axle Detector based on Resistance and Reactance Vehicle Magnetic Profiles
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072376 - 21 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The article presents a measurement system that captures two components of a motor vehicle’s magnetic profile, which are associated with the real and imaginary part of the impedance of a narrow inductive loop sensor. The proposed algorithm utilizes both components of the impedance [...] Read more.
The article presents a measurement system that captures two components of a motor vehicle’s magnetic profile, which are associated with the real and imaginary part of the impedance of a narrow inductive loop sensor. The proposed algorithm utilizes both components of the impedance magnetic profile to detect vehicle axles, including lifted axles. Accuracies of no less than 71.8% were achieved for vehicles travelling with a lifted axle, and no less than 98.8% for other vehicles. The axle detection accuracy was determined during a series of experiments carried out under normal traffic conditions, using profile analysis, video footage and reference signals from an axle load detector on a total of 4000 vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cost-Effective IoT System for Monitoring Indoor Radon Gas Concentration
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072198 - 08 Jul 2018
Cited by 30
Abstract
Radon is a noble gas originating from the radioactive decay chain of uranium or thorium. Most radon emanates naturally from the soil and from some building materials, so it can be found in many places around the world, in particular in regions with [...] Read more.
Radon is a noble gas originating from the radioactive decay chain of uranium or thorium. Most radon emanates naturally from the soil and from some building materials, so it can be found in many places around the world, in particular in regions with soils containing granite or slate. It is almost impossible for a person to detect radon gas without proper tools, since it is invisible, odorless, tasteless and colorless. The problem is that a correlation has been established between the presence of high radon gas concentrations and the incidence of lung cancer. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that the exposure to radon is the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking, and it is the primary cause of lung cancer among people who have never smoked. Although there are commercial radon detectors, most of them are either expensive or provide very limited monitoring capabilities. To tackle such an issue, this article presents a cost-effective IoT radon gas remote monitoring system able to obtain accurate concentration measurements. It can also trigger events to prevent dangerous situations and to warn users about them. Moreover, the proposed solution can activate mitigation devices (e.g., forced ventilation) to decrease radon gas concentration. In order to show its performance, the system was evaluated in three different scenarios corresponding to representative buildings in Galicia (Spain), a region where high radon gas concentrations are common due to the composition of the soil. In addition, the influence of using external hardware (i.e., WiFi transceivers and an embedded System-on-Chip (SoC)) next to the radon gas sensor is studied, concluding that, in the tested scenarios, they do not interfere with the measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and On-Field Testing of Low-Cost Portable System for Monitoring PM2.5 Concentrations
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041056 - 01 Apr 2018
Cited by 25
Abstract
Recent developments in the field of low-cost sensors enable the design and implementation of compact, inexpensive and portable sensing units for air pollution monitoring with fine-detailed spatial and temporal resolution, in order to support applications of wider interest in the area of intelligent [...] Read more.
Recent developments in the field of low-cost sensors enable the design and implementation of compact, inexpensive and portable sensing units for air pollution monitoring with fine-detailed spatial and temporal resolution, in order to support applications of wider interest in the area of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In this context, the present work advances the concept of developing a low-cost portable air pollution monitoring system (APMS) for measuring the concentrations of particulate matter (PM), in particular fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5). Specifically, this paper presents the on-field testing of the proposed low-cost APMS implementation using roadside measurements from a mobile laboratory equipped with a calibrated instrument as the basis of comparison and showcases its accuracy on characterizing the PM2.5 concentrations on 1 min resolution in an on-road trial. Moreover, it demonstrates the intended application of collecting fine-grained spatio-temporal PM2.5 profiles by mounting the developed APMS on an electric bike as a case study in the city of Mons, Belgium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
ABS-SmartComAgri: An Agent-Based Simulator of Smart Communication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks for Debugging in Precision Agriculture
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040998 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Smart communication protocols are becoming a key mechanism for improving communication performance in networks such as wireless sensor networks. However, the literature lacks mechanisms for simulating smart communication protocols in precision agriculture for decreasing production costs. In this context, the current work presents [...] Read more.
Smart communication protocols are becoming a key mechanism for improving communication performance in networks such as wireless sensor networks. However, the literature lacks mechanisms for simulating smart communication protocols in precision agriculture for decreasing production costs. In this context, the current work presents an agent-based simulator of smart communication protocols for efficiently managing pesticides. The simulator considers the needs of electric power, crop health, percentage of alive bugs and pesticide consumption. The current approach is illustrated with three different communication protocols respectively called (a) broadcast, (b) neighbor and (c) low-cost neighbor. The low-cost neighbor protocol obtained a statistically-significant reduction in the need of electric power over the neighbor protocol, with a very large difference according to the common interpretations about the Cohen’s d effect size. The presented simulator is called ABS-SmartComAgri and is freely distributed as open-source from a public research data repository. It ensures the reproducibility of experiments and allows other researchers to extend the current approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring)
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