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Special Issue "Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Fatih Kurugollu
Website
Guest Editor
Head of Cyber Security Research Group, College of Engineering and Technology, University of Derby, UK
Interests: Cyber security; multimedia security; visual surveillance and hardware architectures for image and video applications; blockchain
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Syed Hassan Ahmed
Website
Guest Editor
JMA Wireless, USA
Interests: Vehicular communications (routing, MAC); next generation networks (information/content-centric and named data networking); Internet of Things (IoT); connected and smart communities; sensors and ad hoc networks; smart and mobile health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rasheed Hussain
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Information Systems, Innopolis University, Innopolis, 420500, Russia
Interests: Information security and privacy; applied cryptography; vehicular ad hoc networks; blockchain; Internet of Things; named data networking
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Farhan Ahmad
Website
Guest Editor
Cyber Security Research Group, College of Engineering and Technology, University of Derby, UK
Interests: Vehicular ad hoc networks; trust management; cyber security; named data networking; Internet of Things; M2M communication; cellular communication
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Chaker Abdelaziz Kerrache
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Ghardaia, Ghardaia, Algeria
Interests: Trust and risk management; secure multihop communications; vehicular networks; named data networking (NDN); UAVs
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have witnessed tremendous growth in connected vehicles due to the major interest in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) technology from both the research and industrial communities. VANET involves the generation of data from on-board sensors and its dissemination in other vehicles via vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication, thus resulting in numerous applications such as steep-curve warnings. However, to increase the scope of applications, VANET has to integrate various technologies including sensor networks, which results in a new paradigm, commonly known as vehicular sensor networks (VSN).

Unlike traditional sensor networks, every node (vehicle) in VSN is equipped with various sensing (distance sensors, GPS and cameras), storage and communicating capabilities, which can provide a wide range of applications including environmental surveillance and traffic monitoring etc. VSN has the potential to improve transportation technology and the transportation environment due to its unlimited power supply and resulting minimum energy constraints. However, VSN faces numerous challenges in terms of its design, implementation, network scalability, reliability and deployment over large-scale networks, which need to be addressed before it is realised.

This Special Issue aims to disseminate and identify areas that can increase the efficiency of various aspects of VSN. To this end, we are seeking high-quality research papers in the domain of VSN that include but are not limited to the following:

  • The realization of wireless sensor networks within VANET;
  • Integrating Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications within VANET and VSN;
  • The impact of social networks on VANET and VSN;
  • Cellular communication (4G, 5G) in VSN;
  • Security and privacy issues within VSN;
  • Trust management schemes for VSN;
  • Cyber Security aspects of VANET and VSN;
  • VANET and VSN over future internet architectures (NDN, CCN);
  • Performance evaluations of VSN;
  • Routing protocols for VSN;
  • Testbeds and simulation tools for VSN;
  • Content dissemination over VSN;
  • Multimedia communications in VSN;
  • Applications of blockchain within VANET and VSN.

Prof. Dr. Fatih Kurugollu
Dr. Syed Hassan Ahmed
Dr. Rasheed Hussain
Dr. Farhan Ahmad
Dr. Chaker Abdelaziz Kerrache
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Vehicular social networks (VSN)
  • Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET)
  • Security, privacy and trust
  • Cyber security
  • Multimedia and cellular communication
  • Emerging IoT applications in VANET and VSN
  • Blockchain within VANET and VSN

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133686 - 01 Jul 2020
Abstract
Vehicular sensor networks (VSN) provide a new paradigm for transportation technology and demonstrate massive potential to improve the transportation environment due to the unlimited power supply of the vehicles and resulting minimum energy constraints. This special issue is focused on the recent developments [...] Read more.
Vehicular sensor networks (VSN) provide a new paradigm for transportation technology and demonstrate massive potential to improve the transportation environment due to the unlimited power supply of the vehicles and resulting minimum energy constraints. This special issue is focused on the recent developments within the vehicular networks and vehicular sensor networks domain. The papers included in this Special Issue (SI) provide useful insights to the implementation, modelling, and integration of novel technologies, including blockchain, named data networking, and 5G, to name a few, within vehicular networks and VSN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Reinforcement Learning for Energy Optimization with 5G Communications in Vehicular Social Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082361 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Increased data traffic resulting from the increase in the deployment of connected vehicles has become relevant in vehicular social networks (VSNs). To provide efficient communication between connected vehicles, researchers have studied device-to-device (D2D) communication. D2D communication not only reduces the energy consumption and [...] Read more.
Increased data traffic resulting from the increase in the deployment of connected vehicles has become relevant in vehicular social networks (VSNs). To provide efficient communication between connected vehicles, researchers have studied device-to-device (D2D) communication. D2D communication not only reduces the energy consumption and loads of the system but also increases the system capacity by reusing cellular resources. However, D2D communication is highly affected by interference and therefore requires interference-management techniques, such as mode selection and power control. To make an optimal mode selection and power control, it is necessary to apply reinforcement learning that considers a variety of factors. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement-learning technique for energy optimization with fifth-generation communication in VSNs. To achieve energy optimization, we use centralized Q-learning in the system and distributed Q-learning in the vehicles. The proposed algorithm learns to maximize the energy efficiency of the system by adjusting the minimum signal-to-interference plus noise ratio to guarantee the outage probability. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with that of the existing mode-selection and power-control algorithms. The proposed algorithm performed the best in terms of system energy efficiency and achievable data rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Caching Transient Contents in Vehicular Named Data Networking: A Performance Analysis
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20071985 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising communication paradigm for the challenging vehicular ad hoc environment. In particular, the built-in pervasive caching capability was shown to be essential for effective data delivery in presence of short-lived and intermittent connectivity. Existing studies have however [...] Read more.
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising communication paradigm for the challenging vehicular ad hoc environment. In particular, the built-in pervasive caching capability was shown to be essential for effective data delivery in presence of short-lived and intermittent connectivity. Existing studies have however not considered the fact that multiple vehicular contents can be transient, i.e., they expire after a certain time period since they were generated, the so-called FreshnessPeriod in NDN. In this paper, we study the effects of caching transient contents in Vehicular NDN and present a simple yet effective freshness-driven caching decision strategy that vehicles can implement autonomously. Performance evaluation in ndnSIM shows that the FreshnessPeriod is a crucial parameter that deeply influences the cache hit ratio and, consequently, the data dissemination performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast, Resource-Saving, and Anti-Collaborative Attack Trust Computing Scheme Based on Cross-Validation for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061592 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The trust computing mechanism has an increasing role in the cooperative work of wireless sensor networks. However, the computing speed, resource overhead, and anti-collaborative attack ability of a trust mechanism itself are three key challenging issues for any open and resource-constrained wireless sensor [...] Read more.
The trust computing mechanism has an increasing role in the cooperative work of wireless sensor networks. However, the computing speed, resource overhead, and anti-collaborative attack ability of a trust mechanism itself are three key challenging issues for any open and resource-constrained wireless sensor networks. In this study, we propose a fast, resource-saving, and anti-collaborative attack trust computing scheme (FRAT) based on across-validation mechanism for clustered wireless sensor networks. First, according to the inherent relationship among three network entities (which are made up of three types of network nodes, namely base stations, cluster heads, and cluster members), we propose the cross-validation mechanism, which is effective and reliable against collaborative attacks caused by malicious nodes. Then, we adopt a fast and resource-saving trust computing scheme for cooperation between between cluster heads or cluster members. This scheme is suitable for wireless sensor networks because it facilitates resource-saving. Through theoretical analysis and experiments, the feasibility and effectiveness of the trust computing scheme proposed in this study are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Three Dimensional UAV Positioning for Dynamic UAV-to-Car Communications
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020356 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
In areas with limited infrastructure, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can come in handy as relays for car-to-car communications. Since UAVs are able to fully explore a three-dimensional environment while flying, communications that involve them can be affected by the irregularity of the terrains, [...] Read more.
In areas with limited infrastructure, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can come in handy as relays for car-to-car communications. Since UAVs are able to fully explore a three-dimensional environment while flying, communications that involve them can be affected by the irregularity of the terrains, that in turn can cause path loss by acting as obstacles. Accounting for this phenomenon, we propose a UAV positioning technique that relies on optimization algorithms to improve the support for vehicular communications. Simulation results show that the best position of the UAV can be timely determined considering the dynamic movement of the cars. Our technique takes into account the current flight altitude, the position of the cars on the ground, and the existing flight restrictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Secure and Blockchain-Based Emergency Driven Message Protocol for 5G Enabled Vehicular Edge Computing
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010154 - 25 Dec 2019
Abstract
Basic safety message (BSM) are messages that contain core elements of a vehicle such as vehicle’s size, position, speed, acceleration and others. BSM are lightweight messages that can be regularly broadcast by the vehicles to enable a variety of applications. On the other [...] Read more.
Basic safety message (BSM) are messages that contain core elements of a vehicle such as vehicle’s size, position, speed, acceleration and others. BSM are lightweight messages that can be regularly broadcast by the vehicles to enable a variety of applications. On the other hand, event-driven message (EDM) are messages generated at the time of occurrence such as accidents or roads sliding and can contain much more heavy elements including pictures, audio or videos. Security, architecture and communication solutions for BSM use cases have been largely documented on in the literature contrary to EDM due to several concerns such as the variant size of EDM, the appropriate architecture along with latency, privacy and security. In this paper, we propose a secure and blockchain based EDM protocol for 5G enabled vehicular edge computing. To offer scalability and latency for the proposed scenario, we adopt a 5G cellular architecture due to its projected features compared to 4G tong-term evaluation (LTE) for vehicular communications. We consider edge computing to provide local processing of EDM that can improve the response time of public agencies (ambulances or rescue teams) that may intervene to the scene. We make use of lightweight multi-receiver signcryption scheme without pairing that offers low time consuming operations, security, privacy and access control. EDM records need to be kept into a distributed system which can guarantee reliability and auditability of EDM. To achieve this, we construct a private blockchain based on the edge nodes to store EDM records. The performance analysis of the proposed protocol confirms its efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Message Content Plausibility Check for Platoons through Low-Power Beaconing
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5493; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245493 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although the IEEE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) and 3GPP Cellular V2X deployments are imminent, their standards do not yet cover an important security aspect; the message content plausibility check. In safety-critical driving situations, vehicles cannot blindly trust the content of received [...] Read more.
Although the IEEE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) and 3GPP Cellular V2X deployments are imminent, their standards do not yet cover an important security aspect; the message content plausibility check. In safety-critical driving situations, vehicles cannot blindly trust the content of received safety messages, because an attacker may have forged false values in it in order to cause unsafe response from the receiving vehicles. In particular, the attacks mounted from remote, well-hidden positions around roads are considered the most apparent danger. So far, there have been three approaches to validating V2X message content: checking based on sensor fusion, behavior analysis, and communication constraints. This paper discusses the three existing approaches. In addition, it discusses a communication-based checking scheme that supplements the existing approaches. It uses low-power transmission of vehicle identifiers to identify remote attackers. We demonstrate its potential address in the case of an autonomous vehicle platooning application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy-Efficient Massive Data Dissemination through Vehicle Mobility in Smart Cities
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4735; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214735 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
One of the main challenges of operating a smart city (SC) is collecting the massive data generated from multiple data sources (DSs) and transmitting them to the control units (CUs) for further data processing and analysis. These ever-increasing data demands require not only [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges of operating a smart city (SC) is collecting the massive data generated from multiple data sources (DSs) and transmitting them to the control units (CUs) for further data processing and analysis. These ever-increasing data demands require not only more and more capacity of the transmission channels but also results in resource over-provision to meet the resilience requirements, thus the unavoidable waste as a result of the data fluctuations throughout the day. In addition, the high energy consumption (EC) and carbon discharge from these data transmissions posing serious issues to the environment we live in. Therefore, to overcome the issues of intensive EC and carbon emission (CE) of massive data dissemination in SCs, we propose an energy-efficient and carbon reduction approach by using the daily mobility of the existing vehicles as an alternative communications channel to accommodate the data dissemination in SCs. To illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach, we take the Auckland City in New Zealand as an example, assuming massive data generated by various sources geographically scattered throughout the Auckland region, to the control centres located in the city. Results obtained show that our proposed approach can provide up to four times faster transferring the large volume of data by using the existing daily vehicles’ mobility, than the conventional transmission network. Moreover, our proposed approach offers about 32% less EC and CE than that of conventional network transmission approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
DCS: Distributed Caching Strategy at the Edge of Vehicular Sensor Networks in Information-Centric Networking
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4407; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204407 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Information dissemination in current Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSN) depends on the physical location in which similar data is transmitted multiple times across the network. This data replication has led to several problems, among which resource consumption (memory), stretch, and communication latency due to [...] Read more.
Information dissemination in current Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSN) depends on the physical location in which similar data is transmitted multiple times across the network. This data replication has led to several problems, among which resource consumption (memory), stretch, and communication latency due to the lake of data availability are the most crucial. Information-Centric Networking (ICN) provides an enhanced version of the internet that is capable of resolving such issues efficiently. ICN is the new internet paradigm that supports innovative communication systems with location-independent data dissemination. The emergence of ICN with VSNs can handle the massive amount of data generated from heterogeneous mobile sensors in surrounding smart environments. The ICN paradigm offers an in-network cache, which is the most effective means to reduce the number of complications of the receiver-driven content retrieval process. However, due to the non-linearity of the Quality-of-Experience (QoE) in VSN systems, efficient content management within the context of ICN is needed. For this purpose, this paper implements a new distributed caching strategy (DCS) at the edge of the network in VSN environments to reduce the number of overall data dissemination problems. The proposed DCS mechanism is studied comparatively against existing caching strategies to check its performance in terms of memory consumption, path stretch ratio, cache hit ratio, and content eviction ratio. Extensive simulation results have shown that the proposed strategy outperforms these benchmark caching strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Wake-Up-Interval to Enhance Receiver-Based Ps-Mac Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3732; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173732 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Many receiver-based Preamble Sampling Medium Access Control (PS-MAC) protocols have been proposed to provide better performance for variable traffic in a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, most of these protocols cannot prevent the occurrence of incorrect traffic convergence that causes the receiver node [...] Read more.
Many receiver-based Preamble Sampling Medium Access Control (PS-MAC) protocols have been proposed to provide better performance for variable traffic in a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, most of these protocols cannot prevent the occurrence of incorrect traffic convergence that causes the receiver node to wake-up more frequently than the transmitter node. In this research, a new protocol is proposed to prevent the problem mentioned above. The proposed mechanism has four components, and they are Initial control frame message, traffic estimation function, control frame message, and adaptive function. The initial control frame message is used to initiate the message transmission by the receiver node. The traffic estimation function is proposed to reduce the wake-up frequency of the receiver node by using the proposed traffic status register (TSR), idle listening times (ILTn, ILTk), and “number of wake-up without receiving beacon message” (NWwbm). The control frame message aims to supply the essential information to the receiver node to get the next wake-up-interval (WUI) time for the transmitter node using the proposed adaptive function. The proposed adaptive function is used by the receiver node to calculate the next WUI time of each of the transmitter nodes. Several simulations are conducted based on the benchmark protocols. The outcome of the simulation indicates that the proposed mechanism can prevent the incorrect traffic convergence problem that causes frequent wake-up of the receiver node compared to the transmitter node. Moreover, the simulation results also indicate that the proposed mechanism could reduce energy consumption, produce minor latency, improve the throughput, and produce higher packet delivery ratio compared to other related works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
A Blockchain Framework for Securing Connected and Autonomous Vehicles
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143165 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 20
Abstract
Recently, connected vehicles (CV) are becoming a promising research area leading to the concept of CV as a Service (CVaaS). With the increase of connected vehicles and an exponential growth in the field of online cab booking services, new requirements such as secure, [...] Read more.
Recently, connected vehicles (CV) are becoming a promising research area leading to the concept of CV as a Service (CVaaS). With the increase of connected vehicles and an exponential growth in the field of online cab booking services, new requirements such as secure, seamless and robust information exchange among vehicles of vehicular networks are emerging. In this context, the original concept of vehicular networks is being transformed into a new concept known as connected and autonomous vehicles. Autonomous vehicular use yields a better experience and helps in reducing congestion by allowing current information to be obtained by the vehicles instantly. However, malicious users in the internet of vehicles may mislead the whole communication where intruders may compromise smart devices with the purpose of executing a malicious ploy. In order to prevent these issues, a blockchain technique is considered the best technique that provides secrecy and protection to the control system in real time conditions. In this paper, the issue of security in smart sensors of connected vehicles that can be compromised by expert intruders is addressed by proposing a blockchain framework. This study has further identified and validated the proposed mechanism based on various security criteria, such as fake requests of the user, compromise of smart devices, probabilistic authentication scenarios and alteration in stored user’s ratings. The results have been analyzed against some existing approach and validated with improved simulated results that offer 79% success rate over the above-mentioned issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Barrier Access Control Using Sensors Platform and Vehicle License Plate Characters Recognition
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 3015; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19133015 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The paper proposes a sensors platform to control a barrier that is installed for vehicles entrance. This platform is automatized by image-based license plate recognition of the vehicle. However, in situations where standardized license plates are not used, such image-based recognition becomes non-trivial [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a sensors platform to control a barrier that is installed for vehicles entrance. This platform is automatized by image-based license plate recognition of the vehicle. However, in situations where standardized license plates are not used, such image-based recognition becomes non-trivial and challenging due to the variations in license plate background, fonts and deformations. The proposed method first detects the approaching vehicle via ultrasonic sensors and, at the same time, captures its image via a camera installed along with the barrier. From this image, the license plate is automatically extracted and further processed to segment the license plate characters. Finally, these characters are recognized with the help of a standard optical character recognition (OCR) pipeline. The evaluation of the proposed system shows an accuracy of 98% for license plates extraction, 96% for character segmentation and 93% for character recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Software-Defined Network-Based Vehicular Networks: A Position Paper on Their Modeling and Implementation
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3788; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173788 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
There is a strong devotion in the automotive industry to be part of a wider progression towards the Fifth Generation (5G) era. In-vehicle integration costs between cellular and vehicle-to-vehicle networks using Dedicated Short Range Communication could be avoided by adopting Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) [...] Read more.
There is a strong devotion in the automotive industry to be part of a wider progression towards the Fifth Generation (5G) era. In-vehicle integration costs between cellular and vehicle-to-vehicle networks using Dedicated Short Range Communication could be avoided by adopting Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) technology with the possibility to re-use the existing mobile network infrastructure. More and more, with the emergence of Software Defined Networks, the flexibility and the programmability of the network have not only impacted the design of new vehicular network architectures but also the implementation of V2X services in future intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, we define the concepts that help evaluate software-defined-based vehicular network systems in the literature based on their modeling and implementation schemes. We first overview the current studies available in the literature on C-V2X technology in support of V2X applications. We then present the different architectures and their underlying system models for LTE-V2X communications. We later describe the key ideas of software-defined networks and their concepts for V2X services. Lastly, we provide a comparative analysis of existing SDN-based vehicular network system grouped according to their modeling and simulation concepts. We provide a discussion and highlight vehicular ad-hoc networks’ challenges handled by SDN-based vehicular networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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