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Special Issue "Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Byung-Gyu Kim
Website
Guest Editor
Department of IT Engineering, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: visual sensor network; real-time object segmentation; deep learning for object detection; facial expression recognition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Information obtained through the human eye is more efficient and diverse for object recognition/tracking than information obtained through any other sensory organ. Recently, these kinds of tasks for visual object detection, recognition, and tracking are being enabled by more flexible vision sensors and its network scheme, such as the 5G standard. In addition, visual intelligence technology and inference systems based on deep/reinforcement learning are currently actively being researched to make vision systems more accurate. This issue will publish original technical papers and review papers on these recent technologies which are focusing on visual recognition, real-time visual object tracking, knowledge extraction, distributed visual sensor networks, and applications.

You are welcome to submit an unpublished original research work related to the theme of “Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking.”

Prof. Dr. Byung-Gyu Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Intelligent object detection algorithms
  • Fast and complexity reduction algorithms for real-time object detection and tracking
  • Knowledge extraction and mining from visual sensor data
  • Visual sensor network architecture for object detection and tracking
  • Awareness-based visual sensor network design
  • Intelligent machine learning mechanism for object detection and recognition
  • Lightweight deep learning for real-time object detection and tracking
  • Visual data representation and transmission in a 5G network
  • Real-time visual object tracking in vision sensor network
  • Intelligent CCTV applications

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Face Recognition at a Distance for a Stand-Alone Access Control System
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030785 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although access control based on human face recognition has become popular in consumer applications, it still has several implementation issues before it can realize a stand-alone access control system. Owing to a lack of computational resources, lightweight and computationally efficient face recognition algorithms [...] Read more.
Although access control based on human face recognition has become popular in consumer applications, it still has several implementation issues before it can realize a stand-alone access control system. Owing to a lack of computational resources, lightweight and computationally efficient face recognition algorithms are required. The conventional access control systems require significant active cooperation from the users despite its non-aggressive nature. The lighting/illumination change is one of the most difficult and challenging problems for human-face-recognition-based access control applications. This paper presents the design and implementation of a user-friendly, stand-alone access control system based on human face recognition at a distance. The local binary pattern (LBP)-AdaBoost framework was employed for face and eyes detection, which is fast and invariant to illumination changes. It can detect faces and eyes of varied sizes at a distance. For fast face recognition with a high accuracy, the Gabor-LBP histogram framework was modified by substituting the Gabor wavelet with Gaussian derivative filters, which reduced the facial feature size by 40% of the Gabor-LBP-based facial features, and was robust to significant illumination changes and complicated backgrounds. The experiments on benchmark datasets produced face recognition accuracies of 97.27% on an E-face dataset and 99.06% on an XM2VTS dataset, respectively. The system achieved a 91.5% true acceptance rate with a 0.28% false acceptance rate and averaged a 5.26 frames/sec processing speed on a newly collected face image and video dataset in an indoor office environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking)
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Open AccessArticle
A Light-Weight Practical Framework for Feces Detection and Trait Recognition
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2644; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092644 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fecal trait examinations are critical in the clinical diagnosis of digestive diseases, and they can effectively reveal various aspects regarding the health of the digestive system. An automatic feces detection and trait recognition system based on a visual sensor could greatly alleviate the [...] Read more.
Fecal trait examinations are critical in the clinical diagnosis of digestive diseases, and they can effectively reveal various aspects regarding the health of the digestive system. An automatic feces detection and trait recognition system based on a visual sensor could greatly alleviate the burden on medical inspectors and overcome many sanitation problems, such as infections. Unfortunately, the lack of digital medical images acquired with camera sensors due to patient privacy has obstructed the development of fecal examinations. In general, the computing power of an automatic fecal diagnosis machine or a mobile computer-aided diagnosis device is not always enough to run a deep network. Thus, a light-weight practical framework is proposed, which consists of three stages: illumination normalization, feces detection, and trait recognition. Illumination normalization effectively suppresses the illumination variances that degrade the recognition accuracy. Neither the shape nor the location is fixed, so shape-based and location-based object detection methods do not work well in this task. Meanwhile, this leads to a difficulty in labeling the images for training convolutional neural networks (CNN) in detection. Our segmentation scheme is free from training and labeling. The feces object is accurately detected with a well-designed threshold-based segmentation scheme on the selected color component to reduce the background disturbance. Finally, the preprocessed images are categorized into five classes with a light-weight shallow CNN, which is suitable for feces trait examinations in real hospital environments. The experiment results from our collected dataset demonstrate that our framework yields a satisfactory accuracy of 98.4%, while requiring low computational complexity and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Ranging-Assisted Binocular Visual Sensor Tracking System
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030688 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aimed at improving the low measurement accuracy of the binocular vision sensor along the optical axis in the process of target tracking, we proposed a method for auxiliary correction using a laser-ranging sensor in this paper. In the process of system measurement, limited [...] Read more.
Aimed at improving the low measurement accuracy of the binocular vision sensor along the optical axis in the process of target tracking, we proposed a method for auxiliary correction using a laser-ranging sensor in this paper. In the process of system measurement, limited to the mechanical performance of the two-dimensional turntable, the measurement value of a laser-ranging sensor is lagged. In this paper, the lag information is updated directly to solve the time delay. Moreover, in order to give full play to the advantages of binocular vision sensors and laser-ranging sensors in target tracking, federated filtering is used to improve the information utilization and measurement accuracy and to solve the estimated correlation. The experimental results show that the real-time and measurement accuracy of the laser ranging-assisted binocular visual-tracking system is improved by the direct update algorithm and the federal filtering algorithm. The results of this paper are significant for binocular vision sensors and laser-ranging sensors in engineering applications involving target tracking systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking)
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Open AccessArticle
Mask-Refined R-CNN: A Network for Refining Object Details in Instance Segmentation
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041010 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
With the rapid development of flexible vision sensors and visual sensor networks, computer vision tasks, such as object detection and tracking, are entering a new phase. Accordingly, the more challenging comprehensive task, including instance segmentation, can develop rapidly. Most state-of-the-art network frameworks, for [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of flexible vision sensors and visual sensor networks, computer vision tasks, such as object detection and tracking, are entering a new phase. Accordingly, the more challenging comprehensive task, including instance segmentation, can develop rapidly. Most state-of-the-art network frameworks, for instance, segmentation, are based on Mask R-CNN (mask region-convolutional neural network). However, the experimental results confirm that Mask R-CNN does not always successfully predict instance details. The scale-invariant fully convolutional network structure of Mask R-CNN ignores the difference in spatial information between receptive fields of different sizes. A large-scale receptive field focuses more on detailed information, whereas a small-scale receptive field focuses more on semantic information. So the network cannot consider the relationship between the pixels at the object edge, and these pixels will be misclassified. To overcome this problem, Mask-Refined R-CNN (MR R-CNN) is proposed, in which the stride of ROIAlign (region of interest align) is adjusted. In addition, the original fully convolutional layer is replaced with a new semantic segmentation layer that realizes feature fusion by constructing a feature pyramid network and summing the forward and backward transmissions of feature maps of the same resolution. The segmentation accuracy is substantially improved by combining the feature layers that focus on the global and detailed information. The experimental results on the COCO (Common Objects in Context) and Cityscapes datasets demonstrate that the segmentation accuracy of MR R-CNN is about 2% higher than that of Mask R-CNN using the same backbone. The average precision of large instances reaches 56.6%, which is higher than those of all state-of-the-art methods. In addition, the proposed method requires low time cost and is easily implemented. The experiments on the Cityscapes dataset also prove that the proposed method has great generalization ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking)
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Open AccessArticle
Mixed YOLOv3-LITE: A Lightweight Real-Time Object Detection Method
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20071861 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Embedded and mobile smart devices face problems related to limited computing power and excessive power consumption. To address these problems, we propose Mixed YOLOv3-LITE, a lightweight real-time object detection network that can be used with non-graphics processing unit (GPU) and mobile devices. Based [...] Read more.
Embedded and mobile smart devices face problems related to limited computing power and excessive power consumption. To address these problems, we propose Mixed YOLOv3-LITE, a lightweight real-time object detection network that can be used with non-graphics processing unit (GPU) and mobile devices. Based on YOLO-LITE as the backbone network, Mixed YOLOv3-LITE supplements residual block (ResBlocks) and parallel high-to-low resolution subnetworks, fully utilizes shallow network characteristics while increasing network depth, and uses a “shallow and narrow” convolution layer to build a detector, thereby achieving an optimal balance between detection precision and speed when used with non-GPU based computers and portable terminal devices. The experimental results obtained in this study reveal that the size of the proposed Mixed YOLOv3-LITE network model is 20.5 MB, which is 91.70%, 38.07%, and 74.25% smaller than YOLOv3, tiny-YOLOv3, and SlimYOLOv3-spp3-50, respectively. The mean average precision (mAP) achieved using the PASCAL VOC 2007 dataset is 48.25%, which is 14.48% higher than that of YOLO-LITE. When the VisDrone 2018-Det dataset is used, the mAP achieved with the Mixed YOLOv3-LITE network model is 28.50%, which is 18.50% and 2.70% higher than tiny-YOLOv3 and SlimYOLOv3-spp3-50, respectively. The results prove that Mixed YOLOv3-LITE can achieve higher efficiency and better performance on mobile terminals and other devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking)
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Open AccessArticle
Weighted Kernel Filter Based Anti-Air Object Tracking for Thermal Infrared Systems
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4081; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154081 - 22 Jul 2020
Abstract
Visual object tracking is an important component of surveillance systems and many high-performance methods have been developed. However, these tracking methods tend to be optimized for the Red/Green/Blue (RGB) domain and are thus not suitable for use with the infrared (IR) domain. To [...] Read more.
Visual object tracking is an important component of surveillance systems and many high-performance methods have been developed. However, these tracking methods tend to be optimized for the Red/Green/Blue (RGB) domain and are thus not suitable for use with the infrared (IR) domain. To overcome this disadvantage, many researchers have constructed datasets for IR analysis, including those developed for The Thermal Infrared Visual Object Tracking (VOT-TIR) challenges. As a consequence, many state-of-the-art trackers for the IR domain have been proposed, but there remains a need for reliable IR-based trackers for anti-air surveillance systems, including the construction of a new IR dataset for this purpose. In this paper, we collect various anti-air thermal-wave IR (TIR) images from an electro-optical surveillance system to create a new dataset. We also present a framework based on an end-to-end convolutional neural network that learns object tracking in the IR domain for anti-air targets such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and drones. More specifically, we adopt a Siamese network for feature extraction and three region proposal networks for the classification and regression branches. In the inference phase, the proposed network is formulated as a detection-by-tracking method, and kernel filters for the template branch that are continuously updated for every frame are introduced. The proposed network is able to learn robust structural information for the targets during offline training, and the kernel filters can robustly track the targets, demonstrating enhanced performance. Experimental results from the new IR dataset reveal that the proposed method achieves outstanding performance, with a real-time processing speed of 40 frames per second. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Sensor Networks for Object Detection and Tracking)
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