sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "MEMS Resonators"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez-Rojas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Microsystems, Actuators and Sensors Lab, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain
Tel. +34 902204100
Interests: MEMS/NEMS; piezoelectric microsystems; integrated sensors and transducers; miniaturization of instrumentation for applications in chemistry, food technology, robotics, biotechnology, and IoT
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MEMS resonators are receiving substantial industrial attention and some of them are already commercially available. Substituting existing products based on bulk materials, in fields such as communications, timing, acoustics and sensor technologies, with reduced size, lower cost and higher performance alternatives is now possible, with potential for manufacturing by advanced silicon integrated circuits technology.

In this Special Issue, a wide range of topics are covered, including the design, fabrication, characterization, packaging and system integration or final applications of Micro/Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS/NEMS)-based resonators:

  • Material research oriented to microsystem resonators

  • Processes and fabrication technologies for miniaturized resonators

  • Modelling, design and simulation of microsystems and integrated resonators

  • Electrostatic, piezoelectric, mechanical, thermal, acoustic, magnetic or any physical resonator principles

  • RF-MEMS/NEMS devices and circuits

  • Resonant sensors and actuators

  • Chemical and bio-MEMS applications of resonant micro- and nanodevices

  • Calibration, characterization and testing techniques for resonant MEMS/NEMS

  • Reliability and failure analysis

  • System integration, CMOS-MEMS and interface electronics

  • Applications and markets, control and measurement systems based on resonant MEMS.

Prof. Dr. José Luis Sánchez-Rojas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • RF-MEMS

  • resonant sensors

  • actuators

  • oscillators

  • CMOS-MEMS

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Design and Modeling of a MEMS Dual-Backplate Capacitive Microphone with Spring-Supported Diaphragm for Mobile Device Applications
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3545; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103545 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
New mobile devices need microphones with a small size, low noise level, reduced cost and high stability respect to variations of temperature and humidity. These characteristics can be obtained using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) microphones, which are substituting for conventional electret condenser microphones (ECM). [...] Read more.
New mobile devices need microphones with a small size, low noise level, reduced cost and high stability respect to variations of temperature and humidity. These characteristics can be obtained using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) microphones, which are substituting for conventional electret condenser microphones (ECM). We present the design and modeling of a capacitive dual-backplate MEMS microphone with a novel circular diaphragm (600 µm diameter and 2.25 µm thickness) supported by fifteen polysilicon springs (2.25 µm thickness). These springs increase the effective area (86.85% of the total area), the linearity and sensitivity of the diaphragm. This design is based on the SUMMiT V fabrication process from Sandia National Laboratories. A lumped element model is obtained to predict the electrical and mechanical behavior of the microphone as a function of the diaphragm dimensions. In addition, models of the finite element method (FEM) are implemented to estimate the resonance frequencies, deflections, and stresses of the diaphragm. The results of the analytical models agree well with those of the FEM models. Applying a bias voltage of 3 V, the designed microphone has a bandwidth from 31 Hz to 27 kHz with 3 dB sensitivity variation, a sensitivity of 34.4 mV/Pa, a pull-in voltage of 6.17 V and a signal to noise ratio of 62 dBA. The results of the proposed microphone performance are suitable for mobile device applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermomechanical Noise Characterization in Fully Monolithic CMOS-MEMS Resonators
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093124 - 16 Sep 2018
Abstract
We analyzed experimentally the noise characteristics of fully integrated CMOS-MEMS resonators to determine the overall thermomechanical noise and its impact on the limit of detection at the system level. Measurements from four MEMS resonator geometries designed for ultrasensitive detection operating between 2-MHz and [...] Read more.
We analyzed experimentally the noise characteristics of fully integrated CMOS-MEMS resonators to determine the overall thermomechanical noise and its impact on the limit of detection at the system level. Measurements from four MEMS resonator geometries designed for ultrasensitive detection operating between 2-MHz and 8-MHz monolithically integrated with a low-noise CMOS capacitive readout circuit were analyzed and used to determine the resolution achieved in terms of displacement and capacitance variation. The CMOS-MEMS system provides unprecedented detection resolution of 11 yF·Hz−1/2 equivalent to a minimum detectable displacement (MDD) of 13 fm·Hz−1/2, enabling noise characterization that is experimentally demonstrated by thermomechanical noise detection and compared to theoretical model values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Design and Simulation of an Integrated Wireless Capacitive Sensors Array for Measuring Ventricular Pressure
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092781 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper reports the novel design of a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) system with a wireless approach for a full-range continuous monitoring of ventricular pressure. The system consists of two modules: an implantable set and an external reading device. The implantable [...] Read more.
This paper reports the novel design of a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) system with a wireless approach for a full-range continuous monitoring of ventricular pressure. The system consists of two modules: an implantable set and an external reading device. The implantable set, restricted to a 2 × 2 cm2 area, consists of a TMCPS array connected with a dual-layer coil, for making a reliable resonant circuit for communication with the external device. The capacitive array is modelled considering the small deflection regime for achieving a dynamic and full 5–300 mmHg pressure range. In this design, the two inductive-coupled modules are calculated considering proper electromagnetic alignment, based on two planar coils and considering the following: 13.56 MHz frequency to avoid tissue damage and three types of biological tissue as core (skin, fat and muscle). The system was validated with the Comsol Multiphysics and CoventorWare softwares; showing a 90% power transmission efficiency at a 3.5 cm distance between coils. The implantable module includes aluminum- and polyimide-based devices, which allows ergonomic, robust, reproducible, and technologically feasible integrated sensors. In addition, the module shows a simplified and low cost design approach based on PolyMEMS INAOE® technology, featured by low-temperature processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Analytical Temperature-Dependent Design Model for Contour-Mode MEMS Resonators and Oscillators Verified by Measurements
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2159; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072159 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The importance of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) for radio-frequency (RF) applications is rapidly growing. In RF mobile-communication systems, MEMS-based circuits enable a compact implementation, low power consumption and high RF performance, e.g., bulk-acoustic wave filters with low insertion loss and low noise or fast [...] Read more.
The importance of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) for radio-frequency (RF) applications is rapidly growing. In RF mobile-communication systems, MEMS-based circuits enable a compact implementation, low power consumption and high RF performance, e.g., bulk-acoustic wave filters with low insertion loss and low noise or fast and reliable MEMS switches. However, the cross-hierarchical modelling of micro-electronic and micro-electromechanical constituents together in one multi-physical design process is still not as established as the design of integrated micro-electronic circuits, such as operational amplifiers. To close the gap between micro-electronics and micro-electromechanics, this paper presents an analytical approach towards the linear top-down design of MEMS resonators, based on their electrical specification, by the solution of the mechanical wave equation. In view of the central importance of thermal effects for the performance and stability of MEMS-based RF circuits, the temperature dependence was included in the model; the aim was to study the variations of the RF parameters of the resonators and to enable a temperature dependent MEMS oscillator simulation. The variations of the resonator parameters with respect to the ambient temperature were then verified by RF measurements in a vacuum chamber at temperatures between −35 C and 85 C. The systematic body of data revealed temperature coefficients of the resonant frequency between −26 ppm/K and −20 ppm/K, which are in good agreement with other data from the literature. Based on the MEMS resonator model derived, a MEMS oscillator was designed, simulated, and measured in a vacuum chamber yielding a measured temperature coefficient of the oscillation frequency of −26.3 ppm/K. The difference of the temperature coefficients of frequency of oscillator and resonator turned out to be mainly influenced by the limited Q-factor of the MEMS device. In both studies, the analytical model and the measurement showed very good agreement in terms of temperature dependence and the prediction of fabrication results of the resonators designed. This analytical modelling approach serves therefore as an important step towards the design and simulation of micro-electronics and micro-electromechanics in one uniform design process. Furthermore, temperature dependences of MEMS oscillators can now be studied by simulations instead of time-consuming and complex measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Design of a Novel MEMS Microgripper with Rotatory Electrostatic Comb-Drive Actuators for Biomedical Applications
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051664 - 22 May 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Primary tumors of patients can release circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to flow inside of their blood. The CTCs have different mechanical properties in comparison with red and white blood cells, and their detection may be employed to study the efficiency of medical treatments [...] Read more.
Primary tumors of patients can release circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to flow inside of their blood. The CTCs have different mechanical properties in comparison with red and white blood cells, and their detection may be employed to study the efficiency of medical treatments against cancer. We present the design of a novel MEMS microgripper with rotatory electrostatic comb-drive actuators for mechanical properties characterization of cells. The microgripper has a compact structural configuration of four polysilicon layers and a simple performance that control the opening and closing displacements of the microgripper tips. The microgripper has a mobile arm, a fixed arm, two different actuators and two serpentine springs, which are designed based on the SUMMiT V surface micromachining process from Sandia National Laboratories. The proposed microgripper operates at its first rotational resonant frequency and its mobile arm has a controlled displacement of 40 µm at both opening and closing directions using dc and ac bias voltages. Analytical models are developed to predict the stiffness, damping forces and first torsional resonant frequency of the microgripper. In addition, finite element method (FEM) models are obtained to estimate the mechanical behavior of the microgripper. The results of the analytical models agree very well respect to FEM simulations. The microgripper has a first rotational resonant frequency of 463.8 Hz without gripped cell and it can operate up to with maximum dc and ac voltages of 23.4 V and 129.2 V, respectively. Based on the results of the analytical and FEM models about the performance of the proposed microgripper, it could be used as a dispositive for mechanical properties characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A High Sensitivity Electric Field Microsensor Based on Torsional Resonance
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010286 - 19 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper proposes a high sensitivity electric field microsensor (EFM) based on torsional resonance. The proposed microsensor adopts torsional shutter, which is composed of shielding electrodes and torsional beams. The movable shielding electrodes and the fixed sensing electrodes are fabricated on the same [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a high sensitivity electric field microsensor (EFM) based on torsional resonance. The proposed microsensor adopts torsional shutter, which is composed of shielding electrodes and torsional beams. The movable shielding electrodes and the fixed sensing electrodes are fabricated on the same plane and interdigitally arranged. Push–pull electrostatic actuation method is employed to excite the torsional shutter. Simulation results proved that the torsional shutter has higher efficiency of charge induction. The optimization of structure parameters was conducted to improve its efficiency of charge induction further. A micromachining fabrication process was developed to fabricate the EFM. Experiments were conducted to characterize the EFM. A good linearity of 0.15% was achieved within an electrostatic field range of 0–50 kV/m, and the uncertainty was below 0.38% in the three roundtrip measurements. A high sensitivity of 4.82 mV/(kV/m) was achieved with the trans-resistance of 100 MΩ, which is improved by at least one order of magnitude compared with previously reported EFMs. The efficiency of charge induction for this microsensor reached 48.19 pA/(kV/m). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
MEMS Tunable Diffraction Grating for Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopic Applications
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102372 - 17 Oct 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Diffraction gratings are among the most commonly used optical elements in applications ranging from spectroscopy and metrology to lasers. Numerous methods have been adopted for the fabrication of gratings, including microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication which is by now mature and presents opportunities for [...] Read more.
Diffraction gratings are among the most commonly used optical elements in applications ranging from spectroscopy and metrology to lasers. Numerous methods have been adopted for the fabrication of gratings, including microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication which is by now mature and presents opportunities for tunable gratings through inclusion of an actuation mechanism. We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a silicon based pitch tunable diffraction grating (PTG) with relatively large resolving power that could be deployed in a spaceborne imaging spectrometer, for example in a picosatellite. We have carried out a detailed analytical modeling of PTG, based on a mass spring system. The device has an effective fill factor of 52% and resolving power of 84. Tuning provided by electrostatic actuation results in a displacement of 2.7 μ m at 40 V . Further, we have carried out vibration testing of the fabricated structure to evaluate its feasibility for spaceborne instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Compensation of Random Drift of MEMS Gyroscopes Based on Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2335; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102335 - 13 Oct 2017
Cited by 18
Abstract
MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) gyroscopes have been widely applied to various fields, but MEMS gyroscope random drift has nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics. It has attracted much attention to model and compensate the random drift because it can improve the precision of inertial [...] Read more.
MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) gyroscopes have been widely applied to various fields, but MEMS gyroscope random drift has nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics. It has attracted much attention to model and compensate the random drift because it can improve the precision of inertial devices. This paper has proposed to use wavelet filtering to reduce noise in the original data of MEMS gyroscopes, then reconstruct the random drift data with PSR (phase space reconstruction), and establish the model for the reconstructed data by LSSVM (least squares support vector machine), of which the parameters were optimized using CPSO (chaotic particle swarm optimization). Comparing the effect of modeling the MEMS gyroscope random drift with BP-ANN (back propagation artificial neural network) and the proposed method, the results showed that the latter had a better prediction accuracy. Using the compensation of three groups of MEMS gyroscope random drift data, the standard deviation of three groups of experimental data dropped from 0.00354°/s, 0.00412°/s, and 0.00328°/s to 0.00065°/s, 0.00072°/s and 0.00061°/s, respectively, which demonstrated that the proposed method can reduce the influence of MEMS gyroscope random drift and verified the effectiveness of this method for modeling MEMS gyroscope random drift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mechanical and Electrical Noise in Sense Channel of MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2306; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102306 - 11 Oct 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mechanical and electrical noise in the sense channel of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscopes. Closed-form expressions for the power spectral density (PSD) of the noise equivalent rate (NER) of gyroscopes in the open-loop and the force-rebalance [...] Read more.
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mechanical and electrical noise in the sense channel of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscopes. Closed-form expressions for the power spectral density (PSD) of the noise equivalent rate (NER) of gyroscopes in the open-loop and the force-rebalance operations are derived by using an averaged PSD model and an equivalent transfer function. The obtained expressions are verified through numerical simulations, demonstrating close agreements between the analytic and the numerical models. Based on the derived expressions for the PSD of the NER, the impacts of the modal frequency split, quality factor, and the gain of the feedback forcer, as well as the gain of the signal conditioning circuit, on the gyroscope noise characteristics are theoretically analyzed. In addition, the angle random walk (ARW) and the standard deviation of the NER are also discussed through the PSD models. Finally, the effects of the loop closing, the mode matching, and the gain of the feedback forcer on the PSD of the NER were verified via a MEMS vibratory gyroscope with a tunable modal frequency split. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Resonators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop