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Special Issue "IoT-Enabled Smart Cities"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Luis Sánchez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Network Planning and Mobile Communications Lab, University of Cantabria, 39012 Santander, Spain
Interests: Internet of Things; smart cities; semantics; blockchain
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Martin Bauer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
NEC Laboratories Europe GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany
Interests: Context Management; Internet of Things; Semantics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. JaeSeung Song
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer and Information Security, Sejong University, 15600 Seoul, Republic of Korea
Interests: Internet of Things; Smart Cities; software testing; cloud/edge computing; semantics; blockchain; artificial intelligence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technology, the vision of a Smart City is starting to become a reality. The goal of a Smart City is to establish a wealthy ecosystem where the operation of the city is optimized, increasing its efficiency, but also where new opportunities arise and improve the life of its citizens. In contrast to other IoT domains, the Smart City is an agglomeration of many different application areas, including traffic, public transportation, parking, water, energy, waste management, street lighting, public safety, and many more. To support all these application areas, infrastructure has to be deployed in order to enable sensing important parameters of the city, but also for controlling and actuating aspects. The true value of IoT in the Smart City will be achieved if infrastructure is not limited to silos but is made available across different application areas in a homogeneous and resilient manner. The biggest challenges lie in the integration of the heterogeneous underlying IoT technologies and achieving the required scalability and security so that information, even personal and/or critical, can be exchanged among authorized actors and protected from illicit access. Moreover, higher level knowledge shall be extracted, giving insights that help in optimizing the operation of the city and quality of life of its citizens. Finally, mechanisms to track the provenance, quality, and value of the information that is exchanged have to be in place in order to allow trading operations where the raw material is precisely the data that fuel the Smart City services.

The Special Issue aims to present high-quality research and recent technology advances towards IoT-enabled Smart Cities. Relevant topics include all aspects of IoT systems in the city domain. Sensing of and actuation on aspects of the physical world provide the basis; sensor networks communicate and initially process sensor data. IoT architectures integrate sensor networks and support processing and control loops on the edge and in the cloud. Security and data quality schemes enable resilient data exchange. Raw data are processed to become information; information is combined and knowledge extracted, enabling the understanding of current and the prediction of future situations. Applications in different domains utilize this understanding to efficiently react in real time, or analyze past situations to improve future behavior.

You are invited to submit original papers that present significant advances of the state of the art regarding IoT-enabled Smart Cities, including but not limited to the following topics:

  • Sensor networks for Smart City infrastructure monitoring
  • IoT for mission-critical infrastructures of the Smart City
  • Edge/Cloud IoT architecture
  • Knowledge extraction using machine learning
  • Crowd estimation and mobility management
  • Semantic modeling of city knowledge
  • Digital twin for the Smart City
  • Blockchain technology applied to IoT-enabled Smart City
  • IoT-enabled circular and collaborative economy in the Smart City
  • Monetization and business models for Smart City data
  • Application, deployment, testbed and experiments in the Smart City
  • Standardization related to the Smart City

Dr. Luis Sánchez
Dr. Martin Bauer
Dr. JaeSeung Song
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
City Data Hub: Implementation of Standard-Based Smart City Data Platform for Interoperability
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 7000; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20237000 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Like what happened to the Internet of Things (IoT), smart cities have become abundant in our lives as well. One of the smart city definitions commonly used is that smart cities solve city problems to enhance citizens’ life quality and make cities sustainable. [...] Read more.
Like what happened to the Internet of Things (IoT), smart cities have become abundant in our lives as well. One of the smart city definitions commonly used is that smart cities solve city problems to enhance citizens’ life quality and make cities sustainable. From the perspective of information and communication technologies (ICT), we think this can be done by collecting and analyzing data to generate insights. The City Data Hub, which is a standard-based city data platform that has been developed, and a couple of problem-solving examples have been demonstrated. The key elements for smart city platforms have been chosen and they have been included in the core architecture principles and implemented as a platform. It has been proven that standard application programming interfaces (APIs) and common data models with data marketplaces, which are the keys, increase interoperability and guarantee ecosystem extensibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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Article
Sensor-Enabled Context-Aware and Pro-Active Queue Management Systems in Intelligent Environments
Sensors 2020, 20(20), 5837; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205837 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Queue systems are practically used in various institutions and commercial enterprises constituting a challenge for the intelligent environments in smart cities. The management of the flow of customers guarantees the elimination or reduction of the queues as well as the economic benefits which [...] Read more.
Queue systems are practically used in various institutions and commercial enterprises constituting a challenge for the intelligent environments in smart cities. The management of the flow of customers guarantees the elimination or reduction of the queues as well as the economic benefits which follow the clients’ satisfaction of a better quality of service. An intelligent queue management system has been proposed which is designed as the pro-active and context-aware ecosystem based on multiple low-level sensors and devices constituting the IoT (Internet of Things) network. The designed context-driven system is characterised by user friendliness, as well as the client behaviour recognition and understanding which generate actions that support clients, establishing wealthy environments. A prototype version of the system has been proposed which has been validated by formal analysis and simulation. This prototype can be used as a necessary experience and as a reference point when building a target system and meeting requirements typical for context-aware and pro-active systems based on IoT networks which process massive data streams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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Article
Framework and Methodology for Establishing Port-City Policies Based on Real-Time Composite Indicators and IoT: A Practical Use-Case
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4131; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154131 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
During the past few decades, the combination of flourishing maritime commerce and urban population increases has made port-cities face several challenges. Smart Port-Cities of the future will take advantage of the newest IoT technologies to tackle those challenges in a joint fashion from [...] Read more.
During the past few decades, the combination of flourishing maritime commerce and urban population increases has made port-cities face several challenges. Smart Port-Cities of the future will take advantage of the newest IoT technologies to tackle those challenges in a joint fashion from both the city and port side. A specific matter of interest in this work is how to obtain reliable, measurable indicators to establish port-city policies for mutual benefit. This paper proposes an IoT-based software framework, accompanied with a methodology for defining, calculating, and predicting composite indicators that represent real-world phenomena in the context of a Smart Port-City. This paper envisions, develops, and deploys the framework on a real use-case as a practice experiment. The experiment consists of deploying a composite index for monitoring traffic congestion at the port-city interface in Thessaloniki (Greece). Results were aligned with the expectations, validated through nine scenarios, concluding with delivery of a useful tool for interested actors at Smart Port-Cities to work over and build policies upon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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Article
The Use of IoT Technology in Smart Cities and Smart Villages: Similarities, Differences, and Future Prospects
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143897 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
Initially, the concept of Smart Cities (urban settlement) originated from the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, however, the use of IoT technology can be extended to the concept of Smart Villages (rural settlement) as well, improving the life of the villagers, and the [...] Read more.
Initially, the concept of Smart Cities (urban settlement) originated from the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, however, the use of IoT technology can be extended to the concept of Smart Villages (rural settlement) as well, improving the life of the villagers, and the communities as a whole. Yet, the rural settlements have slightly different requirements than the urban like settlements. If application of IoT in Smart Cities can be characterized by densification of IoT to day-to-day life, following cities’ structural characteristics of being densely settled places, IoT empowered Smart Villages are usually a system of dispersion and deficiency. In this manner, this research paper will address and discuss different application areas of IoT technology, identifying differences, but also similarities in both ecosystems, while trying to illuminate the standardization efforts that can be applicable in both contexts. In our text we will propose the following IoT application domains, which will also serve as a base for research on smart villages: 1. Natural Resources and Energy, 2. Transport and Mobility, 3. Smart Building, 4. Daily Life, 5. Government, and 6. Economy and Society. By providing an overview of technical solutions that support smart solutions in Smart Cities and Smart Villages this research paper will evaluate how, with IoT empowered Smart Villages and Smart Cities, an overall improvement of quality of life of their inhabitants can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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Article
Short-Term Rental Forecast of Urban Public Bicycle Based on the HOSVD-LSTM Model in Smart City
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113072 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
As a kind of transportation in a smart city, urban public bicycles have been adopted by major cities and bear the heavy responsibility of the “last mile” of urban public transportation. At present, the main problem of the urban public bicycle system is [...] Read more.
As a kind of transportation in a smart city, urban public bicycles have been adopted by major cities and bear the heavy responsibility of the “last mile” of urban public transportation. At present, the main problem of the urban public bicycle system is that it is difficult for users to rent a bike during peak h, and real-time monitoring cannot be solved adequately. Therefore, predicting the demand for bicycles in a certain period and performing redistribution in advance is of great significance for solving the lag of bicycle system scheduling with the help of IoT. Based on the HOSVD-LSTM prediction model, a prediction model of urban public bicycles based on the hybrid model is proposed by transforming the source data (multiple time series) into a high-order tensor time series. Furthermore, it uses the tensor decomposition technology (HOSVD decomposition) to extract new features (kernel tenor) from higher-order tensors. At the same time, these kernel tenors are directly used to train tensor LSTM models to obtain new kernel tenors. The inverse tensor decomposition and high-dimensional, multidimensional, and tensor dimensionality reduction were introduced. The new kernel tenor obtains the predicted value of the source sequence. Then the bicycle rental amount is predicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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Article
Building Dynamic Communities of Interest for Internet of Things in Smart Cities
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102986 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The Internet of things (IoT) is a growing area of research in the context of smart cities. It links a city’s physical objects that are equipped with embedded sensing, communicating, and computing technology. These objects possess the capability to connect and share data [...] Read more.
The Internet of things (IoT) is a growing area of research in the context of smart cities. It links a city’s physical objects that are equipped with embedded sensing, communicating, and computing technology. These objects possess the capability to connect and share data with minimal human intervention, which creates the potential to establish social relationships among them. However, it is challenging for an object to discover, communicate, and collaborate dynamically with other objects, such as social entities, and provide services to humans. This is due to the increase in the number of objects and the complexity in defining social-like relationships among them. The current research aims to address this by introducing an object architecture and defining a Dynamic Community of Interest Model (DCIM) for IoT objects. The proposed model will help IoT objects to socialize and build communities amongst themselves based on different criteria. In this approach, objects belonging to a community will collaborate with each other to collect, manipulate, and share interesting content and provide services to enhance the quality of human interactions in smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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Article
An Efficient and Secure Alert System for VANETs to Improve Crosswalks’ Security in Smart Cities
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092473 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
A key characteristic of Smart Cities is the ability to reduce conflicts between different agents coexisting in a dynamic system, such as the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. This paper presents a system to augment the awareness of vehicle drivers regarding the presence [...] Read more.
A key characteristic of Smart Cities is the ability to reduce conflicts between different agents coexisting in a dynamic system, such as the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. This paper presents a system to augment the awareness of vehicle drivers regarding the presence of pedestrians in nearby crosswalks. The proposed system interconnects Road Side Units (RSUs), which are informed about the state of the crosswalks, and vehicles, in order to spread to vehicles, the information about the presence of pedestrians in crosswalks. To prevent false information spreading, RSUs sign the alert messages they broadcast and all vehicles can validate the signatures. This poses strong security requirements, such as non-repudiation of alert messages, as well as strong real-time requirements, such as minimum message validation delays among vehicles approaching a crosswalk of interest. To manage the signed alert messages, we are proposing Nimble Asymmetric Cryptography (NAC), which authenticates implicit broadcast messages. NAC minimizes the usage of asymmetric ciphers, which are fundamental to assure non-repudiation but increase performance penalties and uses hash chaining for source authentication of implicit messages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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Review

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Review
IoT-Enabled Smart Cities: Evolution and Outlook
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4511; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134511 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
For the last decade the Smart City concept has been under development, fostered by the growing urbanization of the world’s population and the need to handle the challenges that such a scenario raises. During this time many Smart City projects have been executed–some [...] Read more.
For the last decade the Smart City concept has been under development, fostered by the growing urbanization of the world’s population and the need to handle the challenges that such a scenario raises. During this time many Smart City projects have been executed–some as proof-of-concept, but a growing number resulting in permanent, production-level deployments, improving the operation of the city and the quality of life of its citizens. Thus, Smart Cities are still a highly relevant paradigm which needs further development before it reaches its full potential and provides robust and resilient solutions. In this paper, the focus is set on the Internet of Things (IoT) as an enabling technology for the Smart City. In this sense, the paper reviews the current landscape of IoT-enabled Smart Cities, surveying relevant experiences and city initiatives that have embedded IoT within their city services and how they have generated an impact. The paper discusses the key technologies that have been developed and how they are contributing to the realization of the Smart City. Moreover, it presents some challenges that remain open ahead of us and which are the initiatives and technologies that are under development to tackle them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Smart Cities)
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