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Special Issue "Selected Papers from 8th International Conference on Localization and GNSS 2018 (ICL-GNSS 2018)"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Jari Nurmi

Laboratory of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: GNSS receiver architecture and implementation; multi-technology positioning; Software-Defined Radio for communications and positioning; cognitive and cooperative positioning; IoT and embedded systems; reconfigurable and adaptable systems; approximate computing in particular in receiver baseband domain
Guest Editor
Prof. Adriano J. C. Moreira

Algoritmi Research Centre, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: indoor positioning; mobile and context-aware computing; urban computing; human mobility analysis; opportunistic networks and simulation of wireless and mobile networks in urban contexts

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 8th International Conference on Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS) will take place in Guimarães, Portugal on 26–28 June, 2018.

ICL-GNSS addresses the latest research on wireless and satellite-based positioning techniques to provide reliable and accurate position information with low latency. The emphasis is on the design of mass-market navigation receivers and related tools and methodologies. Authors of the selected papers from the conference are invited to submit the extended versions of their original papers and contributions regarding the following topics:

  • Antennas and RF front-end for GNSS receivers
  • Design, prototyping and testing of positioning devices
  • Acquisition, tracking and navigation algorithms
  • Detection and mitigation techniques for adverse propagation conditions
  • Wireless and sensor-based localization
  • GNSS applications for remote sensing, ionospheric sounding and space weather
  • Precise timing for GNSS and terrestrial systems
  • Security and privacy in joint communication and navigation systems
  • Authentication and privacy aspects of positioning
  • Spoofing countermeasures
  • Cooperative and peer-to-peer positioning
  • Positioning based on signals-of-opportunity
  • Multi-GNSS receivers and emerging navigation satellite systems
  • Indoor positioning and localisation in densely populated urban areas
  • Hybrid NAV/COM positioning
  • Cognitive positioning architectures
  • Positioning for autonomous systems (robots, planes, land and marine vehicles)
  • Crowd-sourced and swarm localisation
  • Location-based mobility models, services and applications

Prof. Jari Nurmi
Prof. Adriano J. C. Moreira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Global Navigation Satellite Systems
  • Wireless positioning
  • Jamming and spoofing
  • Cooperative positioning
  • Multi-GNSS receivers
  • Hybrid positioning
  • Indoor positioning
  • Self-driving cars
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
  • Sensor fusion

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Design, Implementation and Validation of a GNSS Measurement Exclusion and Weighting Function with a Dual Polarized Antenna
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4483; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124483
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have become a ubiquitous tool for our modern society to carry out vital tasks such as transportation, civil engineering or precision agriculture. This breath has reached the realm of safety-critical applications such as time management of critical infrastructures [...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have become a ubiquitous tool for our modern society to carry out vital tasks such as transportation, civil engineering or precision agriculture. This breath has reached the realm of safety-critical applications such as time management of critical infrastructures or autonomous vehicles, in which GNSS is an essential tool nowadays. Unfortunately, current GNSS performance is not enough to fulfill the requirements of these professional and critical applications. For this reason, the FANTASTIC project was launched to boost the adoption of these applications. The project was funded by the European GNSS agency (GSA) in order to enhance the robustness and accuracy of GNSS in harsh environments. This paper presents the part related to the development of a weighting and exclusion function with a dual circularly polarized antenna. The idea is to reduce the effects of multipath by weighting and/or excluding those measurements affected by multipath. The observables and other metrics obtained from a dual polarized antenna will be exploited to define an exclusion threshold and to provide the weights. Real-world experiments will show the improvement in the positioning solution, using all available constellations, obtained with the developed technique. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Accuracy Bounds for Array-Based Positioning in Dense Multipath Channels
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4249; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124249
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
The accuracy of radio-based positioning systems will be limited by multipath interference in realistic application scenarios. This paper derives closed-form expressions for the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) on the achievable time-of-arrival (ToA) and angle-of-arrival (AoA) estimation-error variances, considering the presence of multipath radio [...] Read more.
The accuracy of radio-based positioning systems will be limited by multipath interference in realistic application scenarios. This paper derives closed-form expressions for the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) on the achievable time-of-arrival (ToA) and angle-of-arrival (AoA) estimation-error variances, considering the presence of multipath radio channels, and extends these results to position estimation. The derivations are based on channel models comprising deterministic, specular multipath components as well as stochastic, diffuse/dense multipath. The derived CRLBs thus allow an evaluation of the influence of channel parameters, the geometric configuration of the environment, and system parameters such as signal bandwidth and array geometry. Our results quantify how the ToA and AoA accuracies decrease when the signal bandwidth is reduced, because more multipath will then interfere with the useful LoS component. Antenna arrays can (partly) compensate this performance loss, exploiting diversity among the multipath interference. For example, the AoA accuracy with a 16-element linear array at 1 MHz bandwidth is similar to a two-element array at 1 GHz , in the magnitude order of one degree. The ToA accuracy, on the other hand, still scales by a factor of 100 from the cm-regime to the m-regime because of the dominating influence of the signal bandwidth. The position error bound shows the relationship between the range and angle information under realistic indoor channel conditions and their different scaling behaviors as a function of the anchor–agent placement. Specular multipath components have a maximum detrimental influence near the walls. It is shown for an L-shaped room that a fairly even distribution of the position error bound can be achieved throughout the environment, using two anchors equipped with 2 × 2 -array antennas. The accuracy limit due to multipath increases from the 1–10-cm-range at 1 GHz bandwidth to the 0.5–1-m-range at 100 MHz . Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Localization Systems in NLOS Urban Scenario with Multipath Ray Tracing Fingerprints and Machine Learning
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4073; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114073
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
A hybrid technique is proposed to enhance the localization performance of a time difference of arrival (TDOA) deployed in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) suburban scenario. The idea was to use Machine Learning framework on the dataset, produced by the ray tracing simulation, and the Channel [...] Read more.
A hybrid technique is proposed to enhance the localization performance of a time difference of arrival (TDOA) deployed in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) suburban scenario. The idea was to use Machine Learning framework on the dataset, produced by the ray tracing simulation, and the Channel Impulse Response estimation from the real signal received by each sensor. Conventional localization techniques mitigate errors trying to avoid NLOS measurements in processing emitter position, while the proposed method uses the multipath fingerprint information produced by ray tracing (RT) simulation together with calibration emitters to refine a Machine Learning engine, which gives an extra layer of information to improve the emitter position estimation. The ray-tracing fingerprints perform the target localization embedding all the reflection and diffraction in the propagation scenario. A validation campaign was performed and showed the feasibility of the proposed method, provided that the buildings can be appropriately included in the scenario description. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Employing Ray-Tracing and Least-Squares Support Vector Machines for Localisation
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4059; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114059
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
This article evaluates the use of least-squares support vector machines, with ray-traced data, to solve the problem of localisation in multipath environments. The schemes discussed concern 2-D localisation, but could easily be extended to 3-D. It does not require NLOS identification and mitigation, [...] Read more.
This article evaluates the use of least-squares support vector machines, with ray-traced data, to solve the problem of localisation in multipath environments. The schemes discussed concern 2-D localisation, but could easily be extended to 3-D. It does not require NLOS identification and mitigation, hence, it can be applied in any environment. Some background details and a detailed experimental setup is provided. Comparisons with schemes that require NLOS identification and mitigation, from earlier work, are also presented. The results demonstrate that the direct localisation scheme using least-squares support vector machine (the Direct method) achieves superior outage to TDOA and TOA/AOA for NLOS environments. TDOA has better outage in LOS environments. TOA/AOA performs better for an accepted outage probability of 20 percent or greater but as the outage probability lowers, the Direct method becomes better. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reliable Positioning and mmWave Communication via Multi-Point Connectivity
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4001; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114001
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the key elements of future 5G and beyond mobile technology is millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications, which is targeted to extreme high-data rate services. Furthermore, combining the possibility of a wideband signal transmission with the capability of pencil-beamforming, mmWave technology is key for [...] Read more.
One of the key elements of future 5G and beyond mobile technology is millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications, which is targeted to extreme high-data rate services. Furthermore, combining the possibility of a wideband signal transmission with the capability of pencil-beamforming, mmWave technology is key for accurate cellular-based positioning. However, it is also well-known that at the mmWave frequency band the radio channel is very sensitive to line-of-sight blockages giving rise to unstable connectivity and inefficient communication. In this paper, we tackle the blockage problem and propose a solution to increase the communication reliability by means of a coordinated multi-point reception. We also investigate the advantage of this solution in terms of positioning quality. More specifically, we describe a robust hybrid analog–digital receive beamforming strategy to combat the unavailability of dominant links. Numerical examples are provided to validate the efficiency of our proposed method. Full article
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