E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Manuel Dı́az-Cruz

Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: electrochemical sensors; screen-printed devices; chemometrics; heavy metal ions; food authentication
Guest Editor
Dr. Núria Serrano

Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electrochemical sensors, screen-printed devices, chemometrics, heavy metal ions, electronic tongues, liquid chromatography, food authentication
Guest Editor
Dr. Xavier Cetó

Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electrochemical (bio)sensors, screen-printed devices, electronic tongues, chemometrics, heavy metal ions, food authentication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heavy metal ions coming from both natural and anthropogenic sources dramatically contribute to environmental pollution and constitute a serious threat for human health, especially considering its non-biodegradable character and the tendency to bioaccumulate and biomagnificate. This is why many international regulations stablish maximum concentrations for a series of metals and metalloids in water, food products and drugs, mostly based on toxicological studies. This requires the development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of such substances. For this purpose, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques are very well suited, since they provide multi-element analysis with an excellent accuracy. However, ICP methods suffer from too high costs and lack of portability, which is a serious drawback in situations that require in situ measurements, fast and cheap screening of as much elements as possible or real-time monitoring in flow systems. In these cases, electrochemical, optical and hybrid sensors, alone or integrated into sensor arrays, can be a valuable alternative to ICP methods.

With these facts in mind, many efforts have been made in the last years to develop suitable sensors for the fast, low-cost, in situ, on-line detection of heavy metal ions. In this context, there is an increasing popularity of screen-printed devices, nanoparticles and nanomaterials and a growing interest on the combination of sensors into complex arrays and on the powerful chemometric methods required for processing the resulting multivariate data sets.

In this regards, this Special Issue aims to cover the advances in electrochemical, optical and hybrid sensing technologies for fast, reliable and affordable detection of heavy metal ions. Both research papers and review articles will be considered. We look forward to and welcome your participation in this Special Issue.

Potential topics may be the following:

  • Electrochemical sensors for heavy metal detection based on screen-printed devices
  • Electrochemical sensors for heavy metal detection based on nanoparticles and nanomaterials
  • Modification of electrodes using different strategies (drop casting, electroplating, electrografting, electropolymerization, etc.) in order to detect heavy metals.
  • Optical sensors for heavy metal detection
  • Biosensors for the detection of heavy metals
  • Heavy metal sensing in flow systems
  • Electronic tongues and other sensor arrays for detecting heavy metals
  • Chemometric methods for the analysis of data obtained with heavy metal sensors
  • Application of heavy metal sensing to environmental analysis
  • Heavy metal sensing in food science
Prof. Dr. José Manuel Dı́az-Cruz
Prof. Dr. Núria Serrano
Dr. Xavier Cetó
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Heavy metal ions
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Optical sensors
  • Hybrid sensors
  • Biosensors
  • Sensor arrays
  • Electronic tongues
  • Screen-printed devices
  • Complexing agents
  • Sensors modification
  • Flow-injection analysis (FIA)
  • Sequential-injection analysis (SIA)
  • Screening of heavy metals
  • Monitoring of heavy metals
  • Determination of heavy metals
  • Multivariate data analysis
  • Chemometrics
  • Food safety
  • Drug analysis
  • Environmental monitoring

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Selective and Reproducible SERS Sensors of Hg2+ Ions via a Sunlight-Induced Thiol–Yne Reaction on Gold Gratings
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2110; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092110
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
PDF Full-text (3548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this contribution, we propose a novel functional surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platform for the detection of one of the most hazardous heavy metal ions, Hg2+. The design of the proposed sensor is based on the combination of surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) [...] Read more.
In this contribution, we propose a novel functional surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platform for the detection of one of the most hazardous heavy metal ions, Hg2+. The design of the proposed sensor is based on the combination of surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) supporting gold grating with the high homogeneity of the response and enhancement and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) based specific recognition layer. For the first time, diazonium grafted 4-ethynylphenyl groups have undergone the sunlight-induced thiol–yne reaction with MSA in the presence of Eosine Y. The developed SERS platform provides an extremely sensitive, selective, and convenient analytical procedure to detect mercury ions with limit of detection (LOD) as low as 10−10 M (0.027 µg/L) with excellent selectivity over other metals. The developed SERS sensor is compatible with a portable SERS spectrophotometer and does not require the expensive equipment for statistical methods of analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multiplexed Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) Ion by FET Sensor Array in a Liquid Medium
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19091969
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
PDF Full-text (2314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chromium, one of the top five toxic heavy metals ranked according to significance in public health by WHO, exists as Cr(III) which is naturally occurring or Cr(VI) which is anthropogenic in origin. The EPA specifies the maximum contaminant level in drinking water to [...] Read more.
Chromium, one of the top five toxic heavy metals ranked according to significance in public health by WHO, exists as Cr(III) which is naturally occurring or Cr(VI) which is anthropogenic in origin. The EPA specifies the maximum contaminant level in drinking water to be 10−6 M or 0.1 mg/L or 100 ppb for the total dissolved Cr. To ensure the water consumed by the population has these pollutants below the safe threshold, this report demonstrates a field effect transistor (FET) based sensor design incorporating a highly target specific ion-selective membrane combined with extended gate technology which manifests sensitivity exceeding the Nernst limit aided by the high field effect in the short gap region of extended gate technology. Characterization and repeated testing of the portable device revealed a commendable calibration sensitivity of 99 mV/log [Cr3+] and 71 mV/log [Cr6+] for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) respectively, well surpassing the Nernst limits of sensitivity and offering a detection limit lower than ion-selective electrodes (10−6 M), and comparable to the expensive benchtop laboratory instrument, ICP-MS. This report presents a robust, easy to fabricate, economic and efficient handheld biosensor to detect the chromium in a liquid sample whether it exists as Cr(III) or Cr(VI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Trace Voltammetric Determination of Lead at a Recycled Battery Carbon Rod Electrode
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040770
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
PDF Full-text (2199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon rod electrodes (CREs) were obtained from recycled zinc–carbon batteries and were used without further modification for the measurement of trace concentrations of lead (Pb). The electrochemical behavior of Pb at these electrodes in a variety of supporting electrolytes was investigated by cyclic [...] Read more.
Carbon rod electrodes (CREs) were obtained from recycled zinc–carbon batteries and were used without further modification for the measurement of trace concentrations of lead (Pb). The electrochemical behavior of Pb at these electrodes in a variety of supporting electrolytes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic peaks obtained on the reverse scans were indicative of Pb being deposited as a thin layer on the electrode surface. The greatest signal–to–noise ratios were obtained in organic acids compared to mineral acids, and acetic acid was selected as the supporting electrolyte for further studies. Conditions were optimized, and it was possible to determine trace concentrations of Pb by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. A supporting electrolyte of 4% v/v acetic acid, with a deposition potential of −1.5 V (vs. SCE) and a deposition time of 1100 s, was found to be optimum. A linear range of 2.8 µg/L to 110 µg/L was obtained, with an associated detection limit (3σ) of 2.8 µg/L. A mean recovery of 95.6% (CV=3.9%) was obtained for a tap water sample fortified with 21.3 µg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Nafion-Protected Sputtered-Bismuth Screen-Printed Electrode for On-site Voltammetric Measurements of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in Natural Water Samples
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020279
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
PDF Full-text (3833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we explore the protection with Nafion of commercial sputtered-bismuth screen-printed electrodes (BiSPSPEs), to improve its ability for on-site determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in ambient water samples. The modified screen-printed platform was coupled with a miniaturized cell, [...] Read more.
In this work, we explore the protection with Nafion of commercial sputtered-bismuth screen-printed electrodes (BiSPSPEs), to improve its ability for on-site determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in ambient water samples. The modified screen-printed platform was coupled with a miniaturized cell, in combination with a battery-operated stirring system and a portable potentiostat operated by a laptop for decentralized electrochemical measurements using Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV). We also describe a detailed electrode surface characterization by microscopy and surface analysis techniques, before and after the modification with Nafion, to get insight about modification effect on signal size and stability. Optimization of the chemical composition of the medium including the optimization of pH, and instrumental parameters, resulted in a method with detection limits in the low ng/mL range (3.62 and 3.83 ng·mL−1 for Cd and Pb respectively). Our results show an improvement of the sensitivity and stability for Nafion-protected BiSPSPEs in pH = 4.4 medium, and similar or lower detection limits than comparable methods on commercial BiSPSPEs. The values obtained for Pb(II) and Cd(II) in natural water samples agreed well with those obtained by the much more costly Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, ICP-MS, technique as a reference method (recoveries from 75% to 111%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reusability of SPE and Sb-modified SPE Sensors for Trace Pb(II) Determination
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3976; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113976
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, unmodified screen-printed electrode (bare SPE) and Sb-film modified SPE (SbFSPE) sensors were employed for the analysis of trace amounts of Pb(II) in non-deaerated water solutions. The modified electrode was performed in situ in 0.5 mg/L Sb(III) and 0.01 M HCl. [...] Read more.
In this work, unmodified screen-printed electrode (bare SPE) and Sb-film modified SPE (SbFSPE) sensors were employed for the analysis of trace amounts of Pb(II) in non-deaerated water solutions. The modified electrode was performed in situ in 0.5 mg/L Sb(III) and 0.01 M HCl. The methodology was validated for an accumulation potential of –1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl and an accumulation time of 60 s. A comparative analysis of bare SPE and SbFSPE showed that the detection and quantification limits decrease for the bare SPE. The method with the bare SPE showed a linear response in the 69.8–368.4 µg/L concentration range, whereas linearity for the SbFSPE was in the 24.0–319.1 µg/L concentration range. This work also reports the reason why the multiple standard addition method instead of a linear calibration curve for Pb(II) analysis should be employed. Furthermore, the analytical method employing SbFSPE was found to be more accurate and precise compared to the use of bare SPE when sensors were employed for the first time, however this performance changed significantly when these sensors were reused in the same manner. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used for the first time to analyse the electrochemical response of sensors after being used for multiple successive analyses. Surface characterisation before and after multiple successive uses of bare SPE and SbFSPE sensors, with atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, showed sensor degradation. The interference effect of Cd(II), Zn(II), As(III), Fe(II), Na(I), K(I), Ca(II), Mg(II), NO3, Bi(III), Cu(II), Sn(II), and Hg(II) on the Pb(II) stripping signal was also studied. Finally, the application of SbFSPE was tested on a real water sample (from a local river), which showed high precision (RSD = 8.1%, n = 5) and accurate results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Functionalized Fiber End Superstructure Fiber Bragg Grating Refractive Index Sensor for Heavy Metal Ion Detection
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061821
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a novel superstructure fiber Bragg grating fiber end sensor capable of detecting variations in refractive index (RI) of liquids and potentially that of gases, and demonstrated an application in the detection of heavy metal ions in water. The sensor is capable [...] Read more.
We present a novel superstructure fiber Bragg grating fiber end sensor capable of detecting variations in refractive index (RI) of liquids and potentially that of gases, and demonstrated an application in the detection of heavy metal ions in water. The sensor is capable of sensing RI variations in the range of 1.333 to 1.470 with good sensitivity of up to 230 dB/RIU achieved for the RI range of 1.370 to 1.390. The sensor is capable of simultaneously measuring variations in ambient temperature along with RI. A simple chemical coating was employed as a chelating agent for heavy metal ion detection at the fiber end to demonstrate an possible application of the sensor. The coated fiber sensor can conclusively detect the presence of heavy metal ions with concentrations upwards of 100 ppm. RI sensing capability of the sensor is neither affected by temperature nor strain and is both robust and easily reproducible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
Figures

Figure 1

Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top