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Sensors 2019, 19(2), 279;

Nafion-Protected Sputtered-Bismuth Screen-Printed Electrode for On-site Voltammetric Measurements of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in Natural Water Samples

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Extremadura, Av. de Elvas, s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Av. de la Universidad, s/n, 10005 Cáceres, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
PDF [3833 KB, uploaded 15 January 2019]


In this work, we explore the protection with Nafion of commercial sputtered-bismuth screen-printed electrodes (BiSPSPEs), to improve its ability for on-site determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in ambient water samples. The modified screen-printed platform was coupled with a miniaturized cell, in combination with a battery-operated stirring system and a portable potentiostat operated by a laptop for decentralized electrochemical measurements using Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV). We also describe a detailed electrode surface characterization by microscopy and surface analysis techniques, before and after the modification with Nafion, to get insight about modification effect on signal size and stability. Optimization of the chemical composition of the medium including the optimization of pH, and instrumental parameters, resulted in a method with detection limits in the low ng/mL range (3.62 and 3.83 ng·mL−1 for Cd and Pb respectively). Our results show an improvement of the sensitivity and stability for Nafion-protected BiSPSPEs in pH = 4.4 medium, and similar or lower detection limits than comparable methods on commercial BiSPSPEs. The values obtained for Pb(II) and Cd(II) in natural water samples agreed well with those obtained by the much more costly Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, ICP-MS, technique as a reference method (recoveries from 75% to 111%). View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; lead; nafion; bismuth-sputtered screen-printed electrode; SWASV cadmium; lead; nafion; bismuth-sputtered screen-printed electrode; SWASV

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Frutos-Puerto, S.; Miró, C.; Pinilla-Gil, E. Nafion-Protected Sputtered-Bismuth Screen-Printed Electrode for On-site Voltammetric Measurements of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in Natural Water Samples. Sensors 2019, 19, 279.

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