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Open AccessArticle

Strategies for Surface Modification with Ag-Shaped Nanoparticles: Electrocatalytic Enhancement of Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Detection of Heavy Metals

1
Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola d’Enginyeria de Barcelona Est (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, BarcelonaTEch (UPC), Av. Eduard Maristany 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
2
Barcelona Research Center for Multiscale Science and Engineering, Av. Eduard Maristany 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
3
Physical Chemistry TU Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4249; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194249
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
Screen-printed carbon nanofiber electrodes (SPCNFEs) represent an alternative with great acceptance due to their results, as well as their low impact on the environment. In order to improve their performance, in the present work they were modified with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and electrochemically characterized by using anodic stripping voltammetry. From the Ag-NP synthesis, silver seeds (Ag-NS) and silver nanoprisms (Ag-NPr) were obtained. The Ag-NP formation was confirmed by micrographs, where Ag-NPs with diameters of 12.20 ± 0.04 nm for Ag-NS and 20.40 ± 0.09 nm for Ag-NPr were observed. The electrodes were modified by using three different deposition methods—drop-casting, spin-coating, and in situ approaches—that offer different nanoparticle distribution and electrode modification times. It was observed that the last methodology showed a low amount of Ag-NS deposited on the electrode surface and deep alteration of this surface. Those facts suggest that the in situ synthesis methodology was not appropriate for the determination of heavy metals, and it was discarded. The incorporation of the nanoparticles by spin-coating and drop-casting strategies showed different spatial distribution on the electrode surface, as proved by scanning electron microscopy. The electrodes modified by these strategies were evaluated for the cadmium(II) and lead(II) detection using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, obtaining detection limit values of 2.1 and 2.8 µg·L−1, respectively. The overall results showed that the incorporation route does not directly change the electrocatalytic effect of the nanoparticles, but the shape of these nanoparticles (spherical for seeds and triangular for prisms) has preferential electrocatalytic enhancement over Cd(II) or Pb(II). View Full-Text
Keywords: screen-printed electrodes; Ag nanoparticles; drop-casting; spin-coating; nanoprisms; heavy metals; differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric; electrocatalysis screen-printed electrodes; Ag nanoparticles; drop-casting; spin-coating; nanoprisms; heavy metals; differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric; electrocatalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Torres-Rivero, K.; Torralba-Cadena, L.; Espriu-Gascon, A.; Casas, I.; Bastos-Arrieta, J.; Florido, A. Strategies for Surface Modification with Ag-Shaped Nanoparticles: Electrocatalytic Enhancement of Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Detection of Heavy Metals. Sensors 2019, 19, 4249.

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