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Open AccessArticle

Disposable Injection Molded Conductive Electrodes Modified with Antimony Film for the Electrochemical Determination of Trace Pb(II) and Cd(II)

1
Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 157 71 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB, UK
3
Process Instruments (UK) Ltd., March Street, Burnley BB12 0BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4809; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214809
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for the Detection of Heavy Metals)
This work describes a novel electrochemical sensor fabricated by an injection molding process. This device features a conductive polymer electrode encased in a plastic holder and electroplated in situ with a thin antimony film. The antimony film sensor was applied to the determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The deposition of Sb on the sensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and microscopy. The experimental variables (concentration of the antimony plating solution, deposition potential and time, stripping waveform) were investigated, and the potential interferences were studied and addressed. The limits of detection were 0.95 μg L−1 for Pb(II) and 1.3 for Cd(II) (at 240 s of preconcentration) and the within-sensor percentage relative standard deviations were 4.2% and 4.9%, respectively, at the 25 μg L−1 level (n = 8). Finally, the sensor was applied to the determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in a phosphorite sample and a lake water sample. View Full-Text
Keywords: injection molding; antimony film; electrode; stripping voltammetry; Cd(II); Pb(II) injection molding; antimony film; electrode; stripping voltammetry; Cd(II); Pb(II)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Christidi, S.; Chrysostomou, A.; Economou, A.; Kokkinos, C.; Fielden, P.R.; Baldock, S.J.; Goddard, N.J. Disposable Injection Molded Conductive Electrodes Modified with Antimony Film for the Electrochemical Determination of Trace Pb(II) and Cd(II). Sensors 2019, 19, 4809. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214809

AMA Style

Christidi S, Chrysostomou A, Economou A, Kokkinos C, Fielden PR, Baldock SJ, Goddard NJ. Disposable Injection Molded Conductive Electrodes Modified with Antimony Film for the Electrochemical Determination of Trace Pb(II) and Cd(II). Sensors. 2019; 19(21):4809. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Christidi, Savvina; Chrysostomou, Alexia; Economou, Anastasios; Kokkinos, Christos; Fielden, Peter R.; Baldock, Sara J.; Goddard, Nicholas J. 2019. "Disposable Injection Molded Conductive Electrodes Modified with Antimony Film for the Electrochemical Determination of Trace Pb(II) and Cd(II)" Sensors 19, no. 21: 4809. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214809

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