sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio Skarmeta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mirko Presser
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Birk Centerpark 15, building 8001, Innovatorium, CBD 7400 Herning, Denmark
Interests: IoT; Industry 4.0; Business Model Innovation; Smart Cities; Urban Manufacturing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Sébastien Ziegler
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mandat International, International Cooperation Foundation and IoT Lab, 3 ch. du Champ-Baron, 1209 Geneva, Switzerland
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Srdjan Krčo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DunavNET d.o.o., A. Čehova 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Interests: IoT; smart agriculture/cities/manufacturing; digital transformations; business models
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Mr. Latif Ladid
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Luxembourg, Maison du Nombre, 6, avenue de la Fonte, L-4364 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
Interests: IPv6; IoT; 5G
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2019 Global IoT Summit (GIoTS) http://www.globaliotsummit.org/, 17–21 June 2019 in Aarhus, Denmark, collocated with the IoTweek 2019 https://iotweek.org/, seeks contributions on how to nurture and cultivate IoT technologies and applications for the benefit of society.

The aim of this Special Issue is to include selected papers from the 2019 Global IoT Summit (GIoTS) describing research from both academia and industry, as well as technical presentations on the recent advances in the theory, application and implementation of IoT concepts, technologies and applications. Papers should be original and should focus on current topics relevant to the IoT community concerning the latest research, engineering, standards and business issues.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Fernando Skarmeta,
Prof. Dr. Mirko Presser
Dr. Sébastien Ziegler
Dr. Srdjan Krco
Mr. Latif Ladid
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • IoT Enabling Technologies
  • IoT Applications, Services and Real Implementations
  • IoT Multimedia, Societal Impacts and Sustainable Development
  • Security and Privacy for Internet of Things

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
6TiSCH on SCμM: Running a Synchronized Protocol Stack without Crystals
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20071912 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
We report the first time-synchronized protocol stack running on a crystal-free device. We use an early prototype of the Single-Chip micro Mote, SCμM, a single-chip 2 × 3 mm2 mote-on-a-chip, which features an ARM Cortex-M0 micro-controller and an IEEE802.15.4 radio. This prototype [...] Read more.
We report the first time-synchronized protocol stack running on a crystal-free device. We use an early prototype of the Single-Chip micro Mote, SCμM, a single-chip 2 × 3 mm2 mote-on-a-chip, which features an ARM Cortex-M0 micro-controller and an IEEE802.15.4 radio. This prototype consists of an FPGA version of the micro-controller, connected to the SCμM chip which implements the radio front-end. We port OpenWSN, a reference implementation of a synchronized protocol stack, onto SCμM. The challenge is that SCμM has only on-chip oscillators, with no absolute time reference such as a crystal. We use two calibration steps – receiving packets via the on-chip optical receiver and RF transceiver – to initially calibrate the oscillators on SCμM so that it can send frames to an off-the-shelf IEEE802.15.4 radio. We then use a digital trimming compensation algorithm based on tick skipping to turn a 567 ppm apparent drift into a 10 ppm drift. This allows us to run a full-featured standards-compliant 6TiSCH network between one SCμM and one OpenMote. This is a step towards realizing the smart dust vision of ultra-small and cheap ubiquitous wireless devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Digital Transformation of Agriculture through the Use of an Interoperable Platform
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041153 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
The continuous evolution of the agricultural sector justifies the incorporation and adaptation of the latest technologies. Nowadays, managing crops is possible through Internet-based technologies. Their application allows for the exploitation of information and the development of isolated applications, which, although powerful, create challenges [...] Read more.
The continuous evolution of the agricultural sector justifies the incorporation and adaptation of the latest technologies. Nowadays, managing crops is possible through Internet-based technologies. Their application allows for the exploitation of information and the development of isolated applications, which, although powerful, create challenges for obtaining scalable predictions throughout the useful life of farms. To address this problem, a data model was defined to improve the management of crop plots in irrigation communities and simultaneously monitor crop needs. Consequently, the objective of this study was to create an open and interoperable platform based on standard interfaces and protocols to enable the integration of heterogeneous sources of information, while ensuring interoperability with other third-party solutions for exchanging and exploiting such information. Standard and open interfaces and protocols form the basis of the platform, thereby unifying all information in a single data model, which facilitates the better use and dissemination of information. The system was fully instantiated in a real prototype in an irrigation community; the software improved water irrigation management for the farmers connected to the platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
IoT-Stream: A Lightweight Ontology for Internet of Things Data Streams and Its Use with Data Analytics and Event Detection Services
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20040953 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
With the proliferation of sensors and IoT technologies, stream data are increasingly stored and analysed, but rarely combined, due to the heterogeneity of sources and technologies. Semantics are increasingly used to share sensory data, but not so much for annotating stream data. Semantic [...] Read more.
With the proliferation of sensors and IoT technologies, stream data are increasingly stored and analysed, but rarely combined, due to the heterogeneity of sources and technologies. Semantics are increasingly used to share sensory data, but not so much for annotating stream data. Semantic models for stream annotation are scarce, as generally, semantics are heavy to process and not ideal for Internet of Things (IoT) environments, where the data are frequently updated. We present a light model to semantically annotate streams, IoT-Stream. It takes advantage of common knowledge sharing of the semantics, but keeping the inferences and queries simple. Furthermore, we present a system architecture to demonstrate the adoption the semantic model, and provide examples of instantiation of the system for different use cases. The system architecture is based on commonly used architectures in the field of IoT, such as web services, microservices and middleware. Our system approach includes the semantic annotations that take place in the pipeline of IoT services and sensory data analytics. It includes modules needed to annotate, consume, and query data annotated with IoT-Stream. In addition to this, we present tools that could be used in conjunction to the IoT-Stream model and facilitate the use of semantics in IoT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The OLYMPUS Architecture—Oblivious Identity Management for Private User-Friendly Services
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030945 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) allow to achieve user’s transactions unlinkability across different online Service Providers. However, current PETs fail to guarantee unlinkability against the Identity Provider (IdP), which becomes a single point of failure in terms of privacy and security, and therefore, might [...] Read more.
Privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) allow to achieve user’s transactions unlinkability across different online Service Providers. However, current PETs fail to guarantee unlinkability against the Identity Provider (IdP), which becomes a single point of failure in terms of privacy and security, and therefore, might impersonate its users. To address this issue, OLYMPUS EU project establishes an interoperable framework of technologies for a distributed privacy-preserving identity management based on cryptographic techniques that can be applied both to online and offline scenarios. Namely, distributed cryptographic techniques based on threshold cryptography are used to split up the role of the Identity Provider (IdP) into several authorities so that a single entity is not able to impersonate or track its users. The architecture leverages PET technologies, such as distributed threshold-based signatures and privacy attribute-based credentials (p-ABC), so that the signed tokens and the ABC credentials are managed in a distributed way by several IdPs. This paper describes the Olympus architecture, including its associated requirements, the main building blocks and processes, as well as the associated use cases. In addition, the paper shows how the Olympus oblivious architecture can be used to achieve privacy-preserving M2M offline transactions between IoT devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Secure Authentication and Credential Establishment in Narrowband IoT and 5G
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030882 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Security is critical in the deployment and maintenance of novel IoT and 5G networks. The process of bootstrapping is required to establish a secure data exchange between IoT devices and data-driven platforms. It entails, among other steps, authentication, authorization, and credential management. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Security is critical in the deployment and maintenance of novel IoT and 5G networks. The process of bootstrapping is required to establish a secure data exchange between IoT devices and data-driven platforms. It entails, among other steps, authentication, authorization, and credential management. Nevertheless, there are few efforts dedicated to providing service access authentication in the area of constrained IoT devices connected to recent wireless networks such as narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and 5G. Therefore, this paper presents the adaptation of bootstrapping protocols to be compliant with the 3GPP specifications in order to enable the 5G feature of secondary authentication for constrained IoT devices. To allow the secondary authentication and key establishment in NB-IoT and 4G/5G environments, we have adapted two Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) lower layers, i.e., PANATIKI and LO-CoAP-EAP. In fact, this approach presents the evaluation of both aforementioned EAP lower layers, showing the contrast between a current EAP lower layer standard, i.e., PANA, and one specifically designed with the constraints of IoT, thus providing high flexibility and scalability in the bootstrapping process in 5G networks. The proposed solution is evaluated to prove its efficiency and feasibility, being one of the first efforts to support secure service authentication and key establishment for constrained IoT devices in 5G environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Lightweight Data-Security Ontology for IoT
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030801 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Although current estimates depict steady growth in Internet of Things (IoT), many works portray an as yet immature technology in terms of security. Attacks using low performance devices, the application of new technologies and data analysis to infer private data, lack of development [...] Read more.
Although current estimates depict steady growth in Internet of Things (IoT), many works portray an as yet immature technology in terms of security. Attacks using low performance devices, the application of new technologies and data analysis to infer private data, lack of development in some aspects of security offer a wide field for improvement. The advent of Semantic Technologies for IoT offers a new set of possibilities and challenges, like data markets, aggregators, processors and search engines, which rise the need for security. New regulations, such as GDPR, also call for novel approaches on data-security, covering personal data. In this work, we present DS4IoT, a data-security ontology for IoT, which covers the representation of data-security concepts with the novel approach of doing so from the perspective of data and introducing some new concepts such as regulations, certifications and provenance, to classical concepts such as access control methods and authentication mechanisms. In the process we followed ontological methodologies, as well as semantic web best practices, resulting in an ontology to serve as a common vocabulary for data annotation that not only distinguishes itself from previous works by its bottom-up approach, but covers new, current and interesting concepts of data-security, favouring implicit over explicit knowledge representation. Finally, this work is validated by proof of concept, by mapping the DS4IoT ontology to the NGSI-LD data model, in the frame of the IoTCrawler EU project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
LoRaWAN for Smart City IoT Deployments: A Long Term Evaluation
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030648 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
LoRaWAN is a Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology designed for Internet of Things (IoT) deployments; this paper presents experiences from deploying a city-scale LoRaWAN network across Southampton, UK. This network was deployed to support an installation of air quality monitors and to [...] Read more.
LoRaWAN is a Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology designed for Internet of Things (IoT) deployments; this paper presents experiences from deploying a city-scale LoRaWAN network across Southampton, UK. This network was deployed to support an installation of air quality monitors and to explore the capabilities of LoRaWAN. This deployment uses a mixture of commercial off-the-shelf gateways and custom gateways. These gateway locations were chosen based on network access, site permission and accessibility, and are not necessarily the best locations theoretically. Over 135,000 messages have been transmitted by the twenty devices analysed. Over the course of the complete deployment, 72.4 % of the messages were successfully received by the data server. Of the messages that were received, 99% were received within 10 s of transmission. We conclude that LoRaWAN is an applicable communication technology for city-scale air quality monitoring and other smart city applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
An IoT Architecture for Water Resource Management in Agroindustrial Environments: A Case Study in Almería (Spain)
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030596 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
The current agricultural water panorama in many Mediterranean countries is composed by desalination facilities, wells (frequently overexploited), the water public utility network, and several consumer agents with different water needs. This distributed water network requires centralized management methods for its proper use, which [...] Read more.
The current agricultural water panorama in many Mediterranean countries is composed by desalination facilities, wells (frequently overexploited), the water public utility network, and several consumer agents with different water needs. This distributed water network requires centralized management methods for its proper use, which are difficult to implement as the different agents are usually geographically separated. In this sense, the use of enabling technologies such as the Internet of Things can be essential to the proper operation of these agroindustrial systems. In this paper, an Internet of Things cloud architecture based on the FIWARE standard is proposed for interconnecting the several agents that make up the agroindustrial system. In addition, this architecture includes an efficient management method based on a model predictive control technique, which is aimed at minimizing operating costs. A case study inspired by three real facilities located in Almería (southeast of Spain) is used as the simulation test bed. The obtained results show how around 75% of the total operating costs can be saved with the application of the proposed approach, which could be very significant to decrease the costs of desalinated water and, therefore, to maintain the sustainability of the agricultural system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Ultrasonic Object Detection Applying the ID Based on Spread Spectrum Technique for a Vehicle
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020414 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
When an ultrasonic sensor generates an ultrasonic wave and detects an obstacle from a reflected wave, a signal transmitted by other ultrasonic sensors would be interference. In this paper, to overcome the interference, a transducer transmits a signal with a unique ID modulated. [...] Read more.
When an ultrasonic sensor generates an ultrasonic wave and detects an obstacle from a reflected wave, a signal transmitted by other ultrasonic sensors would be interference. In this paper, to overcome the interference, a transducer transmits a signal with a unique ID modulated. The interference is ignored by verifying that the reflected signal includes its ID. The ID verification process uses a correlation between the received signal and the ID. Therefore, the ID is selected from orthogonal codes with good cross-correlation. Long code has the advantage of being more robust to interference. However, the reflected wave from nearby obstacles might return before the transmission ends. Therefore, the 7-bit Barker code is applied for near obstacle detection and a 31-bit Gold code is used for distant obstacle detection. The modulation technique is DQPSK, which is available in a narrow bandwidth and has a simple receiver structure. In ID recognition based on correlation, a near–far problem occurs due to a large amplitude difference between the received wave and interference. The addition of a zero-crossing detector solves this problem. The hardware is implemented based on the algorithm proposed in this paper. The simulation showed a detection rate of at least 90% and the the result of the real measurement represented a detection rate of 97.3% at 0.5 m and 94.5% at 2 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Architecting and Deploying IoT Smart Applications: A Performance–Oriented Approach
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010084 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2363
Abstract
Layered internet of things (IoT) architectures have been proposed over the last years as they facilitate understanding the roles of different networking, hardware, and software components of smart applications. These are inherently distributed, spanning from devices installed in the field up to a [...] Read more.
Layered internet of things (IoT) architectures have been proposed over the last years as they facilitate understanding the roles of different networking, hardware, and software components of smart applications. These are inherently distributed, spanning from devices installed in the field up to a cloud datacenter and further to a user smartphone, passing by intermediary stages at different levels of fog computing infrastructure. However, IoT architectures provide almost no hints on where components should be deployed. IoT Software Platforms derived from the layered architectures are expected to adapt to scenarios with different characteristics, requirements, and constraints from stakeholders and applications. In such a complex environment, a one-size-fits-all approach does not adapt well to varying demands and may hinder the adoption of IoT Smart Applications. In this paper, we propose a 5-layer IoT Architecture and a 5-stage IoT Computing Continuum, as well as provide insights on the mapping of software components of the former into physical locations of the latter. Also, we conduct a performance analysis study with six configurations where components are deployed into different stages. Our results show that different deployment configurations of layered components into staged locations generate bottlenecks that affect system performance and scalability. Based on that, policies for static deployment and dynamic migration of layered components into staged locations can be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop