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Special Issue "Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2022) | Viewed by 4520

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ramón Agüero Calvo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Communications Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain
Interests: network coding; WLAN and WPAN technologies; TCP/IP performance analysis over wireless networks; multi-hop and ad hoc network techniques and protocols; multi-hop and ad hoc network techniques and protocols; wireless sensor networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Luis Francisco Díez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Communications Engineering, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Interests: service and traffic models including simulation; radio resource management in heterogeneous networks; wireless networks optimization; IoT service provisioning in smart cities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the near future, we expect the appearance of new services with very distinct features, ranging from mMTC to URLLC. In order to fulfill the requirements of such services, we foresee an unprecedented network densification in the forthcoming years, which will require, among other aspects, the convergence of a large number of wireless technologies. On top of that, the adoption of new networking techniques and solutions, particularly those based on virtualization, fosters network adaptability, overcoming traditional Self Organized Network (SON) techniques.

Although energy efficiency has played a key role in the management of communications networks, the research community, and society in general, has remarkably increased the attention paid to this parameter. Among the different services that will emerge in the next years, those that are less demanding (in terms of time requirements), such as Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs), will allow for more flexibility and thus energy savings.

This Special Issue aims to gather original studies related to energy efficiency under DTNs, innovative proposals for future networks using novel techniques, solutions for IoT/M2M services, and exploitation of virtualization techniques to develop adaptable networks. Relevant topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Application of Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) technologies (LoRa, SigFox, etc.) for delay-tolerant IoT/M2M services;
  • Energy-aware routing techniques for IoT/M2M scenarios;
  • IoT/M2M transport-level (MQTT, SOAP, etc.) solutions for energy reduction in delay-tolerant services;
  • Source and network coding for energy-aware DTNs;
  • Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Network (SDN) techniques applied to energy minimization;
  • Energy-aware solutions for C-RAN/vRAN architectures;
  • Energy consumption reduction in Fog/Cloud-based service provisioning

Dr. Ramón Agüero Calvo
Dr. Luis Francisco Díez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Delay and Energy Consumption of MQTT over QUIC: An Empirical Characterization Using Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Devices
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3694; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103694 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The QUIC protocol, which was originally proposed by Google, has recently gained a remarkable presence. Although it has been shown to outperform TCP over a wide range of scenarios, there exist some doubts on whether it might be an appropriate transport protocol for [...] Read more.
The QUIC protocol, which was originally proposed by Google, has recently gained a remarkable presence. Although it has been shown to outperform TCP over a wide range of scenarios, there exist some doubts on whether it might be an appropriate transport protocol for IoT. In this paper, we specifically tackle this question, by means of an evaluation carried out over a real platform. In particular, we conduct a thorough characterization of the performance of the MQTT protocol, when used over TCP and QUIC. We deploy a real testbed, using commercial off-the-shelf devices, and we analyze two of the most important key performance indicators for IoT: delay and energy consumption. The results evince that QUIC does not only yield a notable decrease in the delay and its variability, over various wireless technologies and channel conditions, but it does not hinder the energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking)
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Article
Optimized Distributed Proactive Caching Based on Movement Probability of Vehicles in Content-Centric Vehicular Networks
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093346 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Content-centric vehicular networks (CCVNs) have considered distributed proactive caching as an attractive approach for the timely provision of emerging services. The naïve caching schemes cache all of the contents to only one selected roadside unit (RSU) for requested vehicles to decrease the data [...] Read more.
Content-centric vehicular networks (CCVNs) have considered distributed proactive caching as an attractive approach for the timely provision of emerging services. The naïve caching schemes cache all of the contents to only one selected roadside unit (RSU) for requested vehicles to decrease the data acquisition delay between the data source and the vehicles. Due to the high deployment cost for RSUs and their limited capacity of caching, the vehicular networks could support only a limited number of vehicles and a limited amount of content and thus decrease the cache hit ratio. This paper proposes a mobility-aware distributed proactive caching protocol (MDPC) in CCVNs. MDPC caches contents to the selected RSUs according to the movement of vehicles. To reduce the redundancy and the burden of caching for each RSU, MDPC distributes to cache partial contents by the movement pattern, the probability to predict the next locations (RSUs) on the Markov model based on the current RSU. For recovery of prediction failures, MDPC allows each RSU to request partial missing contents to relatively closer neighbor RSUs with a short delay. Next, we expand the protocol with traffic optimization called MDPC_TO to minimize the amount of traffic for achieving proactive caching in CCVNs. In proportion to the mobility probability of a vehicle toward each of the next RSUs, MDPC_TO controls the amount of pre-cached contents in each of the next RSUs. Then, MDPC_TO has constraints to provide enough content from other next RSUs through backhaul links to remove the delay due to prediction failures. Simulation results verify that MDPC_TO produces less traffic than MDPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking)
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Article
Global Consensus of High-Order Discrete-Time Multi-Agent Systems with Communication Delay and Saturation Constraint
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031007 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
This article aimed to study the global consensus problem of high-order multi-agent systems with a saturation constraint and communication delay. Among them, all agents are described by discrete-time systems. Firstly, in order to compensate for the communication delay, a networked predictive control method [...] Read more.
This article aimed to study the global consensus problem of high-order multi-agent systems with a saturation constraint and communication delay. Among them, all agents are described by discrete-time systems. Firstly, in order to compensate for the communication delay, a networked predictive control method is adopted and a predictive-based control protocol is designed. Secondly, for the neutrally stable agent model, leaderless and leader-following situations are considered and it is proven that, under a fixed communication topology, adopting the prediction-based control protocol makes the multi-agent systems with saturation constraint and communication delay achieve a global consensus. Finally, the results are illustrated via numerical simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking)
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Article
Backscatter Assisted NOMA-PLNC Based Wireless Networks
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7589; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227589 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
In this paper, sum capacity maximization of the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based wireless network is studied in the presence of ambient backscattering (ABS). Assuming that ABS is located next to far nodes, it improves the signal strength of far node cluster. By applying [...] Read more.
In this paper, sum capacity maximization of the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based wireless network is studied in the presence of ambient backscattering (ABS). Assuming that ABS is located next to far nodes, it improves the signal strength of far node cluster. By applying suitable successive interference cancellation (SIC) operation, far node cluster act as an internet of things (IoT) reader. Moreover, to improve the uplink performance of the nodes, a physical layer network coding (PLNC) scheme is applied in the proposed network. Power optimization is employed at the access point (AP) to enhance the downlink performance with total transmit power constraint and minimum data rate requirement per user constraint using Lagrangian’s function. In addition, end-to-end outage performance of the proposed wireless network is analyzed to enhance each wireless link capacity. Numerical results evident that the outage performance of the proposed network is significantly improved while using the ABS. Furthermore, the average bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed wireless network is studied to improve the reliability. Simulation results are presented to validate the analytical expressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking)
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Article
An Energy-Saving Forwarding Mechanism Based on Clustering for Opportunistic Networks
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7427; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227427 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 729
Abstract
In Opportunistic Networks (OppNets), mobility of and contact between nodes are explored to create communication opportunities and exchange messages and information. A basic premise for a better performance of these networks is a collaboration of the nodes during communication. However, due to energy [...] Read more.
In Opportunistic Networks (OppNets), mobility of and contact between nodes are explored to create communication opportunities and exchange messages and information. A basic premise for a better performance of these networks is a collaboration of the nodes during communication. However, due to energy restriction factors, nodes may eventually fail to collaborate with message exchanges. In this work, we propose a routing mechanism called eGPDMI to improve message probability of delivery while optimizing nodes’ energy consumption. Unlike other algorithms proposed in OppNets literature, eGPDMI groups nodes by energy level and nodes interests using clustering techniques. Our major assumption is that retaining messages in nodes with the highest energy levels can improve network performance, thus overcoming the problem of nodes’ disconnection due to unwillingness to cooperate due to low energy values. Through questionnaire application and factorial design experiments, we characterize the impacts of energy levels in OppNets. Further, we apply performance evaluation of the eGPDMI mechanism in terms of effectiveness using mobility from real-world scenarios. The results show that our mechanism effectively reduces the degradation of the probability of delivery when the minimum energy level used for nodes to cooperate with communication increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking)
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Article
D-OLIA: A Hybrid MPTCP Congestion Control Algorithm with Network Delay Estimation
Sensors 2021, 21(17), 5764; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175764 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
With the recent evolution of mobile technology, modern devices equipped with multiple communication interfaces have become popular. The multipath transmission control protocol (MPTCP) has evolved to facilitate multiple communication interfaces through a single TCP connection for faster Internet access. MPTCP congestion control algorithms [...] Read more.
With the recent evolution of mobile technology, modern devices equipped with multiple communication interfaces have become popular. The multipath transmission control protocol (MPTCP) has evolved to facilitate multiple communication interfaces through a single TCP connection for faster Internet access. MPTCP congestion control algorithms (MPTCP-CCAs) control data flow by fulfilling three design goals, i.e., ensuring improvement over single-path flows, ensuring fairness, and balancing congestion. Current MPTCP-CCAs cannot fulfill these design goals. For example, the opportunistic-linked increase algorithm (OLIA), a well-known MPTCP-CCA in load balancing, often results in low throughput because it cannot properly utilize the underlying network. In addition, the current Internet has a rapidly changing characteristic due to a large amount of short-lived traffic, making it difficult for MPTCP-CCAs to cope. An awareness of prevailing network delay conditions might help MPTCP-CCAs to utilize the network capacity fully. Therefore, we propose dynamic OLIA (D-OLIA), a hybrid MPTCP-CCA that enhances the performance of OLIA by integrating an awareness of the current network delay condition for deciding the congestion window (CWND) decrease factor. We estimate the current network delay condition, i.e., less-congested or congested, by observing the changes in the round-trip-time (RTT). Based on the estimated network delay condition, we decide the CWND decrease factor in real-time for reducing the CWND during packet loss events. We implemented D-OLIA in the Linux kernel and experimented using the Mininet emulator. The emulation results demonstrate that D-OLIA successfully estimates current network delay conditions and results in approximately a 20% increased throughput compared to the original OLIA. Compared to certain MPTCP-CCAs, it also yields a highly improved performance in terms of throughput, RTT, packet retransmissions, and fairness among the MPTCP sub-flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking)
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Article
A Semantic and Knowledge-Based Approach for Handover Management
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 4234; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124234 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Handover Management (HM) is pivotal for providing service continuity, enormous reliability and extreme-low latency, and meeting sky-high data rates, in wireless communications. Current HM approaches based on a single criterion may lead to unnecessary and frequent handovers due to a partial network view [...] Read more.
Handover Management (HM) is pivotal for providing service continuity, enormous reliability and extreme-low latency, and meeting sky-high data rates, in wireless communications. Current HM approaches based on a single criterion may lead to unnecessary and frequent handovers due to a partial network view that is constrained to information about link quality. In turn, HM approaches based on multicriteria may present a failure of handovers and wrong network selection, decreasing the throughput and increasing the packet loss in the network. This paper proposes SIM-Know, an approach for improving HM. SIM-Know improves HM by including a Semantic Information Model (SIM) that enables context-aware and multicriteria handover decisions. SIM-Know also introduces a SIM-based distributed Knowledge Base Profile (KBP) that provides local and global intelligence to make contextual and proactive handover decisions. We evaluated SIM-Know in an emulated wireless network. When the end-user device moves at low and moderate speeds, the results show that our approach outperforms the Signal Strong First (SSF, single criterion approach) and behaves similarly to the Analytic Hierarchy Process combined with the Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (AHP-TOPSIS, multicriteria approach) regarding the number of handovers and the number of throughput drops. SSF outperforms SIM-Know and AHP-TOPSIS regarding the handover latency metric because SSF runs a straightforward process for making handover decisions. At high speeds, SIM-Know outperforms SSF and AHP-TOPSIS regarding the number of handovers and the number of throughput drops and, further, improves the throughput, delay, jitter, and packet loss in the network. Considering the obtained results, we conclude that SIM-Know is a practical and attractive solution for cognitive HM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications under Delay Tolerant Networking)
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