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Special Issue "Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luis Javier Garcia Villalba

Group of Analysis, Security and Systems (GASS), Department of Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence (DISIA), Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Office 431, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Calle Profesor José García Santesmases, 9, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34 91 394 76 38
Interests: anonymity; computer security; cyber security; cryptography; information security; intrusion detection; malware; privacy; trust
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Anura P. Jayasumana

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1373, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-970-491-7855
Interests: Computer and Communication Networking; Application of sensor networks and embedded systems; VLSI
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jun Bi

Institute for Network Sciences and Cyberspace, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: SAVA; SDN; NDN; Routing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of new technologies in micro‐electro‐mechanical systems (MEMS) have increased the capacity of automatically recording, processing and sending information through different infrastructures. This new generation of devices, sensors, and actuators (RFID, Bluetooth Devices, Wireless Sensor Networks WSN, Embedded Systems, and Near Field Communication NFC), which exchange information with other on‐line, connected devices, has created a new market, based on services and applications. However, the coordination tasks between different architectures (sensor, fixed, mobile) bring key challenges in terms of theoretical foundation, security, programmability, energy efficiency, and management. This Special Issue intends to collect current development and the future directions in resource and information management in different infrastructures. We invite authors to submit their original papers. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Multiplatform Integration for fixed sensors and mobile devices.
  • Data plane and control plane architectures in fixed sensors and mobile devices.
  • Monitoring of multiplatform communication.
  • Sensors and Multiplatform Information Processing.
  • Sensors and Mobile Integration and Communication.
  • Load adaptive in SDN fixed and mobile networks.
  • Simulation for multi‐platform architectures.
  • Virtualization of data and control planes in sensors and fixed infrastructures.
  • Reliable and robust communication for multi‐platform architectures.
  • Theoretical foundation of integrated architectures.
  • Quality of Service in multiplatform schemes.

Prof. Luis Javier Garcia Villalba
Prof. Anura P. Jayasumana
Prof. Jun Bi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle New DoS Defense Method Based on Strong Designated Verifier Signatures
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092813
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 26 August 2018
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Abstract
We present a novel technique for source authentication of a packet stream in a network, which intends to give guarantees that a specific network flow really comes from a claimed origin. This mechanism, named packet level authentication (PLA), can be an essential tool
[...] Read more.
We present a novel technique for source authentication of a packet stream in a network, which intends to give guarantees that a specific network flow really comes from a claimed origin. This mechanism, named packet level authentication (PLA), can be an essential tool for addressing Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Based on designated verifier signature schemes, our proposal is an appropriate and unprecedented solution applying digital signatures for DoS prevention. Our scheme does not rely on an expensive public-key infrastructure and makes use of light cryptography machinery that is suitable in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT). We analyze our proposed scheme as a defense measure considering known DoS attacks and present a formal proof of its resilience face to eventual adversaries. Furthermore, we compare our solution to already existent strategies, highlighting its advantages and drawbacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Watermarking Based on Compressive Sensing for Digital Speech Detection and Recovery
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2390; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072390
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a novel imperceptible, fragile and blind watermark scheme is proposed for speech tampering detection and self-recovery. The embedded watermark data for content recovery is calculated from the original discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of host speech. The watermark information is
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel imperceptible, fragile and blind watermark scheme is proposed for speech tampering detection and self-recovery. The embedded watermark data for content recovery is calculated from the original discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of host speech. The watermark information is shared in a frames-group instead of stored in one frame. The scheme trades off between the data waste problem and the tampering coincidence problem. When a part of a watermarked speech signal is tampered with, one can accurately localize the tampered area, the watermark data in the area without any modification still can be extracted. Then, a compressive sensing technique is employed to retrieve the coefficients by exploiting the sparseness in the DCT domain. The smaller the tampered the area, the better quality of the recovered signal is. Experimental results show that the watermarked signal is imperceptible, and the recovered signal is intelligible for high tampering rates of up to 47.6%. A deep learning-based enhancement method is also proposed and implemented to increase the SNR of recovered speech signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Personalized QoS Prediction Approach for CPS Service Recommendation Based on Reputation and Location-Aware Collaborative Filtering
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051556
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid development of cyber-physical systems (CPS), building cyber-physical systems with high quality of service (QoS) has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedure of building Cyber-physical systems, it has been found that a large number of
[...] Read more.
With the rapid development of cyber-physical systems (CPS), building cyber-physical systems with high quality of service (QoS) has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedure of building Cyber-physical systems, it has been found that a large number of functionally equivalent services exist, so it becomes an urgent task to recommend suitable services from the large number of services available in CPS. However, since it is time-consuming, and even impractical, for a single user to invoke all of the services in CPS to experience their QoS, a robust QoS prediction method is needed to predict unknown QoS values. A commonly used method in QoS prediction is collaborative filtering, however, it is hard to deal with the data sparsity and cold start problem, and meanwhile most of the existing methods ignore the data credibility issue. Thence, in order to solve both of these challenging problems, in this paper, we design a framework of QoS prediction for CPS services, and propose a personalized QoS prediction approach based on reputation and location-aware collaborative filtering. Our approach first calculates the reputation of users by using the Dirichlet probability distribution, so as to identify untrusted users and process their unreliable data, and then it digs out the geographic neighborhood in three levels to improve the similarity calculation of users and services. Finally, the data from geographical neighbors of users and services are fused to predict the unknown QoS values. The experiments using real datasets show that our proposed approach outperforms other existing methods in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Learning Perfectly Secure Cryptography to Protect Communications with Adversarial Neural Cryptography
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051306
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have achieved many important breakthroughs, especially in recent years. In some cases, AI learns alone from scratch and performs human tasks faster and better than humans. With the recent advances in AI, it is natural to wonder whether
[...] Read more.
Researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have achieved many important breakthroughs, especially in recent years. In some cases, AI learns alone from scratch and performs human tasks faster and better than humans. With the recent advances in AI, it is natural to wonder whether Artificial Neural Networks will be used to successfully create or break cryptographic algorithms. Bibliographic review shows the main approach to this problem have been addressed throughout complex Neural Networks, but without understanding or proving the security of the generated model. This paper presents an analysis of the security of cryptographic algorithms generated by a new technique called Adversarial Neural Cryptography (ANC). Using the proposed network, we show limitations and directions to improve the current approach of ANC. Training the proposed Artificial Neural Network with the improved model of ANC, we show that artificially intelligent agents can learn the unbreakable One-Time Pad (OTP) algorithm, without human knowledge, to communicate securely through an insecure communication channel. This paper shows in which conditions an AI agent can learn a secure encryption scheme. However, it also shows that, without a stronger adversary, it is more likely to obtain an insecure one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Clustering and Flow Conservation Monitoring Tool for Software Defined Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041079
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 31 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
Prediction systems present some challenges on two fronts: the relation between video quality and observed session features and on the other hand, dynamics changes on the video quality. Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a new concept of network architecture that provides the separation
[...] Read more.
Prediction systems present some challenges on two fronts: the relation between video quality and observed session features and on the other hand, dynamics changes on the video quality. Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a new concept of network architecture that provides the separation of control plane (controller) and data plane (switches) in network devices. Due to the existence of the southbound interface, it is possible to deploy monitoring tools to obtain the network status and retrieve a statistics collection. Therefore, achieving the most accurate statistics depends on a strategy of monitoring and information requests of network devices. In this paper, we propose an enhanced algorithm for requesting statistics to measure the traffic flow in SDN networks. Such an algorithm is based on grouping network switches in clusters focusing on their number of ports to apply different monitoring techniques. Such grouping occurs by avoiding monitoring queries in network switches with common characteristics and then, by omitting redundant information. In this way, the present proposal decreases the number of monitoring queries to switches, improving the network traffic and preventing the switching overload. We have tested our optimization in a video streaming simulation using different types of videos. The experiments and comparison with traditional monitoring techniques demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal maintaining similar values decreasing the number of queries to the switches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Security Architecture and Protocol for Trust Verifications Regarding the Integrity of Files Stored in Cloud Services
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030753
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cloud computing is considered an interesting paradigm due to its scalability, availability and virtually unlimited storage capacity. However, it is challenging to organize a cloud storage service (CSS) that is safe from the client point-of-view and to implement this CSS in public clouds
[...] Read more.
Cloud computing is considered an interesting paradigm due to its scalability, availability and virtually unlimited storage capacity. However, it is challenging to organize a cloud storage service (CSS) that is safe from the client point-of-view and to implement this CSS in public clouds since it is not advisable to blindly consider this configuration as fully trustworthy. Ideally, owners of large amounts of data should trust their data to be in the cloud for a long period of time, without the burden of keeping copies of the original data, nor of accessing the whole content for verifications regarding data preservation. Due to these requirements, integrity, availability, privacy and trust are still challenging issues for the adoption of cloud storage services, especially when losing or leaking information can bring significant damage, be it legal or business-related. With such concerns in mind, this paper proposes an architecture for periodically monitoring both the information stored in the cloud and the service provider behavior. The architecture operates with a proposed protocol based on trust and encryption concepts to ensure cloud data integrity without compromising confidentiality and without overloading storage services. Extensive tests and simulations of the proposed architecture and protocol validate their functional behavior and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Custom Approach for a Flexible, Real-Time and Reliable Software Defined Utility
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030718
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
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Abstract
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have enabled the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as the smart grid. However, the different elements that compose the ICT plane of a smart grid are usually conceived as isolated
[...] Read more.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have enabled the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as the smart grid. However, the different elements that compose the ICT plane of a smart grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures, which are hard to interoperate, manage and adapt to new situations. In the recent years, software-defined systems that take advantage of software and high-speed data network infrastructures have emerged as a promising alternative to classic ad hoc approaches in terms of integration, automation, real-time reconfiguration and resource reusability. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of software-defined utilities (SDUs) to address the latent deployment and management limitations of smart grids. More specifically, the implementation of a smart grid’s data storage and management system prototype by means of SDUs is introduced, which exhibits the feasibility of this alternative approach. This system features a hybrid cloud architecture able to meet the data storage requirements of electric utilities and adapt itself to their ever-evolving needs. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Robust Rate Maximization for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks under Channel Uncertainties
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020639
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heterogeneous wireless networks are a promising technology in next generation wireless communication networks, which has been shown to efficiently reduce the blind area of mobile communication and improve network coverage compared with the traditional wireless communication networks. In this paper, a robust power
[...] Read more.
Heterogeneous wireless networks are a promising technology in next generation wireless communication networks, which has been shown to efficiently reduce the blind area of mobile communication and improve network coverage compared with the traditional wireless communication networks. In this paper, a robust power allocation problem for a two-tier heterogeneous wireless networks is formulated based on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing technology. Under the consideration of imperfect channel state information (CSI), the robust sum-rate maximization problem is built while avoiding sever cross-tier interference to macrocell user and maintaining the minimum rate requirement of each femtocell user. To be practical, both of channel estimation errors from the femtocells to the macrocell and link uncertainties of each femtocell user are simultaneously considered in terms of outage probabilities of users. The optimization problem is analyzed under no CSI feedback with some cumulative distribution function and partial CSI with Gaussian distribution of channel estimation error. The robust optimization problem is converted into the convex optimization problem which is solved by using Lagrange dual theory and subgradient algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by the impact of channel uncertainties on the system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Multimedia Service and Resource Management Architecture for Fault Diagnosis
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010068
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, the complexity of global video products has substantially increased. They are composed of several associated services whose functionalities need to adapt across heterogeneous networks with different technologies and administrative domains. Each of these domains has different operational procedures; therefore, the comprehensive management
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, the complexity of global video products has substantially increased. They are composed of several associated services whose functionalities need to adapt across heterogeneous networks with different technologies and administrative domains. Each of these domains has different operational procedures; therefore, the comprehensive management of multi-domain services presents serious challenges. This paper discusses an approach to service management linking fault diagnosis system and Business Processes for Telefónica’s global video service. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of an extended service management architecture based on Multi Agent Systems able to integrate the fault diagnosis with other different service management functionalities. This architecture includes a distributed set of agents able to coordinate their actions under the umbrella of a Shared Knowledge Plane, inferring and sharing their knowledge with semantic techniques and three types of automatic reasoning: heterogeneous, ontology-based and Bayesian reasoning. This proposal has been deployed and validated in a real scenario in the video service offered by Telefónica Latam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle An Indoor Location-Based Control System Using Bluetooth Beacons for IoT Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122917
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (5374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The indoor location-based control system estimates the indoor position of a user to provide the service he/she requires. The major elements involved in the system are the localization server, service-provision client, user application positioning technology. The localization server controls access of terminal devices
[...] Read more.
The indoor location-based control system estimates the indoor position of a user to provide the service he/she requires. The major elements involved in the system are the localization server, service-provision client, user application positioning technology. The localization server controls access of terminal devices (e.g., Smart Phones and other wireless devices) to determine their locations within a specified space first and then the service-provision client initiates required services such as indoor navigation and monitoring/surveillance. The user application provides necessary data to let the server to localize the devices or allow the user to receive various services from the client. The major technological elements involved in this system are indoor space partition method, Bluetooth 4.0, RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) and trilateration. The system also employs the BLE communication technology when determining the position of the user in an indoor space. The position information obtained is then used to control a specific device(s). These technologies are fundamental in achieving a “Smart Living”. An indoor location-based control system that provides services by estimating user’s indoor locations has been implemented in this study (First scenario). The algorithm introduced in this study (Second scenario) is effective in extracting valid samples from the RSSI dataset but has it has some drawbacks as well. Although we used a range-average algorithm that measures the shortest distance, there are some limitations because the measurement results depend on the sample size and the sample efficiency depends on sampling speeds and environmental changes. However, the Bluetooth system can be implemented at a relatively low cost so that once the problem of precision is solved, it can be applied to various fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Power Allocation Strategy in a Joint Bistatic Radar and Communication System Based on Low Probability of Intercept
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122731
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate a low probability of intercept (LPI)-based optimal power allocation strategy for a joint bistatic radar and communication system, which is composed of a dedicated transmitter, a radar receiver, and a communication receiver. The joint system is capable of
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate a low probability of intercept (LPI)-based optimal power allocation strategy for a joint bistatic radar and communication system, which is composed of a dedicated transmitter, a radar receiver, and a communication receiver. The joint system is capable of fulfilling the requirements of both radar and communications simultaneously. First, assuming that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) corresponding to the target surveillance path is much weaker than that corresponding to the line of sight path at radar receiver, the analytically closed-form expression for the probability of false alarm is calculated, whereas the closed-form expression for the probability of detection is not analytically tractable and is approximated due to the fact that the received signals are not zero-mean Gaussian under target presence hypothesis. Then, an LPI-based optimal power allocation strategy is presented to minimize the total transmission power for information signal and radar waveform, which is constrained by a specified information rate for the communication receiver and the desired probabilities of detection and false alarm for the radar receiver. The well-known bisection search method is employed to solve the resulting constrained optimization problem. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to reveal the effects of several system parameters on the power allocation results. It is also demonstrated that the LPI performance of the joint bistatic radar and communication system can be markedly improved by utilizing the proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Reasoning and Knowledge Acquisition Framework for 5G Network Analytics
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102405
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autonomic self-management is a key challenge for next-generation networks. This paper proposes an automated analysis framework to infer knowledge in 5G networks with the aim to understand the network status and to predict potential situations that might disrupt the network operability. The framework
[...] Read more.
Autonomic self-management is a key challenge for next-generation networks. This paper proposes an automated analysis framework to infer knowledge in 5G networks with the aim to understand the network status and to predict potential situations that might disrupt the network operability. The framework is based on the Endsley situational awareness model, and integrates automated capabilities for metrics discovery, pattern recognition, prediction techniques and rule-based reasoning to infer anomalous situations in the current operational context. Those situations should then be mitigated, either proactive or reactively, by a more complex decision-making process. The framework is driven by a use case methodology, where the network administrator is able to customize the knowledge inference rules and operational parameters. The proposal has also been instantiated to prove its adaptability to a real use case. To this end, a reference network traffic dataset was used to identify suspicious patterns and to predict the behavior of the monitored data volume. The preliminary results suggest a good level of accuracy on the inference of anomalous traffic volumes based on a simple configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring and Discovery for Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040731
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on gathering and storing the information (low-level metrics) related to physical and virtual devices, cloud environments, flow metrics, SDN traffic and sensors. Similarly, it provides the monitoring data as a generic information source in order to allow the correlation and aggregation tasks. Our design enables the collection and storing of information provided by all the underlying SELFNET sublayers, including the dynamically onboarded and instantiated SDN/NFV Apps, also known as SELFNET sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of 3D Stacking and Technology Scaling on the Power and Area of Stereo Matching Processors
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020426
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 12 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
PDF Full-text (19228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently, stereo matching processors have been adopted in real-time embedded systems such as intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, which require minimal hardware resources and low power consumption. Meanwhile, thanks to the through-silicon via (TSV), three-dimensional (3D) stacking technology has emerged as a practical
[...] Read more.
Recently, stereo matching processors have been adopted in real-time embedded systems such as intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, which require minimal hardware resources and low power consumption. Meanwhile, thanks to the through-silicon via (TSV), three-dimensional (3D) stacking technology has emerged as a practical solution to achieving the desired requirements of a high-performance circuit. In this paper, we present the benefits of 3D stacking and process technology scaling on stereo matching processors. We implemented 2-tier 3D-stacked stereo matching processors with GlobalFoundries 130-nm and Nangate 45-nm process design kits and compare them with their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts to identify comprehensive design benefits. In addition, we examine the findings from various analyses to identify the power benefits of 3D-stacked integrated circuit (IC) and device technology advancements. From experiments, we observe that the proposed 3D-stacked ICs, compared to their 2D IC counterparts, obtain 43% area, 13% power, and 14% wire length reductions. In addition, we present a logic partitioning method suitable for a pipeline-based hardware architecture that minimizes the use of TSVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Minimum Interference Channel Assignment Algorithm for Multicast in a Wireless Mesh Network
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122056
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have been considered as one of the key technologies for the configuration of wireless machines since they emerged. In a WMN, wireless routers provide multi-hop wireless connectivity between hosts in the network and also allow them to access the
[...] Read more.
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have been considered as one of the key technologies for the configuration of wireless machines since they emerged. In a WMN, wireless routers provide multi-hop wireless connectivity between hosts in the network and also allow them to access the Internet via gateway devices. Wireless routers are typically equipped with multiple radios operating on different channels to increase network throughput. Multicast is a form of communication that delivers data from a source to a set of destinations simultaneously. It is used in a number of applications, such as distributed games, distance education, and video conferencing. In this study, we address a channel assignment problem for multicast in multi-radio multi-channel WMNs. In a multi-radio multi-channel WMN, two nearby nodes will interfere with each other and cause a throughput decrease when they transmit on the same channel. Thus, an important goal for multicast channel assignment is to reduce the interference among networked devices. We have developed a minimum interference channel assignment (MICA) algorithm for multicast that accurately models the interference relationship between pairs of multicast tree nodes using the concept of the interference factor and assigns channels to tree nodes to minimize interference within the multicast tree. Simulation results show that MICA achieves higher throughput and lower end-to-end packet delay compared with an existing channel assignment algorithm named multi-channel multicast (MCM). In addition, MICA achieves much lower throughput variation among the destination nodes than MCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Reliable TTP-Based Infrastructure with Low Sensor Resource Consumption for the Smart Home Multi-Platform
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071036
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 25 June 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the ICT technology making great progress in the smart home environment, the ubiquitous environment is rapidly emerging all over the world, but problems are also increasing proportionally to the rapid growth of the smart home market such as multiplatform heterogeneity and new
[...] Read more.
With the ICT technology making great progress in the smart home environment, the ubiquitous environment is rapidly emerging all over the world, but problems are also increasing proportionally to the rapid growth of the smart home market such as multiplatform heterogeneity and new security threats. In addition, the smart home sensors have so low computing resources that they cannot process complicated computation tasks, which is required to create a proper security environment. A service provider also faces overhead in processing data from a rapidly increasing number of sensors. This paper aimed to propose a scheme to build infrastructure in which communication entities can securely authenticate and design security channel with physically unclonable PUFs and the TTP that smart home communication entities can rely on. In addition, we analyze and evaluate the proposed scheme for security and performance and prove that it can build secure channels with low resources. Finally, we expect that the proposed scheme can be helpful for secure communication with low resources in future smart home multiplatforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060759
Received: 3 April 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
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Abstract
The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and
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The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Implementation Strategies for a Universal Acquisition and Tracking Channel Applied to Real GNSS Signals
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050624
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 2 May 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a universal GNSS receiver channel capable of tracking any civil GNSS signal. This fundamentally differs from dedicated channels, each customized for a given signal. A mobile device could integrate fewer universal channels to harvest all available signals. This would allow
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This paper presents a universal GNSS receiver channel capable of tracking any civil GNSS signal. This fundamentally differs from dedicated channels, each customized for a given signal. A mobile device could integrate fewer universal channels to harvest all available signals. This would allow securing signal availability, while minimizing power consumption and chip size, thus maximizing battery lifetime. In fact, the universal channel allows sequential acquisition and tracking of any chipping rate, carrier frequency, FDMA channel, modulation, or constellation, and is totally configurable (any integration time, any discriminator, etc.). It can switch from one signal to another in 1.07 ms, making it possible for the receiver to rapidly adapt to its sensed environment. All this would consume 3.5 mW/channel in an ASIC implementation, i.e., with a slight overhead compared to the original GPS L1 C/A dedicated channel from which it was derived. After extensive surveys on GNSS signals and tracking channels, this paper details the implementation strategies that led to the proposed universal channel architecture. Validation is achieved using GNSS signals issued from different constellations, frequency bands, modulations and spreading code schemes. A discussion on acquisition approaches and conclusive remarks follow, which open up a new signal selection challenge, rather than satellite selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Robust Stability of Scaled-Four-Channel Teleoperation with Internet Time-Varying Delays
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050593
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract
We describe the application of a generic stability framework for a teleoperation system under time-varying delay conditions, as addressed in a previous work, to a scaled-four-channel (γ-4C) control scheme. Described is how varying delays are dealt with by means of dynamic encapsulation, giving
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We describe the application of a generic stability framework for a teleoperation system under time-varying delay conditions, as addressed in a previous work, to a scaled-four-channel (γ-4C) control scheme. Described is how varying delays are dealt with by means of dynamic encapsulation, giving rise to mu-test conditions for robust stability and offering an appealing frequency technique to deal with the stability robustness of the architecture. We discuss ideal transparency problems and we adapt classical solutions so that controllers are proper, without single or double differentiators, and thus avoid the negative effects of noise. The control scheme was fine-tuned and tested for complete stability to zero of the whole state, while seeking a practical solution to the trade-off between stability and transparency in the Internet-based teleoperation. These ideas were tested on an Internet-based application with two Omni devices at remote laboratory locations via simulations and real remote experiments that achieved robust stability, while performing well in terms of position synchronization and force transparency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Alternative Distributed Dynamic Cluster Formation Techniques for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010065
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigate alternative distributed clustering techniques for wireless sensor node tracking in an industrial environment. The research builds on extant work on wireless sensor node clustering by reporting on: (1) the development of a novel distributed management approach for tracking
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In this paper, we investigate alternative distributed clustering techniques for wireless sensor node tracking in an industrial environment. The research builds on extant work on wireless sensor node clustering by reporting on: (1) the development of a novel distributed management approach for tracking mobile nodes in an industrial wireless sensor network; and (2) an objective comparison of alternative cluster management approaches for wireless sensor networks. To perform this comparison, we focus on two main clustering approaches proposed in the literature: pre-defined clusters and ad hoc clusters. These approaches are compared in the context of their reconfigurability: more specifically, we investigate the trade-off between the cost and the effectiveness of competing strategies aimed at adapting to changes in the sensing environment. To support this work, we introduce three new metrics: a cost/efficiency measure, a performance measure, and a resource consumption measure. The results of our experiments show that ad hoc clusters adapt more readily to changes in the sensing environment, but this higher level of adaptability is at the cost of overall efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle An Enhanced Error Model for EKF-Based Tightly-Coupled Integration of GPS and Land Vehicle’s Motion Sensors
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 24269-24296; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150924269
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
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Abstract
Reduced inertial sensor systems (RISS) have been introduced by many researchers as a low-cost, low-complexity sensor assembly that can be integrated with GPS to provide a robust integrated navigation system for land vehicles. In earlier works, the developed error models were simplified based
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Reduced inertial sensor systems (RISS) have been introduced by many researchers as a low-cost, low-complexity sensor assembly that can be integrated with GPS to provide a robust integrated navigation system for land vehicles. In earlier works, the developed error models were simplified based on the assumption that the vehicle is mostly moving on a flat horizontal plane. Another limitation is the simplified estimation of the horizontal tilt angles, which is based on simple averaging of the accelerometers’ measurements without modelling their errors or tilt angle errors. In this paper, a new error model is developed for RISS that accounts for the effect of tilt angle errors and the accelerometer’s errors. Additionally, it also includes important terms in the system dynamic error model, which were ignored during the linearization process in earlier works. An augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed to incorporate tilt angle errors and transversal accelerometer errors. The new error model and the augmented EKF design are developed in a tightly-coupled RISS/GPS integrated navigation system. The proposed system was tested on real trajectories’ data under degraded GPS environments, and the results were compared to earlier works on RISS/GPS systems. The findings demonstrated that the proposed enhanced system introduced significant improvements in navigational performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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