Special Issue "Selected Papers from the International Seminar on Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy (ISPCP-ITB 2016)"

A special issue of Scientia Pharmaceutica (ISSN 2218-0532).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gernot A. Eller

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry – Division of Drug Synthesis, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Seminar on Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy-ITB 2016 (ISPCP-ITB 2016) was organized by the School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) from 1 to 2 September 2016, in Bandung, Indonesia. The theme of the seminar was “Current Trend of Molecular Pharmacology in The Drug Development and Clinical Use”. ISPCP-ITB 2016 was an event where all parties pertinent to pharmacology and clinical pharmacy interacted in order to share knowledge and the latest development on the subjects. Sharing and crosstalk among scientists, researchers, hospital and community pharmacists, regulatory officials, members of health professional organizations, representatives from pharmaceutical industries and individuals interested in the fields were mediated in poster or parallel oral sessions and on displays in pharma-expo exhibition. The event, not only served as a means to showcase recent developments, as well as findings in the area of pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, but further served as an avenue for significant contributions of the pharmaceutical field to community welfare.

Dr. Gernot Eller
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Education through Short Message Service (SMS) Messages on Diabetic Patients Adherence
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020023
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Poor adherence and a lack of understanding of medication instructions for oral antidiabetic use are key factors that inhibit the control of glycemic levels. The aforementioned situation needs intervention to improve medication adherence and the therapy. This study was conducted with a quasi-experimental [...] Read more.
Poor adherence and a lack of understanding of medication instructions for oral antidiabetic use are key factors that inhibit the control of glycemic levels. The aforementioned situation needs intervention to improve medication adherence and the therapy. This study was conducted with a quasi-experimental design with prospective data collection. The subjects of this study were 50 outpatients with type 2 diabetes melitus (T2DM) who had received oral antidiabetic medicine therapy at least six months prior to adherence measurement. The patients were classified into two groups—the control group and the intervention group. The intervention group received Short Message Service (SMS) messages of diabetes education, while the control group did not. Data collection was conducted by doing interviews and administering the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) questionnaire. The results showed the increase in adherence in the intervention group as 1.15 ± 1.04 and that in the control group as 0.72 ± 0.90. These results indicated that there were significant differences in MMAS score between the control and intervention groups (p < 0.05). The decrease in fasting blood glucose and glucose measured 2 h postprandially was greater in the intervention group than that in the control group. It was concluded that the provision of education through SMS had a positive effect on medication adherence and glycemic levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Rational Drug Use for Acute Pharyngitis Associated with the Incidence and Prevalence of the Disease at Two Community Health Centers in Indonesia
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020022
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to Indonesia’s Result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not significantly different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The [...] Read more.
According to Indonesia’s Result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not significantly different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There was overprescription of antibiotics in 80.01% of prescription cases, with a total of 8.98% being non-treatment option, and 62.43% being irrational use of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with an irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% incidence and 2.00% prevalence with an irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there is still an irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health centers. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining quality of health services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020019
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract [...] Read more.
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The In Vitro–In Vivo Safety Confirmation of PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil as a Surfactant for Oral Nanoemulsion Formulation
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020018
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
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Abstract
Evaluation on the safety use of high concentration of polyoxyl 40 (PEG-40) hydrogenated castor oil as a surfactant for oral nanoemulsion was performed in Webster mice. As previously reported, nearly 20% of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil was used to emulsify the glyceryl monooleate [...] Read more.
Evaluation on the safety use of high concentration of polyoxyl 40 (PEG-40) hydrogenated castor oil as a surfactant for oral nanoemulsion was performed in Webster mice. As previously reported, nearly 20% of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil was used to emulsify the glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as an oil to the aqueous phase. Thermodynamically stable and spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by the presence of co-surfactant polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400). Standard parameters were analyzed for nanoemulsion including particle size and particle size distribution, the surface charge of nanoemulsion, and morphology. To ensure the safety of this nanoemulsion, several cell lines were used for cytotoxicity study. In addition, 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of the blank nanoemulsion was given orally to Webster mice once a day for 14 days. Several parameters such as gross anatomy, body weight, and main organs histopathology were observed. In particular, by considering the in vivo data, it is suggested that nanoemulsion composed with a high amount of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil is acceptable for oral delivery of active compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Vernonia amygdalina Del. Leaf Ethanolic Extract on Intoxicated Male Wistar Rats Liver
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020016
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vernonia amygdalina has been shown to have antioxidant activity, and is also expected to have hepatoprotective activity. This study was conducted to study the effect of V. amygdalina ethanol extracts on intoxicated rat livers. Fresh leaves were extracted in ethanol, and the hepatoprotective [...] Read more.
Vernonia amygdalina has been shown to have antioxidant activity, and is also expected to have hepatoprotective activity. This study was conducted to study the effect of V. amygdalina ethanol extracts on intoxicated rat livers. Fresh leaves were extracted in ethanol, and the hepatoprotective activity was tested on male Wistar rats induced with a combination of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin. Parameters observed were the activity of the enzyme alanine transferase (ALT), serum albumin levels, liver index, and histopathological of the rat liver. The results showed that 50 and 100 mg/kg rat body weight of V. amygdalina ethanol extracts could prevent liver intoxication, starting on day 14. Based on serum albumin concentrations and ALT activity, the high dose extract (100 mg/kg) was more potent as a hepatoprotective agent compared to the extract at a low dose (50 mg/kg). The group of rats treated with a high dose extract showed normal liver index compared to the positive control. Through histology examination, the liver of rats treated with a high dose extract (100 mg/kg) showed minimal liver cell structure damage, and showed similar patterns to the normal rat. Based on these results, it can be concluded that V. amygdalina ethanol extracts can be used to protect the liver in a combination of INH and rifampicin as antituberculosis treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combination Effect of Antituberculosis Drugs and Ethanolic Extract of Selected Medicinal Plants against Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85010014
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adverse drug reaction and resistance to antituberculosis drugs remain the causes of tuberculosis therapeutic failure. This research aimed to find the combination effect of standard antituberculosis drugs with Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Kaempferia galanga L., and Piper crocatum N.E. Br against multi-drug resistant (MDR) [...] Read more.
Adverse drug reaction and resistance to antituberculosis drugs remain the causes of tuberculosis therapeutic failure. This research aimed to find the combination effect of standard antituberculosis drugs with Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Kaempferia galanga L., and Piper crocatum N.E. Br against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Two MDR strains (i.e., isoniazid/ethambutol resistant and rifampicin/streptomycin resistant) of M. tuberculosis were inoculated in Löwenstein–Jensen medium containing a combination of standard antituberculosis drugs and ethanolic extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces, K. galanga rhizomes, and P. crocatum leaves using various concentration combinations of drug and extract. The colony numbers were observed for 8 weeks. The effect of the combination was analyzed using the proportion method which was calculated by the mean percentage of inhibition reduction in a number of colonies on drug–extract containing medium compared to extract-free control medium. The results showed that all three plant extracts achieved good combination effects with rifampicin against the rifampicin/streptomycin resistant strain. Antagonistic effects were, however, observed with streptomycin, ethambutol and isoniazid, therefore calling for caution when using these plants in combination with antituberculosis treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Six-Month Chronic Toxicity Study of Tamarind Pulp (Tamarindus indica L.) Water Extract
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85010010
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tamarind water extract has been shown to demonstrate an anti-obesity effect. In this research, long-term use of tamarind pulp water extract safety was evaluated. Tamarind pulp was extracted by reflux method, followed by freeze-drying to obtain dry extract. Wistar rats were divided into [...] Read more.
Tamarind water extract has been shown to demonstrate an anti-obesity effect. In this research, long-term use of tamarind pulp water extract safety was evaluated. Tamarind pulp was extracted by reflux method, followed by freeze-drying to obtain dry extract. Wistar rats were divided into six groups, with 20 animals of each sex per group. The control group and satellite control group received carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) 0.5% 1 mL/100 g bw (body weight) per day. Treatment groups received tamarind pulp extract at doses of 75, 200, 1000, satellite 1000 mg/kg bw per day for six months. After six months, control groups and the treatment group were sacrificed. Satellite groups were sacrificed one month later. Relative organ weights, hematology and clinical biochemistry profiles were determined. After six months, there were no significant change in body weight, hematologic, and clinical biochemistry profiles of the tested group. Body weight of male rats in the satellite 1000 mg/kg bw group was significantly increased in week 30 compared to the satellite control group (p < 0.05). The relative spleen weight of female rats of the 200 mg/kg bw group was reduced (p < 0.05). The relative kidney weight of male rats in the 1000 mg/kg bw group was increased (p < 0.05). This study showed that tamarind pulp extract was generally safe and well tolerated at the tested dose. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anticancer Dose Adjustment for Patients with Renal and Hepatic Dysfunction: From Scientific Evidence to Clinical Application
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85010008
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most anticancer agents exhibit a narrow therapeutic index, i.e., a small change in plasma concentrations can lead to a less efficacious treatment or an unacceptable degree of toxicity. This study aimed at providing health professionals with a feasible and time-saving tool to adapt [...] Read more.
Most anticancer agents exhibit a narrow therapeutic index, i.e., a small change in plasma concentrations can lead to a less efficacious treatment or an unacceptable degree of toxicity. This study aimed at providing health professionals with a feasible and time-saving tool to adapt the dose of anticancer agents for patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction. A guideline for anticancer agents was developed based on a literature search. An algorithm was generated to enhance the efficiency of the dose adaptation process. Finally, the dosing guideline was converted into an easy-to-use ExcelTM tool. The concept was applied to a total of 105 adult patients at the Centre for Integrated Oncology, Bonn, Germany. In total, 392 recommendations for dose adaptation were made and 320 (81.6%) recommendations were responded to by the oncologists. 98.4% of the recommendations were accepted. The algorithm simplifies the decision and screening process for high-risk patients. Moreover, it provides the possibility to quickly decide which laboratory tests are required and whether a dose adjustment for a particular anticancer drug is needed. The ExcelTM tool provides a recommended individual dose for patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction. The effectiveness of this strategy to reduce toxicity should be investigated in further studies before being adopted for routine use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimutagenic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata (L.f) Schott Leaves on Mice
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85010007
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rhaphidophora pinnata is suggested to prevent or treat cancer of genetic mutations. In this study, antimutagenic activity of an ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves was evaluated by using a bone marrow micronucleus assay on mice. Male mice (20–30 g) were treated for [...] Read more.
Rhaphidophora pinnata is suggested to prevent or treat cancer of genetic mutations. In this study, antimutagenic activity of an ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves was evaluated by using a bone marrow micronucleus assay on mice. Male mice (20–30 g) were treated for sevendays with an ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves at a dose of 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg/day/orally, prior to exposure to cyclophosphamide (i.p. 30 mg/kg), 24 h after the end of the treatment. Antimutagenic activity was determined by the decrease of micronuclei (MN). The results showed that a single administration of all variant doses of the extract had significantly decreased the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell of mice as compared to the cyclophosphamide group. The ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves had antimutagenic activity against cyclophosphamide-induced gene mutation. Full article
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