Next Article in Journal
Sensitivity of Common Vegetation Indices to the Canopy Structure of Field Crops
Next Article in Special Issue
Editorial for Special Issue “Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges”
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Urban Expansion on Forest Loss and Fragmentation in Six Megaregions, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Two-Dimensional Linear Inversion of GPR Data with a Shifting Zoom along the Observation Line
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(10), 996;

Metrological Characterization for Vital Sign Detection by a Bioradar

CIRA, Italian Aerospace Research Centre, via Maiorise, 81043 Capua (CE), Italy
IREA-CNR, Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council of Italy, via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1414 KB, uploaded 26 September 2017]   |  


In space missions, during the long isolation at extreme conditions for human health, it is of paramount importance to monitor vital parameters. One such parameter is the breathing rate. Indeed, several factors can induce some breathing anomalies during the sleep, which may cause apnea episodes. In order to act timely with the right therapy, an early diagnosis is required. Conventional devices are usually uncomfortable since they require electrodes or probes in contact with the subject. An alternative way to perform this kind of measurement in a remote sensing modality is provided by a continuous wave bioradar operating in the microwave frequency band. This is an effective contactless tool for monitoring the respiratory activity through the measurement of chest deformation due to inhalation and exhalation. The radar emits a low power electromagnetic wave at a single frequency, which is reflected by the human chest. By measuring of the phase shift between the incident and reflected wave, it is possible to detect and monitor the respiratory rate. The main contribution of this work is concerned with a metrological characterization of the continuous wave bioradar; which is a topic not thoroughly assessed in the relevant literature. In particular, the bioradar measurements are also compared with data recorded by a spirometer, which is a standard medical device that measures the air volume inhaled and exhaled by the subject. The purpose of this study is the characterization of the measurement standard uncertainty to enable the assessment of the bioradar system performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioradar; breathing monitoring; human health; measurement uncertainty; metrological characterization; spirometer bioradar; breathing monitoring; human health; measurement uncertainty; metrological characterization; spirometer

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cerasuolo, G.; Petrella, O.; Marciano, L.; Soldovieri, F.; Gennarelli, G. Metrological Characterization for Vital Sign Detection by a Bioradar. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 996.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top