Special Issue "Advanced Techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensing Image Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Yuri Álvarez López
Website
Guest Editor
Area of Signal Theory and Communications - University of Oviedo, Edificio Polivalente, Módulo 8, Room 1.8.02, Campus Universitario de Gijón, E-33203, Gijón (Asturias), Spain
Interests: antenna measurement; antenna diagnostics; inverse scattering; microwave imaging; ground-penetrating radar; indoor locations systems
Ms. María García Fernández
Website
Guest Editor
Area of Signal Theory and Communications - University of Oviedo, Edificio Polivalente, Módulo 8, Room 1.9.04, Campus Universitario de Gijón, E-33203, Gijón (Asturias), Spain
Interests: inverse scattering; microwave imaging; ground penetrating radar; antenna measurement; unmanned aerial vehicles; positioning and geo-referring systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become one of the key technologies in subsurface sensing and, in general, in nondestructive testing (NDT), since it is able to detect both metallic and nonmetallic targets. Furthermore, it can also provide images from the underground, thus improving detection capabilities. GPR for NDT has been successfully introduced in a wide range of sectors, such as mining and geology (detection of cavities, mineral deposits), glaciology (measurement of ice thickness), civil engineering and civil works (detection of cracks and defects in infrastructure), archaeology, and security and defense (detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices).

In recent decades, improvements in georeferring and positioning systems have enabled the introduction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques in GPR systems, yielding GPR–SAR systems capable of providing high-resolution microwave images. In parallel, the radiofrequency front-end of GPR systems has been optimized in terms of compactness (e.g., smaller Tx/Rx antennas) and cost. These advances, combined with improvements in autonomous platforms, such as unmanned terrestrial and aerial vehicles, have fostered new fields of application for GPR, where fast and reliable detection capabilities are demanded. In addition, processing techniques have been improved, taking advantage of the research conducted in related fields like inverse scattering and imaging. As a result, novel and robust algorithms have been developed for clutter reduction, automatic target recognition, and efficient processing of large sets of measurements to enable real-time imaging, among others.

This Special Issue is intended to provide an overview of the state of the art in GPR imaging, focusing on the latest advances from both hardware and software perspectives. Review papers on GPR imaging are also welcome. Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

- Advances in GPR RF front-end: antenna design, antenna arrays, radar devices;
- Novel GPR architectures;
- Synthetic aperture radar techniques for GPR;
- Clutter mitigation algorithms;
- Motion compensation and autofocus techniques for GPR;
- Soil composition estimation;
- Multilayered techniques for GPR imaging (e.g., based on Green’s function of layered media);
- Compressed sensing techniques applied to GPR;
- Artificial Intelligence techniques for GPR images (e.g., automatic target recognition for landmine and IEDs detection).

Dr. Yuri Álvarez López
Ms. María García Fernández
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ground penetrating radar
  • synthetic aperture radar
  • clutter removal
  • motion compensation
  • soil composition
  • multilayer media
  • compressive sensing
  • subsurface imaging
  • landmine detection
  • through-the-wall imaging

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
High-Resolution Coherency Functionals for Improving the Velocity Analysis of Ground-Penetrating Radar Data
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(13), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132146 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
We aim at verifying whether the use of high-resolution coherency functionals could improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of Ground-Penetrating Radar data by introducing a variable and precisely picked velocity field in the migration process. After carrying out tests on synthetic data to schematically [...] Read more.
We aim at verifying whether the use of high-resolution coherency functionals could improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of Ground-Penetrating Radar data by introducing a variable and precisely picked velocity field in the migration process. After carrying out tests on synthetic data to schematically simulate the problem, assessing the types of functionals most suitable for GPR data analysis, we estimated a varying velocity field relative to a real dataset. This dataset was acquired in an archaeological area where an excavation after a GPR survey made it possible to define the position, type, and composition of the detected targets. Two functionals, the Complex Matched Coherency Measure and the Complex Matched Analysis, turned out to be effective in computing coherency maps characterized by high-resolution and strong noise rejection, where velocity picking can be done with high precision. By using the 2D velocity field thus obtained, migration algorithms performed better than in the case of constant or 1D velocity field, with satisfactory collapsing of the diffracted events and moving of the reflected energy in the correct position. The varying velocity field was estimated on different lines and used to migrate all the GPR profiles composing the survey covering the entire archaeological area. The time slices built with the migrated profiles resulted in a higher S/N than those obtained from non-migrated or migrated at constant velocity GPR profiles. The improvements are inherent to the resolution, continuity, and energy content of linear reflective areas. On the basis of our experience, we can state that the use of high-resolution coherency functionals leads to migrated GPR profiles with a high-grade of hyperbolas focusing. These profiles favor better imaging of the targets of interest, thereby allowing for a more reliable interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Beyond Amplitudes: Multi-Trace Coherence Analysis for Ground-Penetrating Radar Data Imaging
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101583 - 16 May 2020
Abstract
Under suitable conditions, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements harbour great potential for the non-invasive mapping and three-dimensional investigation of buried archaeological remains. Current GPR data visualisations almost exclusively focus on the imaging of GPR reflection amplitudes. Ideally, the resulting amplitude maps show subsurface structures [...] Read more.
Under suitable conditions, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements harbour great potential for the non-invasive mapping and three-dimensional investigation of buried archaeological remains. Current GPR data visualisations almost exclusively focus on the imaging of GPR reflection amplitudes. Ideally, the resulting amplitude maps show subsurface structures of archaeological interest in plan view. However, there exist situations in which, despite the presence of buried archaeological remains, hardly any corresponding anomalies can be observed in the GPR time- or depth-slice amplitude images. Following the promising examples set by seismic attribute analysis in the field of exploration seismology, it should be possible to exploit other attributes than merely amplitude values for the enhanced imaging of subsurface structures expressed in GPR data. Coherence is the seismic attribute that is a measure for the discontinuity between adjacent traces in post-stack seismic data volumes. Seismic coherence analysis is directly transferable to common high-resolution 3D GPR data sets. We demonstrate, how under the right circumstances, trace discontinuity analysis can substantially enhance the imaging of structural information contained in GPR data. In certain cases, considerably improved data visualisations are achievable, facilitating subsequent data interpretation. We present GPR trace coherence imaging examples taken from extensive, high-resolution archaeological prospection GPR data sets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Autonomous Airborne 3D SAR Imaging System for Subsurface Sensing: UWB-GPR on Board a UAV for Landmine and IED Detection
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(20), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11202357 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This work presents an enhanced autonomous airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging system able to provide full 3D radar images from the subsurface. The proposed prototype and methodology allow the safe detection of both metallic and non-metallic buried targets even in difficult-to-access scenarios [...] Read more.
This work presents an enhanced autonomous airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging system able to provide full 3D radar images from the subsurface. The proposed prototype and methodology allow the safe detection of both metallic and non-metallic buried targets even in difficult-to-access scenarios without interacting with the ground. Thus, they are particularly suitable for detecting dangerous targets, such as landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). The prototype is mainly composed by an Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) radar module working from Ultra-High-Frequency (UHF) band and a high accuracy dual-band Real Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning system mounted on board an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV autonomously flies over the region of interest, gathering radar measurements. These measurements are accurately geo-referred so as to enable their coherent combination to obtain a well-focused SAR image. Improvements in the processing chain are also presented in order to deal with some issues associated to UAV-based measurements (such as non-uniform acquisition grids) as well as to enhance the resolution and the signal to clutter ratio of the image. Both the prototype and the methodology were validated with measurements, showing their capability to provide high-resolution 3D SAR images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging)
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