Special Issue "Advances in Remote Sensing Systems for Disaster Management and Risk Mitigation"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mariano Lisi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), C.da Santa Loja, 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ), Italy
Interests: systems of Earth observation by using satellite sensors; remote sensing data interpretation and validation for geohazard and environmental applications; multitemporal time-series techniques; volcanology; seismic hazard monitoring
Dr. Katsumi Hattori
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
Interests: natural hazards; geophysics; signal processing; remote sensing
Dr. Nicola Genzano
E-Mail
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Basilicata, Via dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: satellite remote sensing; natural hazards; earthquake risks; volcano monitoring
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rossana Paciello
E-Mail
Guest Editor
National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma, Italy
Interests: analysis and processing of multitemporal satellite data for environmental research using graphics processing units; interoperability of systems through standard metadata and web services; information and knowledge management systems, data models, and metadata catalogues; architecture design and implementation of research infrastructures
Dr. Teodosio Lacava
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, C. da S. Loja, 85050 Tito Scalo (Pz), Italy
Interests: optical and microwave remote sensing; remote sensing of water quality; remote sensing of natural and antrophic hazards; remote sensing of ocean colour; developing and assessment of advanced satellite data analysis methods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural and man-made hazards have increasingly affected communities worldwide in recent decades. Some of these hazard events are likely to further increase in frequency and/or magnitude due to climate change. Moreover, hazards may also occur concurrently or sequentially in time and space, generating cascading and/or compounding events that are potentially more dangerous than single hazard events.

Although it seems clear that the management of these disasters cannot be given exclusively in emergency phases, efforts are still required to implement sustainable disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies allowing for an increased level of preparedness for response and recovery and, thus, the capacity for resilience of at least those areas most prone to natural disasters.

The relevance of DRR in achieving sustainable development as well as the roadmap to reducing the impacts on human lives and the economy has been highlighted by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, which explicitly promotes the use of space-based technologies as a suitable way to gather data needed to elaborate information on hazard exposure, vulnerability, and risk and, hence, as an indispensable source of information to support decision-making related to disasters.

In this regard, Earth observation (EO) technologies have been widely integrated within disaster risk management systems in recent years, thanks to the growing availability of data/products of high quality and accuracy, as well as of advanced systems for their analysis/development, allowing the assessment of hazards and risk at multiple scales ranging from global to community levels.

Focusing on EO remote sensing systems, in the present Special Issue, we welcome all publications related to the innovative use of recent technologies, sensors/data, algorithms, and strategies supporting disaster risk management in one or more phases of its cycle (including disaster preparation, response, recovery, and mitigation).

In particular, submissions are encouraged which cover a wide range of subjects related to disaster phenomena, vulnerability, and risk studies, which may include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • Natural hazards (flood, fires, earthquake, volcano, drought, etc.) detection and monitoring;
  • Man-made hazards (oil spills, gas flares, fracking, etc.) detection and monitoring;
  • Development of multihazard systems and examples of implementation/contribution to risk reduction;
  • Relevant examples on the use of optical, thermal, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite remote systems to develop early warning systems at local to global scales;
  • Definition of innovative approaches and new algorithms for the analysis of remotely sensed data aimed to rapidly map and monitor large areas as indispensable sources of information to support decision-making related to disaster management;
  • Development of novel software applications, technologies, and tools to support disaster risk management and possible definition and validation of models for evaluation of risk and its reduction;
  • Case studies demonstrating the use of satellite data collected by active and passive sensors in support of risk management;
  • Statistical analyses of long-term time series of remotely sensed ground- (e.g., GPS) and satellite-based data devoted to estimating the informative contribution of different observables for increasing our capabilities to provide natural hazard assessment at different time scales.

 

Dr. Mariano Lisi
Dr. Katsumi Hattori
Dr. Nicola Genzano
Dr. Rossana Paciello
Dr. Teodosio Lacava
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Earth observation
  • risk management
  • early warning system
  • disaster preparedness
  • satellite remote sensing
  • optical, thermal, and SAR measurements
  • tools and software applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Alternative Approach for Tsunami Early Warning Indicated by Gravity Wave Effects on Ionosphere
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(11), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112150 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 778
Abstract
The rapid displacement of the ocean floor during large ocean earthquakes or volcanic eruptions causes the propagation of tsunami waves on the surface of the ocean, and consequently internal gravity waves (IGWs) in the atmosphere. IGWs pierce through the troposphere and into the [...] Read more.
The rapid displacement of the ocean floor during large ocean earthquakes or volcanic eruptions causes the propagation of tsunami waves on the surface of the ocean, and consequently internal gravity waves (IGWs) in the atmosphere. IGWs pierce through the troposphere and into the ionospheric layer. In addition to transferring energy to the ionosphere, they cause significant variations in ionospheric parameters, so they have considerable effects on the propagation of radio waves through this dispersive medium. In this study, double-frequency measurements of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and ionosonde data were used to determine the ionospheric disturbances and irregularities in response to the tsunami induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) data obtained from the ionosonde data also showed clear disturbances that were consistent with the GPS observations. IGWs and tsunami waves have similar propagation properties, and IGWs were detected about 25 min faster than tsunami waves in GPS ground stations at the United States west coast, located about 7900 km away from the tsunami’s epicenter. As IGWs have a high vertical propagation velocity, and propagate obliquely into the atmosphere, IGWs can also be used for tsunami early warning. To further investigate the spatial variation in ionospheric electron density (IED), ionospheric profiles from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) satellites were investigated for both reference and observation periods. During the tsunami, the reduction in IED started from 200 km and continued up to 272 km altitude. The minimum observed reduction was 2.68 × 105 el/cm3, which has happened at 222 km altitude. The IED increased up to 767 km altitude continuously, such that the maximum increase was 3.77 × 105 el/cm3 at 355 km altitude. Full article
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Article
Monitoring Subsidence in Urban Area by PSInSAR: A Case Study of Abbottabad City, Northern Pakistan
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(9), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091651 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Globally, major cities are experiencing fast settlement growth, which threatens the equilibrium of socio-ecosystems. In Pakistan, Abbottabad city in particular is experiencing fast urban growth. The main source of daily water usage for the population in these types of cities is groundwater (tube–wells). [...] Read more.
Globally, major cities are experiencing fast settlement growth, which threatens the equilibrium of socio-ecosystems. In Pakistan, Abbottabad city in particular is experiencing fast urban growth. The main source of daily water usage for the population in these types of cities is groundwater (tube–wells). Excessive pumping and the high need for ground water for the local community are affecting the subsurface sustainability. In this study, the persistent scatterer interferometry synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) technique with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired from the Sentinel-1 were used to monitor ground subsidence in Abbottabad City, Northern Pakistan. To estimate the ground subsidence in Abbottabad City, SARPROZ software was employed to process a series of Sentinel-1 images, acquired from March 2017 to September 2019, along both descending and ascending orbit tracks. The subsidence observed in the results shows a significant increase from 2017 to 2019. The subsidence map shows that, during 2017, the subsidence was −30 mm/year and about −85 mm/year in 2018. While during 2019, the subsidence reached −150 mm/year. Thus, it has seen that, in the study area, the subsidence during these years increased with mean subsidence 60 mm/year. The overall trend of subsidence showed considerably high values in the center of the city, while areas away from the center of the city experienced low subsidence. Overall, the adopted methodology can be used successfully for detecting, mapping, and monitoring land surfaces vulnerable to subsidence. This will facilitate efficient planning, designing of surface infrastructure, and mitigation management of subsidence-induced hazards. Full article
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Article
Robust Controller for Pursuing Trajectory and Force Estimations of a Bilateral Tele-Operated Hydraulic Manipulator
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(9), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091648 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
In hazardous/emergency situations, public safety is of the utmost concern. In areas where human access is not possible or is restricted due to hazardous situations, a system or robot that can be distantly controlled is mandatory. There are many applications in which force [...] Read more.
In hazardous/emergency situations, public safety is of the utmost concern. In areas where human access is not possible or is restricted due to hazardous situations, a system or robot that can be distantly controlled is mandatory. There are many applications in which force cannot be applied directly while using physical sensors. Therefore, in this research, a robust controller for pursuing trajectory and force estimations while deprived of any signals or sensors for bilateral tele-operation of a hydraulic manipulator is suggested to handle these hazardous, emergency circumstances. A terminal sliding control with a sliding perturbation observer (TSMCSPO) is considered as the robust controller for a coupled leader and hydraulic follower system. The ultimate use of this controller is as a sliding perturbation observer (SPO) that can estimate the reaction force without any physical force sensors. Robust and perfect position tracking is attained with terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) in addition to control of the hydraulic follower manipulator. The force estimation and pursuing trajectory for the leader–follower system is built upon a bilateral tele-operation control approach. The difference between the reaction forces (caused by the remote environment) and the operating forces (applied by the human operator) required the involvement of an impedance model. The impedance model is implemented in the leader manipulator to provide human operators with an actual sense of the reaction force while the manipulator connects with the remote environment. A camera is used to ensure the safety of the workplace through visual feedback. The experimental results showed that the controller was robust at pursuing trajectory and force estimations for the bilateral tele-operation control of a hydraulic manipulator. Full article
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Article
Landslide and Wildfire Susceptibility Assessment in Southeast Asia Using Ensemble Machine Learning Methods
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(8), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081572 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Southeast Asia (SEA) is a region affected by landslide and wildfire; however, few studies on susceptibility modeling for the two hazards together have been conducted for this region, and the intersection and the uncertainty of the two hazards are rarely assessed. Thus, the [...] Read more.
Southeast Asia (SEA) is a region affected by landslide and wildfire; however, few studies on susceptibility modeling for the two hazards together have been conducted for this region, and the intersection and the uncertainty of the two hazards are rarely assessed. Thus, the intersection of landslide and wildfire susceptibility and the spatial uncertainty of the susceptibility maps were studied in this paper. Reliable landslide and wildfire susceptibility maps are necessary for disaster management and land use planning. This work used three advanced ensemble machine learning algorithms: RF (Random Forest), GBDT (Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) and AdaBoost (Adaptive Boosting) to assess the landslide and wildfire susceptibility for SEA. A geo-database was established with 2759 landslide locations, 1633 wildfire locations and 18 predictor variables in total. The performances of the models were assessed using the overall classification accuracy (ACC), Precision, the area under the ROC (receiver operating curve) (AUC) and confusion matrix values. The results showed RF performs superior in both landslide (ACC = 0.81, Precision = 0.78 and AUC= 0.89) and wildfire (ACC= 0.83, Precision = 0.83 and AUC = 0.91) susceptibility modeling, followed by GBDT and AdaBoost. The overall superiority of RF over other models indicates that it is potentially an efficient model for landslide and wildfire susceptibility mapping. The landslide and wildfire susceptibility were obtained using the RF model. This paper also conducted an overlay analysis of the two hazards. The uncertainty of the susceptibility was further assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV). Additionally, the distance to roads is relatively important in both landslide and wildfire susceptibility, which is the most important in landslides and the second most important in wildfires. The result of this paper is useful for mastering the whole situation of hazard susceptibility and proves that RF is a robust model in the hazard susceptibility assessment in SEA. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Pre-Earthquake Anomalies of Borehole Strain Network by Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030515 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
In order to monitor temporal and spatial crustal activities associated with earthquakes, ground- and satellite-based monitoring systems have been installed in China since the 1990s. In recent years, the correlation between monitoring strain anomalies and local major earthquakes has been verified. In this [...] Read more.
In order to monitor temporal and spatial crustal activities associated with earthquakes, ground- and satellite-based monitoring systems have been installed in China since the 1990s. In recent years, the correlation between monitoring strain anomalies and local major earthquakes has been verified. In this study, we further evaluate the possibility of strain anomalies containing earthquake precursors by using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) prediction. First, strain network anomalies were extracted in the borehole strain data recorded in Western China during 2010–2017. Then, we proposed a new prediction strategy characterized by the number of network anomalies in an anomaly window, Nano, and the length of alarm window, Talm. We assumed that clusters of network anomalies indicate a probability increase of an impending earthquake, and consequently, the alarm window would be the duration during which a possible earthquake would occur. The Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) between true predicted rate, tpr, and false alarm rate, fpr, is measured to evaluate the efficiency of the prediction strategies. We found that the optimal strategy of short-term forecasts was established by setting the number of anomalies greater than 7 within 14 days and the alarm window at one day. The results further show the prediction strategy performs significantly better when there are frequent enhanced network anomalies prior to the larger earthquakes surrounding the strain network region. The ROC detection indicates that strain data possibly contain the precursory information associated with major earthquakes and highlights the potential for short-term earthquake forecasting. Full article
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Article
Investigation of Precursors in VLF Subionospheric Signals Related to Strong Earthquakes (M > 7) in Western China and Possible Explanations
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3563; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213563 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Earthquakes may disturb the lower ionosphere through various coupling mechanisms during their seismogenic and coseismic periods. The VLF signal radiated from ground-based transmitters is affected when it passes near the disturbed region above the seismogenic area, and this anomaly can be recorded by [...] Read more.
Earthquakes may disturb the lower ionosphere through various coupling mechanisms during their seismogenic and coseismic periods. The VLF signal radiated from ground-based transmitters is affected when it passes near the disturbed region above the seismogenic area, and this anomaly can be recorded by ground-based VLF receivers. In this paper, the seismic anomalies before two strong earthquakes (M > 7) that occurred in western China were detected using the ground-based observation of VLF signal; the possible reasons for the anomalies were discussed using full wave simulation. The amplitude of the VLF signals observed by the link between NOV, KHA transmitter, and VLF receivers at Ya’an and Tonghai show obvious anomaly by nighttime fluctuation analysis. The simulated results demonstrate that the anomalies could have been induced by ascending/descending of the bottom height of the ionosphere, caused by depletion/increase in D region electron density. The simulated result also illustrates that terminator time shift could have been induced by descending of the bottom boundary of the ionosphere, which is due to modal interference between different wave modes. Full article
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Review

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Review
Toward More Integrated Utilizations of Geostationary Satellite Data for Disaster Management and Risk Mitigation
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(8), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081553 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Third-generation geostationary meteorological satellites (GEOs), such as Himawari-8/9 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R Series Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) Flexible Combined Imager (FCI), provide advanced imagery and atmospheric measurements of the Earth’s weather, oceans, and [...] Read more.
Third-generation geostationary meteorological satellites (GEOs), such as Himawari-8/9 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R Series Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) Flexible Combined Imager (FCI), provide advanced imagery and atmospheric measurements of the Earth’s weather, oceans, and terrestrial environments at high-frequency intervals. Third-generation GEOs also significantly improve capabilities by increasing the number of observation bands suitable for environmental change detection. This review focuses on the significantly enhanced contribution of third-generation GEOs for disaster monitoring and risk mitigation, focusing on atmospheric and terrestrial environment monitoring. In addition, to demonstrate the collaboration between GEOs and Low Earth orbit satellites (LEOs) as supporting information for fine-spatial-resolution observations required in the event of a disaster, the landfall of Typhoon No. 19 Hagibis in 2019, which caused tremendous damage to Japan, is used as a case study. Full article
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