Special Issue "Applications of Laser Scanning and Photogrammetry in Civil Engineering and Architecture: Beyond 3D Modeling"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 9470

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Domenico Visintini
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Polytechnic Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
Interests: photogrammetry; laser scanning; HBIM; mobile mapping systems; unmanned aerial systems (UAV); geomatics data integration
Dr. Filiberto Chiabrando
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Design, Polytechnic University of Turin, 10125 Torino, Italy
Interests: unmanned aerial systems (UAV); photogrammetry; laser scanning; 3D reconstruction; rapid mapping; 3D modeling; 360° cameras; GIS and remote sensing; sensor integration
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry are geomatics surveying techniques very widely applied in civil engineering and architecture. Since these applications can be very different in terms of, at least, dimension and level of detail, the employed laser scanning and photogrammetric hardware and software should also be very different. In this sense, surveying using UAV equipped with laser scanning or photogrammetric sensors can be carried out from a single building to a very long bridge, with variable acquisition conditions and problems, though nonetheless with high accuracy requirements.

In any case, the final output of both terrestrial or aerial techniques is a dense cloud of millions (billions?) of points, often obtained from a suitable and non-trivial integration. At this step of the processing workflow, the modeling procedures can produce “surface” or “object” models. The second modeling approach, well known as “scan-to-BIM”, deals with still open problems and requires interventions from the users.

Nevertheless, geomatics results are continuously improving, and geomatics boundaries can more and more go beyond their field, also overlapping other civil engineering and architecture disciplines. Our research topics have to take into account application requirements, and how to fulfil these while avoiding misspending the very high accurate and detailed geomatics output. Emerging and open themes of interest could be optimal integration among systems (UAV and terrestrial data, laser scanner and image/video photogrammetry) and with thermal multi-hyperspectral sensors; suitable integration of geomatic and material data for HBIM applications; metrological analysis of geomatic data for restoration projects; and exploitation of finite elements method (FEM) structural analysis using BIM models.

Dr. Domenico Visintini
Dr. Filiberto Chiabrando
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • UAV/terrestrial data integration
  • Laser scanning/photogrammetry integration
  • Geomatics/material data integration
  • Differnet approaches in 3D modelling
  • Scan-to-BIM
  • HBIM
  • Metrological analysis
  • Structural analysis

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Integration and Comparison Methods for Multitemporal Image-Based 2D Annotations in Linked 3D Building Documentation
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092286 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Data acquisition systems and methods to capture high-resolution images or reconstruct 3D point clouds of existing structures are an effective way to document their as-is condition. These methods enable a detailed analysis of building surfaces, providing precise 3D representations. However, for the condition [...] Read more.
Data acquisition systems and methods to capture high-resolution images or reconstruct 3D point clouds of existing structures are an effective way to document their as-is condition. These methods enable a detailed analysis of building surfaces, providing precise 3D representations. However, for the condition assessment and documentation, damages are mainly annotated in 2D representations, such as images, orthophotos, or technical drawings, which do not allow for the application of a 3D workflow or automated comparisons of multitemporal datasets. In the available software for building heritage data management and analysis, a wide range of annotation and evaluation functions are available, but they also lack integrated post-processing methods and systematic workflows. The article presents novel methods developed to facilitate such automated 3D workflows and validates them on a small historic church building in Thuringia, Germany. Post-processing steps using photogrammetric 3D reconstruction data along with imagery were implemented, which show the possibilities of integrating 2D annotations into 3D documentations. Further, the application of voxel-based methods on the dataset enables the evaluation of geometrical changes of multitemporal annotations in different states and the assignment to elements of scans or building models. The proposed workflow also highlights the potential of these methods for condition assessment and planning of restoration work, as well as the possibility to represent the analysis results in standardised building model formats. Full article
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Article
The Church of S. Maria Delle Palate in Tusa (Messina, Italy): Digitization and Diagnostics for a New Model of Enjoyment
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(6), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14061490 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Cultural places represent the tangible part of the identity and historical heritage of a civilization as well as an extraordinary driving force for the economic development of a country. Within its huge asset, Italy counts a wide number of archaeological sites and monuments [...] Read more.
Cultural places represent the tangible part of the identity and historical heritage of a civilization as well as an extraordinary driving force for the economic development of a country. Within its huge asset, Italy counts a wide number of archaeological sites and monuments which, despite their cultural value, are totally cut off from the most important cultural routes. This paper aims to demonstrate how specific actions of digitization can contribute to valorize (restoring a cultural value) ‘marginal’ landmarks, promoting their knowledge and inclusion. The case study described is represented by the Church of “Santa Maria delle Palate”, located inside the well-known Archaeological Park of Halaesa Arconidea (Tusa, ME). The church, built in 1551 and subject to several renovations throughout the centuries, has been investigated as part of an interdisciplinary training and skill transfer project carried out by a CNR-IPCF research team. During the activities, the group of trainees approached a multi-analytic method for the study of many Sicilian places using different techniques such as laser scanning, photogrammetry, thermography and spectroscopy and collecting a large amount of information and data. In 2019, the building in question was the object of a complete architectural survey in order to obtain an accurate digital replica; moreover, the wall painting representing St. Francis, preserved in the southern nave, was investigated through non-invasive investigations (IR-imaging, XRF and Raman spectrometry) with the intention of collecting information about its state of preservation and nature of pigments used and help the restoration work, which would have been carried out in the following months. The result of the work is a combined “digital archive” useful not only for the purposes of conservation, monitoring and dissemination, but as a container of information enjoyable at different levels of depth. In addition to the scientific outcomes achieved for the study of the painting, relevant from the historical and artistic point of view, we must underline the importance of the work for the implementation of a web-based platform where expert and inexpert users can virtually access the church virtual tour and search for specialized contents (e.g., measures, analyzes results). Media such as this are finally demonstrated to be able to promote the inclusion (e.g., for people unable to reach the place or with reducing mobility) and accessibility to cultural places during ordinary (maintenance, closure) or extraordinary events (pandemic). Full article
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Article
An Experimental HBIM Processing: Innovative Tool for 3D Model Reconstruction of Morpho-Typological Phases for the Cultural Heritage
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(5), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14051288 - 06 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
In this paper, we want to propose an investigation and a re-reading of the “Conventazzo” of San Pietro di Deca in Torrenova (ME), through the use of geomatics techniques (laser scanner, UAV—Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-photogrammetry and BIM—Building Information Modeling) and a reconstruction and representation [...] Read more.
In this paper, we want to propose an investigation and a re-reading of the “Conventazzo” of San Pietro di Deca in Torrenova (ME), through the use of geomatics techniques (laser scanner, UAV—Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-photogrammetry and BIM—Building Information Modeling) and a reconstruction and representation of different morpho-typological phases that highlight the numerous changes that this structure has undergone over the years. Particular attention was given to the BIM/HBIM (Heritage BIM) construction, bearing in mind that, in particular, the use of HBIM software for cultural heritage cannot perfectly represent old buildings with complex notable and particularly detailed architecture. Specifically, a new methodology is presented in order to replicate the complex details found in antique buildings, through the direct insertion of various 3D model parts (.obj) (point cloud segmentation from laser scanner and UAV/photogrammetry survey) into a BIM environment that includes intelligent objects linked to form the smart model. By having a huge amount of information available in a single digital model (HBIM), and by including all the information acquired during the survey campaign, it is possible to study the morphotypological evolutions of the building without the need to carry out subsequent survey campaigns. The limit of the proposed methodology, compared to the most used methodologies (despite the good results obtained), is that it requires the use of many types of software and is very slow. The proposed methodology was put to the test on the reconstruction of the “Conventazzo” in San Pietro di Deca, Torrenova (Messina). Full article
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Article
A Geomatics Approach in Scan to FEM Process Applied to Cultural Heritage Structure: The Case Study of the “Colossus of Barletta”
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030664 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Artistic, architectural and Cultural Heritage (CH) structures are often exposed to a high risk of damage caused by seismic events, natural disasters and more by negligence and poor state of preservation and conservation; the use of a series of technologies, based on digital [...] Read more.
Artistic, architectural and Cultural Heritage (CH) structures are often exposed to a high risk of damage caused by seismic events, natural disasters and more by negligence and poor state of preservation and conservation; the use of a series of technologies, based on digital acquisition and high-level data processing, allows the realisation of a three-dimensional model of high detail. In order to preserve structures of particular historical and architectural value, it is necessary to assess their structural stability. In addition, many structures, such as statues, have rather complex geometries. Therefore, it is necessary to identify a methodology able to transform the point cloud generated through a geomatics approach into a model suitable for FEM (Finite Element Analysis) analysis. This process, known as Scan to FEM, is addressed in this paper. The paper shows the case study of the “Colossus of Barletta”, a bronze statue dating back to the 5th century A.D. located in the city of Barletta, Italy. To analyse this structure, a suitable methodology has been developed which is based on the optimisation of the surface model of the structure; in this way, it is possible to obtain an efficient transformation from a digital photogrammetric model with complex geometry into a model suitable for structural finite element analysis. The digital photogrammetry technique was applied for the survey of the structure, which allowed us to obtain a very high-resolution dense point cloud and a geometrically accurate three-dimensional mesh model, i.e., in a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) model. Subsequently, the TIN was transformed into a quad mesh model (identifying a suitable reduction value) and finally into NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational Basis-Splines) to be optimised and imported into a finite element calculation software. This geomatics approach has validated an efficient Scan to FEM process; in fact, thanks to this methodology, it is possible to elaborate three-dimensional models with complex geometry and draw a series of considerations related to structural behaviour or specific restoration interventions. Full article
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Article
Documentation of Complex Environments Using 360° Cameras. The Santa Marta Belltower in Montanaro
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(18), 3633; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13183633 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
Low-cost and fast surveying approaches are increasingly being deployed in several domains, including in the field of built heritage documentation. In parallel with mobile mapping systems, uncrewed aerial systems, and simultaneous location and mapping systems, 360° cameras and spherical photogrammetry are research topics [...] Read more.
Low-cost and fast surveying approaches are increasingly being deployed in several domains, including in the field of built heritage documentation. In parallel with mobile mapping systems, uncrewed aerial systems, and simultaneous location and mapping systems, 360° cameras and spherical photogrammetry are research topics attracting significant interest for this kind of application. Although several instruments and techniques can be considered to be consolidated approaches in the documentation processes, the research presented in this manuscript is focused on a series of tests and analyses using 360° cameras for the 3D metric documentation of a complex environment, applied to the case study of a XVIII century belltower in Piemonte region (north-west Italy). Both data acquisition and data processing phases were thoroughly investigated and several processing strategies were planned, carried out, and evaluated. Data derived from consolidated 3D mapping approaches were used as a ground reference to validate the results derived from the spherical photogrammetry approach. The outcomes of this research confirmed, under specific conditions and with a proper setup, the possibility of using 360° images in a Structure from Motion pipeline to meet the expected accuracies of typical architectural large-scale drawings. Full article
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Article
From the Semantic Point Cloud to Heritage-Building Information Modeling: A Semiautomatic Approach Exploiting Machine Learning
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030461 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
This work presents a semi-automatic approach to the 3D reconstruction of Heritage-Building Information Models from point clouds based on machine learning techniques. The use of digital information systems leveraging on three-dimensional (3D) representations in architectural heritage documentation and analysis is ever increasing. For [...] Read more.
This work presents a semi-automatic approach to the 3D reconstruction of Heritage-Building Information Models from point clouds based on machine learning techniques. The use of digital information systems leveraging on three-dimensional (3D) representations in architectural heritage documentation and analysis is ever increasing. For the creation of such repositories, reality-based surveying techniques, such as photogrammetry and laser scanning, allow the fast collection of reliable digital replicas of the study objects in the form of point clouds. Besides, their output is raw and unstructured, and the transition to intelligible and semantic 3D representations is still a scarcely automated and time-consuming process requiring considerable human intervention. More refined methods for 3D data interpretation of heritage point clouds are therefore sought after. In tackling these issues, the proposed approach relies on (i) the application of machine learning techniques to semantically label 3D heritage data by identification of relevant geometric, radiometric and intensity features, and (ii) the use of the annotated data to streamline the construction of Heritage-Building Information Modeling (H-BIM) systems, where purely geometric information derived from surveying is associated with semantic descriptors on heritage documentation and management. The “Grand-Ducal Cloister” dataset, related to the emblematic case study of the Pisa Charterhouse, is discussed. Full article
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Review

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Review
Urban Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): A Systematic Literature Review
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(3), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030620 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are gaining considerable interest in transportation engineering in order to monitor and analyze traffic. This systematic review surveys the scientific contributions in the application of UAVs for civil engineering, especially those related to traffic monitoring. Following the PRISMA framework, [...] Read more.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are gaining considerable interest in transportation engineering in order to monitor and analyze traffic. This systematic review surveys the scientific contributions in the application of UAVs for civil engineering, especially those related to traffic monitoring. Following the PRISMA framework, 34 papers were identified in five scientific databases. First, this paper introduces previous works in this field. In addition, the selected papers were analyzed, and some conclusions were drawn to complement the findings. It can be stated that this is still a field in its infancy and that progress in advanced image processing techniques and technologies used in the construction of UAVs will lead to an explosion in the number of applications, which will result in increased benefits for society, reducing unpleasant situations, such as congestion and collisions in major urban centers of the world. Full article
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Review
The Fusion Strategy of 2D and 3D Information Based on Deep Learning: A Review
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(20), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204029 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Recently, researchers have realized a number of achievements involving deep-learning-based neural networks for the tasks of segmentation and detection based on 2D images, 3D point clouds, etc. Using 2D and 3D information fusion for the advantages of compensation and accuracy improvement has become [...] Read more.
Recently, researchers have realized a number of achievements involving deep-learning-based neural networks for the tasks of segmentation and detection based on 2D images, 3D point clouds, etc. Using 2D and 3D information fusion for the advantages of compensation and accuracy improvement has become a hot research topic. However, there are no critical reviews focusing on the fusion strategies of 2D and 3D information integration based on various data for segmentation and detection, which are the basic tasks of computer vision. To boost the development of this research domain, the existing representative fusion strategies are collected, introduced, categorized, and summarized in this paper. In addition, the general structures of different kinds of fusion strategies were firstly abstracted and categorized, which may inspire researchers. Moreover, according to the methods included in this paper, the 2D information and 3D information of different methods come from various kinds of data. Furthermore, suitable datasets are introduced and comparatively summarized to support the relative research. Last but not least, we put forward some open challenges and promising directions for future research. Full article
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