Special Issue "Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Automation Control Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2022) | Viewed by 11889

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Zhitong Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Center for Advanced Therapy, National Innovation Center for Advanced Medical Devices, Shenzhen 518000, China
2. Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: plasma physics; plasma medicine; medical devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Pankaj Attri
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Centers for Common Education and Research, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 8190395, Japan
Interests: protein; plasma; chemistry; ESR
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Qiu Wang
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Interests: plasma physics; plasma propulsion; magnetohydrodynamic; electron density measurement; nonequilibrium flow

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plasma is the fourth state of matter, contrasted with the other states: solid, liquid, and gas. Plasma can exist in a variety of forms due to discharge modes created in different ways, resulting in a wide range of applications. Plasma applications are interdisciplinary research fields that combine physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Plasma in contact with materials generates intense UV radiation, reactive species, electrons and charged particles, all of which are effective agents against many matters, and their processes are extremely complex. On the other hand, the plasma parameter space is very broad and ranges from the density of radicals to the velocity distribution of charged particles and even rovibrationally excited states or the population of excited electronic. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect original research and review articles on the most recent plasma applications and to diagnose their processes, to elucidate the characteristics of plasma and mechanisms of plasma-induced processes. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  1. Experimental measurement methods and diagnostic tools for detection of radicals in gas and liquid phase
  2. Modification in materials
  3. Materials processing (deposition, etching, washing, etc.)
  4. Industrial applications including water purification
  5. Biomedical/Agricultural/Food processing applications

Prof. Dr. Pankaj Attri
Dr. Zhitong Chen
Prof. Dr. Qiu Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plasma physics
  • Plasma diagnostics
  • Surface modification
  • Plasma-assisted synthesis
  • Plasma environment
  • Plasma medicine
  • Plasma agriculture

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue on “Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications”
Processes 2022, 10(4), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10040654 - 28 Mar 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Plasma is the fourth state of matter, contrasted with the other states: solid, liquid, and gas [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)

Research

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Article
Effects of Cowl-Induced Expansion on the Wave Complex Induced by Oblique Detonation Wave Reflection
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071215 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 492
Abstract
Oblique detonation wave (ODW) reflection on the upper wall leads to a sophisticated wave complex, whose stability is critical to the application of oblique detonation engines. The unstable wave complex characterized with a continuous moving Mach stem has been observed, but the corresponding [...] Read more.
Oblique detonation wave (ODW) reflection on the upper wall leads to a sophisticated wave complex, whose stability is critical to the application of oblique detonation engines. The unstable wave complex characterized with a continuous moving Mach stem has been observed, but the corresponding re-stability adjusting method is still unclear so far. In this study, the cowl-induced expansion wave based on the model with an upper-side expansion wall is introduced, and the ODW dynamics have been analyzed using the reactive Euler equations with a two-step induction–reaction kinetic model. With the addition of a cowl-induced expansion wave, the re-stabilized Mach stem has been distinguished. This re-stability is determined by the weakened secondary reflection wave of lower wall, while the final location of Mach stem is not sensitive to the position of the expansion corner. The re-stabilized ODW structure is also basically irrelevant to the expansion angle, while it may shift to unstable due to the merging of subsonic zones. Transient phenomena for the unstable state have been also discussed, clarifying fine wave structures further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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Article
Tiny Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet for Biomedical Applications
Processes 2021, 9(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020249 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Conventional plasma jets for biomedical applications tend to have several drawbacks, such as high voltages, high gas delivery, large plasma probe volume, and the formation of discharge within the organ. Therefore, it is challenging to employ these jets inside a living organism’s body. [...] Read more.
Conventional plasma jets for biomedical applications tend to have several drawbacks, such as high voltages, high gas delivery, large plasma probe volume, and the formation of discharge within the organ. Therefore, it is challenging to employ these jets inside a living organism’s body. Thus, we developed a single-electrode tiny plasma jet and evaluated its use for clinical biomedical applications. We investigated the effect of voltage input and flow rate on the jet length and studied the physical parameters of the plasma jet, including discharge voltage, average gas and subject temperature, and optical emissions via spectroscopy (OES). The interactions between the tiny plasma jet and five subjects (de-ionized (DI) water, metal, cardboard, pork belly, and pork muscle) were studied at distances of 10 mm and 15 mm from the jet nozzle. The results showed that the tiny plasma jet caused no damage or burning of tissues, and the ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species) intensity increased when the distance was lowered from 15 mm to 10 mm. These initial observations establish the tiny plasma jet device as a potentially useful tool in clinical biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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Article
Microscopic Characteristics and Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy Compound Reinforced WC-Co-Based Coating via Plasma Spray Welding
Processes 2021, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010006 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Plasma spray welding, as one of the material surface strengthening techniques, has the advantages of low alloy material consumption, high mechanical properties and good coating compactness. Here, the Co alloy, WC and Fe-based amorphous alloy composite coating is prepared by the plasma spray [...] Read more.
Plasma spray welding, as one of the material surface strengthening techniques, has the advantages of low alloy material consumption, high mechanical properties and good coating compactness. Here, the Co alloy, WC and Fe-based amorphous alloy composite coating is prepared by the plasma spray welding method, and the coating characteristics are investigated. The results indicate that the coatings have a full metallurgical bond in the coating/substrate interface, and the powder composition influences the microstructures and properties of the coating. The hardness of coatings increases with the mass fraction of the Fe-based amorphous alloy. The spray welding layer has a much higher wear resistance compared with the carbon steel, and the Fe-20 exhibits a superior wear resistance when compared to others. The results indicate that the amorphous alloy powders are an effective additive to prepare the coating by plasma spray welding for improving the wear resistance of the coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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Article
Time of Flight Size Control of Carbon Nanoparticles Using Ar+CH4 Multi-Hollow Discharge Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition Method
Processes 2021, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010002 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
As the application of nanotechnology increases continuously, the need for controlled size nanoparticles also increases. Therefore, in this work, we discussed the growth mechanism of carbon nanoparticles generated in Ar+CH4 multi-hollow discharge plasmas. Using the plasmas, we succeeded in continuous generation of [...] Read more.
As the application of nanotechnology increases continuously, the need for controlled size nanoparticles also increases. Therefore, in this work, we discussed the growth mechanism of carbon nanoparticles generated in Ar+CH4 multi-hollow discharge plasmas. Using the plasmas, we succeeded in continuous generation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles with controlled size (25–220 nm) by the gas flow. Among the nanoparticle growth processes in plasmas, we confirmed the deposition of carbon-related radicals was the dominant process for the method. The size of nanoparticles was proportional to the gas residence time in holes of the discharge electrode. The radical deposition developed the nucleated nanoparticles during their transport in discharges, and the time of flight in discharges controlled the size of nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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Article
Experimental Study on Ramp Shock Wave Control in Ma3 Supersonic Flow Using Two-Electrode SparkJet Actuator
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121679 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
The control of a shock wave produced by a ramp (ramp shock) in Ma3 supersonic flow using a two-electrode SparkJet (SPJ) actuator in a single-pulse mode is studied experimentally. Except for schlieren images of the interaction process of SPJ with the flow field, [...] Read more.
The control of a shock wave produced by a ramp (ramp shock) in Ma3 supersonic flow using a two-electrode SparkJet (SPJ) actuator in a single-pulse mode is studied experimentally. Except for schlieren images of the interaction process of SPJ with the flow field, a dynamic pressure measurement method is also used in the analysis of shock wave control. In a typical experimental case, under the control of single-pulsed SPJ, the characteristic of ramp shock changes from “short-term local upstream motion” in the initial stage to “long-term whole downstream motion” in the later stage. The angle and position of the ramp shock changes significantly in the whole control process. In addition, the dynamic pressure measurement result shows that the ramp pressure is reduced by a maximum of 79% compared to that in the base flow field, which indicates that the ramp shock is significantly weakened by SPJ. The effects of some parameters on the control effect of SPJ on the ramp shock are investigated and analyzed in detail. The increase in discharge capacitance helps to improve the control effect of SPJ on the ramp shock. However, the control effect of the SPJ actuator with medium exit diameter is better than that with a too small or too large one. In addition, when the SPJ exit is located in the separation zone and outside, the change in the ramp shock shows significant differences, but the control effect in the case of medium ramp distance is better when the SPJ exit is located outside the separation zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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Article
The Combination of Simultaneous Plasma Treatment with Mg Nanoparticles Deposition Technique for Better Mung Bean Seeds Germination
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121575 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
A novel method based on the combination of simultaneous cold plasma treatment with Mg nanoparticles deposition, applied to Mung bean seeds by improving their quality, is presented. The SRIM simulation reveals that only the very top layer of the seeds surface can be [...] Read more.
A novel method based on the combination of simultaneous cold plasma treatment with Mg nanoparticles deposition, applied to Mung bean seeds by improving their quality, is presented. The SRIM simulation reveals that only the very top layer of the seeds surface can be altered by the plasma. The experimental analysis indicates surface composition changes with a polar groups formation. These groups initiate the shift of surface characteristics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The chemical bond analysis shows the formation of MgO and Mg(OH)2 compounds, which acts as a positive factor for seeds germination and growth. The germination experiments showed a 70% outcome with an average of 73.9 mm sprouts length after 30 min of plasma treatment compared to the initial seeds (40% outcome and 71.3 mm sprouts length). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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Article
Characteristics of Gliding Arc Plasma and Its Application in Swirl Flame Static Instability Control
Processes 2020, 8(6), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060684 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Based on an experimental system involving a pulsating airflow burner and gliding arc generator, the characteristics of gliding arc plasma at different flow rates and its control effect on the static instability of the swirl flame have been studied. The current, voltage, and [...] Read more.
Based on an experimental system involving a pulsating airflow burner and gliding arc generator, the characteristics of gliding arc plasma at different flow rates and its control effect on the static instability of the swirl flame have been studied. The current, voltage, and power wave forms, as well as the simultaneous evolution of plasma topology, were measured to reveal the discharge characteristics of the gliding arc. A bandpass filter was used to capture the chemiluminescence of CH in the flame, and pressure at the burner outlet was acquired to investigate the static instability. Experimental results showed that there were two different discharge types in gliding arc plasma. With the low flow rate, the glow type discharge was sustained and the current was nearly a sine wave with hundreds of milliamperes of amplitude. With the high flow rate, the spark type discharge appeared and spikes which approached almost 1 ampere in 1 μs were found in the current waveform. The lean blowout limits increased when the flame mode changed from stable to pulsating, and decreased significantly after applying the gliding arc plasma. In pulsating flow mode, the measured pressure indicated that static instability was generated at the frequency of 10 Hz, and the images of flame with plasma showed that the plasma may have acted as the ignition source which injected the heat into the flame. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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Review

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Review
Plasma Agriculture from Laboratory to Farm: A Review
Processes 2020, 8(8), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8081002 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 3914
Abstract
In recent years, non-thermal plasma (NTP) application in agriculture is rapidly increasing. Many published articles and reviews in the literature are focus on the post-harvest use of plasma in agriculture. However, the pre-harvest application of plasma still in its early stage. Therefore, in [...] Read more.
In recent years, non-thermal plasma (NTP) application in agriculture is rapidly increasing. Many published articles and reviews in the literature are focus on the post-harvest use of plasma in agriculture. However, the pre-harvest application of plasma still in its early stage. Therefore, in this review, we covered the effect of NTP and plasma-treated water (PTW) on seed germination and growth enhancement. Further, we will discuss the change in biochemical analysis, e.g., the variation in phytohormones, phytochemicals, and antioxidant levels of seeds after treatment with NTP and PTW. Lastly, we will address the possibility of using plasma in the actual agriculture field and prospects of this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Diagnostics and Applications)
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