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Article

Effect of Almond Shell Waste on Physicochemical Properties of Polyester-Based Biocomposites

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition & Food Sciences, University of Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, ES-03690 Alicante, Spain
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Perugia, 05100 Terni, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(4), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040835
Received: 15 March 2020 / Revised: 31 March 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2020 / Published: 6 April 2020
Polyester-based biocomposites containing INZEA F2® biopolymer and almond shell powder (ASP) at 10 and 25 wt % contents with and without two different compatibilizers, maleinized linseed oil and Joncryl ADR 4400®, were prepared by melt blending in an extruder, followed by injection molding. The effect of fine (125–250 m) and coarse (500–1000 m) milling sizes of ASP was also evaluated. An improvement in elastic modulus was observed with the addition of< both fine and coarse ASP at 25 wt %. The addition of maleinized linseed oil and Joncryl ADR 4400 produced some compatibilizing effect at low filler contents while biocomposites with a higher amount of ASP still presented some gaps at the interface by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Some decrease in thermal stability was shown which was related to the relatively low thermal stability and disintegration of the lignocellulosic filler. The added modifiers provided some enhanced thermal resistance to the final biocomposites. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis suggested the presence of two different polyesters in the polymer matrix, with one of them showing full disintegration after 28 and 90 days for biocomposites containing 25 and 10 wt %, respectively, under composting conditions. The developed biocomposites have been shown to be potential polyester-based matrices for use as compostable materials at high filler contents. View Full-Text
Keywords: almond shell waste; reinforcing; polyester-based biocomposites; physicochemical properties; disintegration almond shell waste; reinforcing; polyester-based biocomposites; physicochemical properties; disintegration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramos, M.; Dominici, F.; Luzi, F.; Jiménez, A.; Garrigós, M.C.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D. Effect of Almond Shell Waste on Physicochemical Properties of Polyester-Based Biocomposites. Polymers 2020, 12, 835. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040835

AMA Style

Ramos M, Dominici F, Luzi F, Jiménez A, Garrigós MC, Torre L, Puglia D. Effect of Almond Shell Waste on Physicochemical Properties of Polyester-Based Biocomposites. Polymers. 2020; 12(4):835. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040835

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramos, Marina, Franco Dominici, Francesca Luzi, Alfonso Jiménez, Maria C. Garrigós, Luigi Torre, and Debora Puglia. 2020. "Effect of Almond Shell Waste on Physicochemical Properties of Polyester-Based Biocomposites" Polymers 12, no. 4: 835. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040835

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