New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2024 | Viewed by 7011

Special Issue Editors

College of Petroleum Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi'an, China
Interests: polymer flooding; enhanced oil recovery; interface chemistry; multi-fluids interface

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Mining and Petroleum, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
Interests: polymer (ASP) characterization; chemical EOR, functional polymer; rheology; polymer-enhanced foam
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College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
Interests: chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery; emulsification behavior characterization and control; multiphase fluid microscale flow
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Petroleum Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi'an, China
Interests: injection/production profile modification; surfactant chemistry; enhanced oil recovery; polymer gel; interfacial phenomena

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Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Interests: enhanced oil recovery; conformance control; amphiphilic polymer; emulsion; polymer gel

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymers play an important role in basic materials science and engineering applications, where almost all aspects of polymer research and applications are directly or indirectly related to surface and interface phenomena. Therefore, a detailed analysis of surfaces and interfaces is crucial for material development and engineering optimization.

This Special Issue is dedicated to collecting works containing the latest theories, analysis techniques, and application methods of polymer surfaces and interfaces and to providing guidance for developing and applying polymer materials. The topic of this Special Issue is New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces. For this purpose, works on experimental and numerical studies on new polymer materials, polymer analysis methods, polymer characterization methods, polymer applications (textiles, oil and gas field development, membranes), polymer fluids (multiphase fluid interface, emulsification), etc., are welcome.

Dr. Xin Chen
Dr. Japan Trivedi
Dr. Zheyu Liu
Dr. Jianbin Liu
Dr. Zhe Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • surfaces and interfaces
  • interface behavior
  • polymeric materials characterization
  • polymer application
  • multiphase interfacial flow
  • wettability

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3913 KiB  
Article
Designing Sustainable Hydrophilic Interfaces via Feature Selection from Molecular Descriptors and Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Curves
by Masayuki Okada, Yoshifumi Amamoto and Jun Kikuchi
Polymers 2024, 16(6), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16060824 - 15 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
Surface modification using hydrophilic polymer coatings is a sustainable approach for preventing membrane clogging due to foulant adhesion to water treatment membranes and reducing membrane-replacement frequency. Typically, both molecular descriptors and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) data, which reveal physicochemical properties and polymer-chain [...] Read more.
Surface modification using hydrophilic polymer coatings is a sustainable approach for preventing membrane clogging due to foulant adhesion to water treatment membranes and reducing membrane-replacement frequency. Typically, both molecular descriptors and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) data, which reveal physicochemical properties and polymer-chain dynamics, respectively, are required to predict the properties and understand the mechanisms of hydrophilic polymer coatings. However, studies on the selection of essential components from high-dimensional data and their application to the prediction of surface properties are scarce. Therefore, we developed a method for selecting features from combined high-dimensional molecular descriptors and TD-NMR data. The molecular descriptors of the monomers present in polyethylene terephthalate films were calculated using RDKit, an open-source chemoinformatics toolkit, and TD-NMR spectroscopy was performed over a wide time range using five-pulse sequences to investigate the mobility of the polymer chains. The model that analyzed the data using the random forest algorithm, after reducing the features using gradient boosting machine-based recursive feature elimination, achieved the highest prediction accuracy. The proposed method enables the extraction of important elements from both descriptors of surface properties and can contribute to the development of new sustainable materials and material-specific informatics methodologies encompassing multiple information modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces)
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16 pages, 6303 KiB  
Article
Spatial-Temporal Kinetic Behaviors of Micron-Nano Dust Adsorption along Epoxy Resin Insulator Surfaces and the Physical Mechanism of Induced Surface Flashover
by Naifan Xue, Bei Li, Yuan Wang, Ning Yang, Ruicheng Yang, Feichen Zhang and Qingmin Li
Polymers 2024, 16(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16040485 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 704
Abstract
The advanced Gas Insulated Switchgear/Gas Insulated Lines (GIS/GIL) transmission equipment serves as an essential physical infrastructure for establishing a new energy power system. An analysis spanning nearly a decade on faults arising from extra/ultra-high voltage discharges reveals that over 60% of such faults [...] Read more.
The advanced Gas Insulated Switchgear/Gas Insulated Lines (GIS/GIL) transmission equipment serves as an essential physical infrastructure for establishing a new energy power system. An analysis spanning nearly a decade on faults arising from extra/ultra-high voltage discharges reveals that over 60% of such faults are attributed to the discharge of metal particles and dust. While existing technical means, such as ultra-high frequency and ultrasonic sensing, exhibit effectiveness in online monitoring of particles larger than sub-millimeter dimensions, the inherent randomness and elusive nature of micron-nano dust pose challenges for effective characterization through current technology. This elusive micron-nano dust, likely concealed as a latent threat, necessitates special attention due to its potential as a “safety killer”. To address the challenges associated with detecting micron-nano dust and comprehending its intricate mechanisms, this paper introduces a micron-nano dust adsorption experimental platform tailored for observation and practical application in GIS/GIL operations. The findings highlight that micron-nano dust’s adsorption state in the electric field predominantly involves agglomerative adsorption along the insulator surface and diffusive adsorption along the direction of the ground electrode. The pivotal factors influencing dust movement include the micron-nano dust’s initial position, mass, material composition, and applied voltage. Further elucidation emphasizes the potential of micron-nano dust as a concealed safety hazard. The study reveals specific physical phenomena during the adsorption process. Agglomerative adsorption results in micron-nano dust speckles forming on the epoxy resin insulator’s surface. With increasing voltage, these speckles undergo an “explosion”, forming an annular dust halo with deepening contours. This phenomenon, distinct from the initial adsorption, is considered a contributing factor to flashovers along the insulator’s surface. The physical mechanism behind flashovers triggered by micron-nano dust is uncovered, highlighting the formation of a localized short circuit area and intense electric field distortion constituted by dust speckles. These findings establish a theoretical foundation and technical support for enhancing the safe operational performance of AC and DC transmission pipelines’ insulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces)
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16 pages, 23299 KiB  
Article
Research on Performance Evaluation of Polymeric Surfactant Cleaning Gel-Breaking Fluid (GBF) and Its Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Effect
by Yubin Liao, Jicheng Jin, Shenglin Du, Yufei Ren and Qiang Li
Polymers 2024, 16(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16030397 - 31 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Clean fracturing fluid has the characteristics of being environmentally friendly and causing little damage to reservoirs. Meanwhile, its backflow gel-breaking fluids (GBFs) can be reutilized as an oil displacement agent. This paper systematically evaluates the feasibility and EOR mechanism of a GBF based [...] Read more.
Clean fracturing fluid has the characteristics of being environmentally friendly and causing little damage to reservoirs. Meanwhile, its backflow gel-breaking fluids (GBFs) can be reutilized as an oil displacement agent. This paper systematically evaluates the feasibility and EOR mechanism of a GBF based on a polymer surfactant as an oil displacement system for reutilization. A rotating interfacial tensiometer and contact angle measuring instrument were used to evaluate the performance of reducing the oil–water interfacial tension (IFT) and to change the rock wettability, respectively. Additionally, a homogeneous apparatus was used to prepare emulsions to evaluate GBF’s emulsifying properties. Finally, core flooding experiments were used to evaluate the EOR effect of GBFs, and the influence rules and main controlling effects of various properties on the EOR were clarified. As the concentration of GBFs increases, the IFT first decreases to the lowest of 0.37 mN/m at 0.20 wt% and then increases and the contact angle of the rock wall decreases from 129° and stabilizes at 42°. Meanwhile, the emulsion droplet size gradually decreases and stabilizes with increases in GBF concentration, and the smallest particle size occurs when the concentration is 0.12–0.15 wt%. The limited adsorption area of the oil–water interface and the long molecular chain are the main reasons that limit the continued IFT reduction and emulsion stability. The oil displacement experiment shows that the concentration of GBF solution to obtain the best EOR effect is 0.15 wt%. At this concentration, the IFT reduction and the emulsification performance are not optimal. This shows that the IFT reduction performance, reservoir wettability change performance, and emulsification performance jointly determine the EOR effect of GBFs. In contrast, the emulsifying performance of GBFs is the main controlling factor for the EOR. Finally, the optimal application concentration of GBFs is 0.15–0.20 wt%, and the optimal injection volume is 0.5 PV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces)
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16 pages, 6198 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Amphiphilic Polymers for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery
by Dongtao Fei, Jixiang Guo, Ruiying Xiong, Xiaojun Zhang, Chuanhong Kang and Wyclif Kiyingi
Polymers 2023, 15(23), 4606; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15234606 - 2 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
The continuous growth in global energy and chemical raw material demand has drawn significant attention to the development of heavy oil resources. A primary challenge in heavy oil extraction lies in reducing crude oil viscosity. Alkali–surfactant–polymer (ASP) flooding technology has emerged as an [...] Read more.
The continuous growth in global energy and chemical raw material demand has drawn significant attention to the development of heavy oil resources. A primary challenge in heavy oil extraction lies in reducing crude oil viscosity. Alkali–surfactant–polymer (ASP) flooding technology has emerged as an effective method for enhancing heavy oil recovery. However, the chromatographic separation of chemical agents presents a formidable obstacle in heavy oil extraction. To address this challenge, we utilized a free radical polymerization method, employing acrylamide, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid, lauryl acrylate, and benzyl acrylate as raw materials. This approach led to the synthesis of a multifunctional amphiphilic polymer known as PAALB, which we applied to the extraction of heavy oil. The structure of PAALB was meticulously characterized using techniques such as infrared spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. To assess the effectiveness of PAALB in reducing heavy oil viscosity and enhancing oil recovery, we conducted a series of tests, including contact angle measurements, interfacial tension assessments, self-emulsification experiments, critical association concentration tests, and sand-packed tube flooding experiments. The research findings indicate that PAALB can reduce oil–water displacement, reduce heavy oil viscosity, and improve swept volume upon injection into the formation. A solution of 5000 mg/L PAALB reduced the contact angle of water droplets on the core surface from 106.55° to 34.95°, shifting the core surface from oil-wet to water-wet, thereby enabling oil–water displacement. Moreover, A solution of 10,000 mg/L PAALB reduced the oil–water interfacial tension to 3.32 × 10−4 mN/m, reaching an ultra-low interfacial tension level, thereby inducing spontaneous emulsification of heavy oil within the formation. Under the condition of an oil–water ratio of 7:3, a solution of 10,000 mg/L PAALB can reduce the viscosity of heavy oil from 14,315 mPa·s to 201 mPa·s via the glass bottle inversion method, with a viscosity reduction rate of 98.60%. In sand-packed tube flooding experiments, under the injection volume of 1.5 PV, PAALB increased the recovery rate by 25.63% compared to traditional hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) polymer. The insights derived from this research on amphiphilic polymers hold significant reference value for the development and optimization of chemical flooding strategies aimed at enhancing heavy oil recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces)
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18 pages, 4631 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Enhanced Oil Recovery Effect of Profile Control System-Assisted Steam Flooding
by Long Dong, Fajun Zhao, Huili Zhang, Yongjian Liu, Qingyu Huang, Da Liu, Siqi Guo and Fankun Meng
Polymers 2023, 15(23), 4524; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15234524 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Steam flooding is an effective development method for heavy oil reservoirs, and the steam flooding assisted by the profile control system can plug the dominant channels and further improve the recovery factor. High-temperature-resistant foam as a profile control system is a hot research [...] Read more.
Steam flooding is an effective development method for heavy oil reservoirs, and the steam flooding assisted by the profile control system can plug the dominant channels and further improve the recovery factor. High-temperature-resistant foam as a profile control system is a hot research topic, and the key lies in the optimal design of the foam system. In this paper, lignin was modified by sulfonation to obtain a high-temperature-resistant modified lignin named CRF; the foaming agent CX-5 was confirmed to have good high-temperature foaming ability by reducing the surface tension; the formula of the profile control system (A compound system of CRF and CX-5, abbreviated as PCS) and the best application parameters were optimized by the foam resistance factor. Finally, the effect of PCS-assisted steam flooding in enhanced oil recovery was evaluated by single sand packing tube flooding, three parallel tube flooding, and large-scale sand packing model flooding experiments. The results show that CX-5 has a good high-temperature foaming performance; the foam volume can reach more than 180 mL at 300 °C, and the half-life is more than 300 s. The optimal PCS formulation is 0.3 wt% CRF as an oil displacement agent + 0.5 wt% CX-5 as a foaming agent. The optimal gas–liquid ratio range is 1:2 to 2:1, and the high pressure and permeability are more conducive to the generation and stability of the foam. Compared with steam flooding, PCS-assisted steam flooding can improve oil recovery by 9% and 7.9% at 200 °C and 270 °C, respectively. PCS can effectively improve the heterogeneity of the reservoir, and increase the oil recovery of the three-parallel tube flooding experiment by 28.7%. Finally, the displacement results of the sand-packing model with large dimensions show that PCS can also expand the swept volume of the homogeneous model, but the effect is 9.46% worse than that of the heterogeneous model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces)
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12 pages, 1294 KiB  
Communication
Synthesis and Performance Testing of Maleic Anhydride–Ene Monomers Multicomponent Co-Polymers as Pour Point Depressant for Crude Oil
by Dong Yuan, Qingfeng Liu, Wenhui Zhang, Ran Liu, Chenxi Jiang, Hengyu Chen, Jingen Yan, Yongtao Gu and Bingchuan Yang
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3898; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193898 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
To address the issue of pipeline blockage caused by the formation of waxy deposits inside pipelines, hindering the flow of petroleum in the Shengli oilfield, eight new-style polyacrylic acid pour point depressants (PPD) for Shengli crude oil were prepared by maleic anhydride and [...] Read more.
To address the issue of pipeline blockage caused by the formation of waxy deposits inside pipelines, hindering the flow of petroleum in the Shengli oilfield, eight new-style polyacrylic acid pour point depressants (PPD) for Shengli crude oil were prepared by maleic anhydride and ene monomers with different polar and aromatic pendant chains. The synthesized Pour Point Depressants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The results were promising and demonstrated that any type of pour point depressant exhibited excellent performance on high-pour-point crude oil. The reduction in pour-point after additive addition was largely dependent on the polymer structure. Notably, polymers containing long alkyl side chains and aromatic units displayed the most impressive performance, capable of depressing the pour point by 12 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces)
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20 pages, 3428 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Polymer-Assisted CO2 Flooding to Enhance Oil Recovery in Low-Permeability Reservoirs
by Xin Chen, Yiqiang Li, Xiaoguang Sun, Zheyu Liu, Jianbin Liu and Shun Liu
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3886; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193886 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
CO2 flooding is a favorable technical means for the efficient development of low-permeability reservoirs, and it can also contribute to the realization of net-zero CO2 emissions. However, due to the unfavorable viscosity ratio and gravity overriding effect, CO2 channeling will [...] Read more.
CO2 flooding is a favorable technical means for the efficient development of low-permeability reservoirs, and it can also contribute to the realization of net-zero CO2 emissions. However, due to the unfavorable viscosity ratio and gravity overriding effect, CO2 channeling will inevitably occur, seriously affecting its storage and displacement effects. This paper conducts a systematic study on the application of polymer-assisted CO2 flooding in low-permeability reservoirs. Firstly, the polymer agent suitable for low-permeability reservoirs is optimized through the viscosity-increasing, rheological, and temperature- and salt-resistant properties of the solution. Then, the injectivity performance, resistance-increasing ability, and profile-improving effect of the polymer solution were evaluated through core experiments, and the optimum concentration was optimized. Finally, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) effects of polymer-assisted and water-assisted CO2 flooding were compared. The results show that the temperature-resistant polymer surfactant (TRPS) has a certain viscosity-increasing performance, good temperature resistance performance, and can react with CO2 to increase the solution viscosity significantly. Meanwhile, TRPS has good injection performance and resistance-increasing effect. The resistance increasing factor (η and η′) of TRPS-assisted CO2 flooding increases with increased permeability, the concentration of TRPS solution, and injection rounds. Considering η′ and the profile improvement effect comprehensively, the application concentration of TRPS should be 1000 mg/L. The EOR effect of TRPS-assisted CO2 flooding is 8.21% higher than that of water-assisted CO2 flooding. The main effective period is in the first and second rounds, and the best injection round is three. The research content of this paper can provide data support for the field application of polymer-assisted CO2 flooding in low-permeability reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces)
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