Special Issue "Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Elena Kramarenko
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2. A. N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds RAS, 119991 Moscow, Russia
Interests: statistical physics of macromolecules; computer simulations of polymers; rheology of polymer composites; magnetic polymer composites; magnetoactive elastomers; polyelectrolytes; polyelectrolyte gels; polyelectrolyte complexes; hyperbranched polymers; dendrimers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Magnetic polymer composites (MPCs), combining properties of polymers and magnetic materials, have been known for a long time and have actively been used in various applications. Nowadays, they are experiencing a renewed interest due to the appearance of a new generation of smart MPCs based on soft polymer matrices filled with magnetic nano- and/or microparticles and demonstrating a wide range of responsive properties in applied magnetic fields, the most studied of which are magnetorheological, magnetodeformational, and magnetodielectric features.

This Special Issue is intended to highlight recent advances concerning all aspects of MPC responsive properties based on magnetomechanical coupling, progress in the modelling and simulation of material behaviour at various scale levels, as well as possible novel applications. It is particularly focused on MPC compositions, e.g., (i) new architectures of polymer matrices, (ii) effects of magnetic particles’ shape, and (iii) specifically designed magnetic filler arrangements to pave the way towards the development of magneto–polymer materials that exhibit novel architectures and functions. In addition to magnetoactive elastomers including smart membranes, thin films, and coatings, this Special Issue may also address magnetic foams and magnetic fluids based on polymeric dispersion media, as well as magnetic gels that are promising for medical applications. Both original contributions and reviews are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Elena Kramarenko
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • Magnetoactive elastomers
  • Magnetorheological elastomers
  • Magnetic fluids
  • Magnetic foams
  • Magnetic gels
  • Magnetic particles
  • Magnetorheological effect
  • Magnetodielectric effect
  • Shape memory
  • Magnetomechanical coupling

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Magnetoactive Elastomers
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13122002 - 18 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Dielectric properties of two series of magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) based on a soft silicone matrix containing 35 vol% of magnetic particles were studied experimentally in a wide temperature range. In the first series, a hybrid filler representing a mixture of magnetically hard NdFeB [...] Read more.
Dielectric properties of two series of magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) based on a soft silicone matrix containing 35 vol% of magnetic particles were studied experimentally in a wide temperature range. In the first series, a hybrid filler representing a mixture of magnetically hard NdFeB particles of irregular shape and an average size of 50 μm and magnetically soft carbonyl iron (CI) of 4.5 μm in diameter was used for MAE fabrication. MAEs of the second series contained only NdFeB particles. The presence of magnetically hard NdFeB filler made it possible to passively control MAE dielectric response by magnetizing the samples. It was shown that although the hopping mechanism of MAEs conductivity did not change upon magnetization, a significant component of DC conductivity appeared in the magnetized MAEs presumably due to denser clustering of interacting particles resulting in decreasing interparticle distances. The transition from a non-conducting to a conducting state was more pronounced for hybrid MAEs containing both NdFeB and Fe particles with a tenfold size mismatch. Hybrid MAEs also demonstrated a considerable increase in the real part of the complex relative permittivity upon magnetization and its asymmetric behavior in external magnetic fields of various directions. The effects of magnetic filler composition and magnetization field on the dielectric properties of MAEs are important for practical applications of MAEs as elements with a tunable dielectric response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Article
A Cascading Mean-Field Approach to the Calculation of Magnetization Fields in Magnetoactive Elastomers
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091372 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
We consider magnetoactive elastomer samples based on the elastic matrix and magnetizable particle inclusions. The application of an external magnetic field to such composite samples causes the magnetization of particles, which start to interact with each other. This interaction is determined by the [...] Read more.
We consider magnetoactive elastomer samples based on the elastic matrix and magnetizable particle inclusions. The application of an external magnetic field to such composite samples causes the magnetization of particles, which start to interact with each other. This interaction is determined by the magnetization field, generated not only by the external magnetic field but also by the magnetic fields arising in the surroundings of interacting particles. Due to the scale invariance of magnetic interactions (O(r3) in d=3 dimensions), a comprehensive description of the local as well as of the global effects requires a knowledge about the magnetization fields within individual particles and in mesoscopic portions of the composite material. Accordingly, any precise calculation becomes technically infeasible for a specimen comprising billions of particles arranged within macroscopic sample boundaries. Here, we show a way out of this problem by presenting a greatly simplified, but accurate approximation approach for the computation of magnetization fields in the composite samples. Based on the dipole model to magnetic interactions, we introduce the cascading mean-field description of the magnetization field by separating it into three contributions on the micro-, meso-, and macroscale. It is revealed that the contributions are nested into each other, as in the Matryoshka’s toy. Such a description accompanied by an appropriate linearization scheme allows for an efficient and transparent analysis of magnetoactive elastomers under rather general conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Article
Constitutive Model of Isotropic Magneto-Sensitive Rubber with Amplitude, Frequency, Magnetic and Temperature Dependence under a Continuum Mechanics Basis
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13030472 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
A three-dimensional nonlinear constitutive model of the amplitude, frequency, magnetic and temperature dependent mechanical property of isotropic magneto-sensitive (MS) rubber is developed. The main components of MS rubber are an elastomer matrix and magnetizable particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the modulus [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional nonlinear constitutive model of the amplitude, frequency, magnetic and temperature dependent mechanical property of isotropic magneto-sensitive (MS) rubber is developed. The main components of MS rubber are an elastomer matrix and magnetizable particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the modulus of MS rubber increases, which is known as the magnetic dependence of MS rubber. In addition to the magnetic dependence, there are frequency, amplitude and temperature dependencies of the dynamic modulus of MS rubber. A continuum mechanical framework-based constitutive model consisting of a fractional standard linear solid (SLS) element, an elastoplastic element and a magnetic stress term of MS rubber is developed to depict the mechanical behavior of MS rubber. The novelty is that the amplitude, frequency, magnetic and temperature dependent mechancial properties of MS rubber are integrated into a whole constitutive model under the continuum mechanics frame. Comparison between the simulation and measurement results shows that the fitting effect of the developed model is very good. Therefore, the constitutive model proposed enables the prediction of the mechanical properties of MS rubber under various operating conditions with a high accuracy, which will drive MS rubber’s application in engineering problems, especially in the area of MS rubber-based anti-vibration devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Article
Magnetorheological Response for Magnetic Elastomers Containing Carbonyl Iron Particles Coated with Poly(methyl methacrylate)
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13030335 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
The magnetorheological response for magnetic elastomers containing carbonyl iron (CI) particles with a diameter of 6.7 μm coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated to estimate the diameter of secondary particles from the amplitude of magnetorheological response. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that the [...] Read more.
The magnetorheological response for magnetic elastomers containing carbonyl iron (CI) particles with a diameter of 6.7 μm coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated to estimate the diameter of secondary particles from the amplitude of magnetorheological response. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that the CI particles were coated with PMMA, and the thickness of the PMMA layer was determined to be 71 nm by density measurement. The change in the storage modulus for magnetic elastomers decreased by coating and it was scaled by the number density of CI particles as ΔG~N2.8. The diameter of secondary particle of CI particles coated with PMMA was calculated to be 8.4 μm. SEM images revealed that the CI particles coated with PMMA aggregated in the polyurethane matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Article
Large-Scale Shape Transformations of a Sphere Made of a Magnetoactive Elastomer
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12122933 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
Magnetostriction effect, i.e., deformation under the action of a uniform applied field, is analyzed to detail for a spherical sample of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE). A close analogy with the field-induced elongation of spherical ferrofluid droplets implies that similar characteristic effects viz. hysteresis [...] Read more.
Magnetostriction effect, i.e., deformation under the action of a uniform applied field, is analyzed to detail for a spherical sample of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE). A close analogy with the field-induced elongation of spherical ferrofluid droplets implies that similar characteristic effects viz. hysteresis stretching and transfiguration into a distinctively nonellipsoidal bodies, should be inherent to MAE objects as well. The absence until now of such studies seems to be due to very unfavorable conclusions which follow from the theoretical estimates, all of which are based on the assumption that a deformed sphere always retains the geometry of ellipsoid of revolution just changing its aspect ratio under field. Building up an adequate numerical modelling tool, we show that the ‘ellipsoidal’ approximation is misleading beginning right from the case of infinitesimal field strengths and strain increments. The results obtained show that the above-mentioned magnetodeformational effect should distinctively manifest itself in the objects made of quite ordinary MAEs, e.g., composites on the base of silicone cautchouc filled with micron-size carbonyl iron powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Article
Coupled Anisotropic Magneto-Mechanical Material Model for Structured Magnetoactive Materials
Polymers 2020, 12(11), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112710 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 501
Abstract
Adaptability of properties of magnetic materials such as magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers (MRE), and other magneto-active (MA) materials drives scientific activities worldwide, trying to broaden the fields of application of such materials. In our work, we focused on the utilization and implementation [...] Read more.
Adaptability of properties of magnetic materials such as magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers (MRE), and other magneto-active (MA) materials drives scientific activities worldwide, trying to broaden the fields of application of such materials. In our work, we focused on the utilization and implementation of existing material models to realize a praxis-oriented coupled anisotropic material model for the commercial finite element (FE) software ABAQUS taking into account magneto-mechanical interactions. By introducing this material model, a first step is done to predict and optimize the behavior of MA materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Article
Magnetorheological Effect of Magnetoactive Elastomer with a Permalloy Filler
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102371 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 653 | Correction
Abstract
Within the frames of this study, the synthesis of a permalloy to be used as a filler for magnetoactive and magnetorheological elastomers (MAEs and MREs) was carried out. By means of the mechanochemical method, an alloy with the composition 75 wt.% of Fe [...] Read more.
Within the frames of this study, the synthesis of a permalloy to be used as a filler for magnetoactive and magnetorheological elastomers (MAEs and MREs) was carried out. By means of the mechanochemical method, an alloy with the composition 75 wt.% of Fe and 25 wt.% of Ni was obtained. The powder of the product was utilized in the synthesis of MAEs. Study of the magnetorheological (MR) properties of the elastomer showed that in a ~400 mT magnetic field the shear modulus of the MAE increased by a factor of ~200, exhibiting an absolute value of ~8 MPa. Furthermore, we obtained experimentally a relative high loss factor for the studied composite; this relates to the size and morphology of the synthesized powder. The composite with such properties is a very perspective material for magnetocontrollable damping devices. Under the action of an external magnetic field, chain-like structures are formed inside the elastomeric matrix, which is the main determining factor for obtaining a high MR effect. The effect of chain-like structures formation is most pronounced in the region of small strains, since structures are partially destroyed at large strains. A proposed theoretical model based on chain formation sufficiently well describes the experimentally observed MR effect. The peculiarity of the model is that chains of aggregates of particles, instead of individual particles, are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Review

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Review
Magnetic Polymer Composite Particles: Design and Magnetorheology
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040512 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
As a family of smart functional hybrid materials, magnetic polymer composite particles have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding magnetism, dispersion stability, and fine biocompatibility. This review covers their magnetorheological properties, namely, flow curve, yield stress, and viscoelastic behavior, along with their [...] Read more.
As a family of smart functional hybrid materials, magnetic polymer composite particles have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding magnetism, dispersion stability, and fine biocompatibility. This review covers their magnetorheological properties, namely, flow curve, yield stress, and viscoelastic behavior, along with their synthesis. Preparation methods and characteristics of different types of magnetic composite particles are presented. Apart from the research progress in magnetic polymer composite synthesis, we also discuss prospects of this promising research field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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Other

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Correction
Correction: Borin, D., et al. Magnetorheological Effect of Magnetoactive Elastomer with a Permalloy Filler. Polymers 2020, 12, 2371
Polymers 2021, 13(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13020172 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The authors wish to make a change to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Polymer Composites: Design and Application)
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