Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Electroactive Polymers: 2nd Edition

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 October 2024 | Viewed by 7343

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan
Interests: composites; conducting polymers; biomimetic; anticorrosion; supercapacitor; hydrogel; sensor
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electroactive polymers, such as polyaniline, polythiophene, and polypyrrole, exhibit reversible redox and reversible doping/de-doping properties and can be used in different practical industrial fields. They can be fabricated into different shapes (e.g., coatings, membranes, films, fibers, foams, hydrogels, etc.) and applied in various in applications such as for anticorrosion purposes, electrochromic windows, supercapacitors, solar cells, lithium batteries, electrochemical sensing, gas sensing, gas separation membranes, electromagnetic shielding, for antistatic purposes, tissue engineering, etc. This Special Issue of Polymers will cover the whole line of recent research interests in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of electroactive polymers.

Prof. Dr. Jui-Ming Yeh
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • organic-inorganic hybrid materials
  • composites
  • electroactive polymers
  • anticorrosion
  • electrochromic windows
  • supercapacitors
  • solar cells
  • lithium batteries
  • electrochemical sensing
  • gas sensing
  • tissue engineering
  • biosensor

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 3398 KiB  
Article
Sequential Cascade Doping of Conjugated-Polymer-Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes for Highly Electrically Conductive Platforms
by Da Young Lee, Da Eun Choi, Yejin Ahn, Hyojin Kye, Min Seon Kim and Bong-Gi Kim
Polymers 2024, 16(13), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16131884 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 467
Abstract
To explore a highly conductive flexible platform, this study develops PIDF-BT@SWCNT by wrapping single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a conjugated polymer, PIDF-BT, known for its effective doping properties. By evaluating the doping behaviors of various dopants on PIDF-BT, appropriate dopant combinations for cascade [...] Read more.
To explore a highly conductive flexible platform, this study develops PIDF-BT@SWCNT by wrapping single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a conjugated polymer, PIDF-BT, known for its effective doping properties. By evaluating the doping behaviors of various dopants on PIDF-BT, appropriate dopant combinations for cascade doping are selected to improve the doping efficiency of PIDF-BT@SWCNT. Specifically, using F4TCNQ or F6TCNNQ as the first dopant, followed by AuCl3 as the second dopant, demonstrates remarkable doping efficiency, surpassing that of the individual dopants and yielding an exceptional electrical conductivity exceeding 6000 S/cm. Characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy elucidates the doping mechanism, revealing an increase in the proportion of electron-donating atoms and the ratio of quinoid structures upon F4TCNQ/AuCl3 cascade doping. These findings offer insights into optimizing dopant combinations for cascade doping, showcasing its advantages in enhancing doping efficiency and resulting electrical conductivity compared with single dopant processes. Full article
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13 pages, 2444 KiB  
Article
Mechanistic Insights into Anion-Induced Electrochromism of Ru(II)-Based Metallo-Supramolecular Polymer
by Xiaofang Fu, Zhuohui Zhang, Zhenhu Cao, Alexandr Alexandrovich Rogachev, Maxim Anatolievich Yarmolenko, Tao Chen, Hongtao Cao and Hongliang Zhang
Polymers 2023, 15(24), 4735; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15244735 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
The metallo-supramolecular polymer (MSP) is considered one of the most promising electrodes for electrochromic devices due to its intrinsically stable redox properties. Nevertheless, despite extensive work focusing on improving the electrochromic and electrochemical properties of MSPs, little experimental evidence exists from in-depth investigations [...] Read more.
The metallo-supramolecular polymer (MSP) is considered one of the most promising electrodes for electrochromic devices due to its intrinsically stable redox properties. Nevertheless, despite extensive work focusing on improving the electrochromic and electrochemical properties of MSPs, little experimental evidence exists from in-depth investigations on the anion-induced electrochromism of MSPs. Herein, Ru-based metallo-supramolecular polymer (polyRu) films with excellent electrochromic performance were fabricated through a novel electrochemical deposition method, and the electrochromic mechanism was further understood. The polyRu films possess fast reaction kinetics with a short switching time of 4.0 s (colored) and 2.8 s (bleached) and highly reversible redox properties due to the resulting impacts on the capacitive behaviors (containing surface, near-surface and intercalation pseudo-capacitance) of the perchlorate ions in the electrochromic process. Moreover, the electrochromic degradation of the polyRu films is considered to stem from the numerous nanopores in the film induced by ClO4 transport and the exchange of counter anions from Cl to ClO4. In addition, a physical model, revealing the transport of conduction ions and the evolution of the structure and properties of the polyRu film during the electrochromic process, is presented. It is observed that the charge balance of Ru3+ and Ru2+, achieved through the adsorption/desorption of ClO4 on the film, provides electrochromic and electrochemical reversibility to the polyRu film under positive/negative bias. Correspondingly, a transformation from polyRu·(Cl)2n to polyRu·(ClO4)x(Cl)2n−x in the polyRu film is induced by a counter anion exchange from Cl to ClO4. Revealing the detailed perchlorate ion transfer kinetics and electrochromic mechanism in this film can offer new insights into the application of metallo-supramolecular polymers in electrochromic devices. Full article
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18 pages, 9635 KiB  
Article
In Situ Redox Synthesis of Highly Stable Au/Electroactive Polyimide Composite and Its Application on 4-Nitrophenol Reduction
by Yi-Sheng Chen, Wei-Zhong Shi, Kun-Hao Luo, Jui-Ming Yeh and Mei-Hui Tsai
Polymers 2023, 15(12), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15122664 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
In this study, we developed a series of Au/electroactive polyimide (Au/EPI-5) composite for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) using NaBH4 as a reducing agent at room temperature. The electroactive polyimide (EPI-5) synthesis was performed by chemical imidization of its [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a series of Au/electroactive polyimide (Au/EPI-5) composite for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) using NaBH4 as a reducing agent at room temperature. The electroactive polyimide (EPI-5) synthesis was performed by chemical imidization of its 4,4′-(4.4′-isopropylidene-diphenoxy) bis (phthalic anhydride) (BSAA) and amino-capped aniline pentamer (ACAP). In addition, prepare different concentrations of Au ions through the in-situ redox reaction of EPI-5 to obtain Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and anchored on the surface of EPI-5 to form series of Au/EPI-5 composite. Using SEM and HR-TEM confirm the particle size (23–113 nm) of the reduced AuNPs increases with the increase of the concentration. Based on CV studies, the redox capability of as-prepared electroactive materials was found to show an increase trend: 1Au/EPI-5 < 3Au/EPI-5 < 5Au/EPI-5. The series of Au/EPI-5 composites showed good stability and catalytic activity for the reaction of 4-NP to 4-AP. Especially, the 5Au/EPI-5 composite shows the highest catalytic activity when applied for the reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP within 17 min. The rate constant and kinetic activity energy were calculated to be 1.1 × 10−3 s−1 and 38.9 kJ/mol, respectively. Following a reusability test repeated 10 times, the 5Au/EPI-5 composite maintained a conversion rate higher than 95%. Finally, this study elaborates the mechanism of the catalytic reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP. Full article
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13 pages, 4940 KiB  
Article
Developing Transparent and Conductive PolyHEMA Gels Using Deep Eutectic Solvents
by Tai-Yu Chen, Yi-Jie Jiang and Hsiu-Wen Chien
Polymers 2023, 15(12), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15122605 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) hydrogels are commonly used in biomaterials such as contact lenses. However, water evaporation from these hydrogels can cause discomfort to wearers, and the bulk polymerization method used to synthesize them often results in heterogeneous microstructures, reducing their optical properties and [...] Read more.
Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) hydrogels are commonly used in biomaterials such as contact lenses. However, water evaporation from these hydrogels can cause discomfort to wearers, and the bulk polymerization method used to synthesize them often results in heterogeneous microstructures, reducing their optical properties and elasticity. In this study, we synthesized polyHEMA gels using a deep eutectic solvent (DES) instead of water and compared their properties to traditional hydrogels. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that HEMA conversion in DES was faster than in water. DES gels also demonstrated higher transparency, toughness, and conductivity, along with lower dehydration, than hydrogels. The compressive and tensile modulus values of DES gels increased with HEMA concentration. A DES gel with 45% HEMA showed excellent compression–relaxation cycles and had the highest strain at break value in the tensile test. Our findings suggest that DES is a promising alternative to water for synthesizing contact lenses with improved optical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, DES gels’ conduction properties may enable their application in biosensors. This study presents an innovative approach to synthesizing polyHEMA gels and provides insights into their potential applications in the biomaterials field. Full article
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15 pages, 2467 KiB  
Article
Comparative Studies on Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Electroactive Polyamic Acid and Corresponding Polyimide without/with Attached Sulfonated Group for Electrochemical Sensing of Ascorbic Acid
by Jiunn-Jer Hwang, Aamna Bibi, Yu-Ci Chen, Kun-Hao Luo, Hsiang-Yuan Huang and Jui-Ming Yeh
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3487; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173487 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
In this study, electroactive poly (amic acid) (EPAA) and corresponding polyimide (EPI) without or with a sulfonated group (i.e., S-EPAA, and S-EPI) were prepared and applied in electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid (AA). The electroactive polymers (EAPs) containing EPAA/EPI and S-EPAA/S-EPI were synthesized [...] Read more.
In this study, electroactive poly (amic acid) (EPAA) and corresponding polyimide (EPI) without or with a sulfonated group (i.e., S-EPAA, and S-EPI) were prepared and applied in electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid (AA). The electroactive polymers (EAPs) containing EPAA/EPI and S-EPAA/S-EPI were synthesized by using an amine-capped aniline trimer (ACAT) and sulfonated amine-capped aniline trimer (S-ACAT) as an electroactive segment that controlled the redox capability and influenced the degree of sensitivity of the EAPs towards AA. Characterization of the as-prepared EAPs was identified by FTIR spectra. The redox capability of the EAPs was investigated by electrochemical cyclic voltammetric studies. It should be noted that the redox capability of the EAPs was found to show the following trend: S-EPAA > S-EPI > EPAA > EPI. For the electrochemical sensing studies, a sensor constructed from an S-EPAA-modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) demonstrated 2-fold, 1.27-fold, and 1.35-fold higher electro-catalytic activity towards the oxidation of AA, compared to those constructed using a bare CPE, S-EPI-, and EPI/EPAA-modified CPE, respectively. The higher redox capability of S-EPAA-modified CPE exhibited a good electrochemical response towards AA at a low oxidative potential, with good stability and selectivity. Moreover, an electrochemical sensor constructed from S-EPAA-modified CPE was found to reveal better selectivity for a tertiary mixture of AA/DA/UA, as compared to that of EPI-modified, EPAA-modified and S-EPI-modified CPE, based on a series of differential pulse voltammograms. Full article
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